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Comprehensive Study on Negative Effects of Mobile Phone/ Smart Phone on Human Health

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Abstract

The smart phone or a mobile phone has become 24hrs attachment with most of the users all over the globe. It is now very difficult to say who are the people not using mobile/smart phone. The mobile phone users can not even think that the mobile phones not working for an hour. The main advantage of using smartphone or mobile phone is that it keeps users online. It is important to point out that smart phones have changed the way we access internet and benefit from the micro computers that they are. The people are empowered as they access information and interact with everyone all the time, on the go. Apart from all the above the mobile phone or smartphone may be used for entertainment or playing games. However, there are many negative effects of mobile phone or smart phone. Quite a number of researchers have made systematic study on evil effects of mobile phone or smart phone on human health. The mobile towers are much more dangerous for human beings. In the present paper the author tried to collect various data from different reliable sources and made a systematic study on the negative effects of mobile phones/smartphones on human body.
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 575
Comprehensive Study on Negative Effects of
Mobile Phone/ Smart Phone on Human Health
Asoke Nath
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Kolkata, WB, India
ABSTRACT: The smart phone or a mobile phone has become 24hrs attachment with most of the users all over the
globe. It is now very difficult to say who are the people not using mobile/smart phone. The mobile phone users can not
even think that the mobile phones not working for an hour. The main advantage of using smartphone or mobile
phone is that it keeps users online. It is important to point out that smart phones have changed the way we access
internet and benefit from the micro computers that they are. The people are empowered as they access information and
interact with everyone all the time, on the go. Apart from all the above the mobile phone or smartphone may be used
for entertainment or playing games. However, there are many negative effects of mobile phone or smart phone. Quite a
number of researchers have made systematic study on evil effects of mobile phone or smart phone on human health.
The mobile towers are much more dangerous for human beings. In the present paper the author tried to collect various
data from different reliable sources and made a systematic study on the negative effects of mobile phones/smartphones
on human body.
KEYWORDS: smart phone; mobile phone; internet; computational work; addicted
I. INTRODUCTION
Before 2 decades the mobile phones were used by few people across the globe and the people were using only in case
of emergency and not for 24hrs a day. But in the last 2 decades there is a tremendous advancement in the network
technologies and Internet facilities. The scientists and innovators jointly start to improve the mobile technologies to
make one unique device which can be used to send and receive audio or video message or to use internet facilities or to
perform any computational work at a very nominal cost. Although the mobile phone makes our life smooth but it has
many evil effects also. In the present study the author will mainly focus on negative side of using smartphone or a
mobile phone. The smart phone or the mobile phone might be affecting one’s thought process, behavior and attitudes in
a more negative and faster way. It does that so finely and secretly that it becomes difficult to identify and cope up with.
It is not an exaggeration to say that smart phones have the power to influence most important decision making
processes and choices. It changes personality, it changes the behavior of a person. Smart Phone addiction is a well-
recognized condition, known to cause trauma and high level anxiety pains. Addiction to remain online, compulsion to
be active on social sites leads to low productivity and impacts the emotional health of the person. Constantly looking
for something interesting on web, social sites and games inhibits ones emotional ability to focus on one topic for long.
It has been already proved that long hours of gaming makes anyone impatient, addicted and unproductive. Long time
effects may be worse, permanent and affecting the more subconscious layer of behavior. So the suggestion is to keep
phone away for a while and enjoy all the other good things life has to offer.
(i) Problems created on eyes.
The abrupt change in graphics, brightness and details while you are gaming is one of the main causes of chronic dry
eye syndrome. The eyes bear a tremendous amount of reflexes, stress and dryness. Before the eyes can relax and
recover there is a new job ready again within that screen that it’s sick of.
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 576
(ii) Problems disconnecting.
Becoming addicted to your phone has become a conditions that experts now call: Nomophobia” (no-mobile-phone-
phobia). It’s not limited to the hardcore Wall Street types with their “crackberries” though; it’s more used these days
than we realized. A recent survey found that 84 percent of the world’s population said they could not go one go about
in their day without their smartphones, and current research shows that nearly two-thirds of teens and young adults
check their phones every 15 minutes or less. The anxiety and stress over missing out on a text or Facebook update can
take such a toll on peoples’ health that Morningside Recovery Center in California recently founded the first rehab
group for nomophobia.
(iii) Lifestyle diseases.
Hyperactive to hyper stressed takes much less time nowadays, thanks to our phones. It is common to see teenagers and
even adults exhausted of the long hours spent on smartphone, be it games or surfing net. It impacts the digestion,
breathing rate and heart beat rate. Smart phones have become a new enemy to our sleep in terms of quality and time.
Apart from that, the hours that otherwise might have been spent exercising, going out, getting fresh air in parks,
interacting with your loved or even pets are all taken up by your smart phones. It’s hard to imagine all this making us
healthy! Next time when you are consumed by your phone, take a break and breathe, breathe long and easy. You will at
once feel the kind of stress it has relieved you from!
(iv) Problems with posture.
There are many diseases resulting from wrong postures while working for long hours. Gazing into your phone for long
time with neck bent and arms in a fixed position pose a serious health risk. Pain, muscle spasms and restlessness are
just short term effects. In the longer run permanent or chronic diseases may occur. Cervical spondylitis, golfer elbow,
chronic dry eye syndrome, stiffness in thumbs, neck and back are a few diseases occurring from habituated wrong
postures of using smart phones. The typical head down and neck bent position while one is engrossed in their favorite
games or chat should be consciously avoided.
(v) Destroying your focus.
You don’t own your phone—it owns you. Researchers in Finland found that most people obsessively check their menu
screen, news, e-mail, and apps, even though the likelihood of seeing new and interesting information keeps decreasing.
That’s very much true. If you are waiting for something and it is very urgent, you will keep refreshing your phone to
see if it is there or not.
II. SOME IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON PROLONGED USE OF SMARTPHONES/MOBILE PHONES
The researchers have made extensive study on real life data on negative effects of using smartphones/mobile phones.
The studies shows that there is a link between prolonged mobile phone use and serious health damage. The evidence is
both wide-ranging and compelling. The possible health risks identified include not only brain tumors but also damage
to fertility, genes, the blood brain barrier and melatonin production as well as other biological effects thought to have a
role in cancer development. The largest body of evidence concerns brain tumors. Almost every study of prolonged
mobile phone use roughly half-an-hour a day for 10 years has found an increased risk of brain tumors. Several
large-scale studies have found a doubling of the risk after only 10 years’ use. This evidence contributed to the recent
classification of mobile phone radiation as ‘possibly carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization’s scientific panel.
And given the average latency period for brain tumors of about 30 years. This is especially so for children. Not only do
their thinner skulls, greater tissue conductivity and smaller heads increase their radiation absorption when on a phone
call, but their cumulative lifetime exposure to the radiation will also be much greater. Despite the accumulating
research, the use of mobile phones continues to grow unchanged. In the UK, 90% of secondary-school children and
nearly 60% of 8-11’s have a mobile phone. The Department of Health’s leaflet on children’s risks is available only
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 577
online and children, parents and schools are unaware of the vital guidance it contains. The few manufacturers’
warnings that exist are almost impossible to follow and are buried in the small print of user manuals where hardly a
customer sees them. Consequently, public awareness of the risks remains minimal. It has suited the mobile phone
industry selectively to play up the evidence that argues against a causal link between phone use and health damage.
Government agencies and departments similarly seek to relieve public fears by emphasizing the studies (mostly short-
term) that appear to give phones the all-clear, thereby down-playing the uncertainty over long-term safety. The link to
cancer was only proven some 25 years after the first studies were published. The fact that the evidence is not
conclusive and that there are gaps in our understanding is not justification for inaction. Both the Government and phone
companies could very easily do far more to alert the public, particularly children, to the emerging risks and safety
measures. Given almost universal use of the technology, waiting for conclusive evidence before action is taken is
irresponsible, especially when there are unrestrictive measures that can substantially cut the risks. Safety advice could
be widely publicized at relatively little cost. As the Council of Europe has recommended, the Government and phone
companies need now to publicize their warnings and provide practical advice, especially for children. Schools, phone
shops and the healthcare system should be enlisted into the effort.
II.1 Cancer and other Tumours:
Several studies among sizeable populations have found a doubling of the risk of some brain tumours after 10 or more
years’ mobile phone use for about half an hour a day. Studies indicate a possible link between mobile phone use and
tumours of the parotid gland (a salivary gland in the region normally highly exposed to radiation during phone use).
The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified the radiation
emitted by mobile phones as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (Class 2B).
II.2 Damage to Fertility and Reproduction :
Laboratory and observational studies have found damage to sperm, impaired female fertility and damage to the unborn
foetus from exposure to mobile phone radiation.
II.3 Genotoxic Effects :
Laboratory studies from different research groups suggest that even after short periods of exposure to phone radiation,
DNA strands can be broken and there are effects on gene expression. Phone radiation is capable of disturbing the DNA
repair mechanism, and this can continue for several hours after the phone use.
II.4 Damage to Other Biological Processes:
Laboratory studies suggest that phone radiation can damage the blood-brain barrier, causing a leakage of albumin into
the brain. Studies have found significantly reduced levels of melatonin in humans after about half an hour’s mobile
phone use per day. Effects on heat shock proteins (similar to a stress response), oxidative stress, apoptosis (cell death)
and damage to cell membranes have been identified in research. These are thought to have a role in cancer
development.
II.5. Contributes to the Development of Insomnia
Have you ever felt more awake after using Wi-Fi or even struggled to sleep through the night? Reports of these
phenomena have been frequent and even prompted a study in 2007 that evaluated low-frequency modulation from cell
phones and its impact on sleep. Participants were exposed to the electromagnetic signals from real phones or no signal
from fake phones. Those exposed to the electromagnetic radiation had a significantly more difficult time falling asleep
and changes in brainwave patterns were observed.
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 578
It’s been suggested that sleeping near a phone, in a home with Wi-Fi, or in an apartment building with many Wi-Fi
signals can create chronic sleep problems as the constant bombardment of Wi-Fi pollution interferes with falling asleep
and sleep patterns. For many, sleep deprivation is just the start for larger problems. The development of depression and
hypertension have also been linked to inadequate sleep.
II.6. Damaging to Childhood Development
Exposure to non-thermal radio frequency radiation from Wi-Fi and cellular phones can disrupt normal cellular
development, especially fetal development. A 2004 animal study linked exposure to delayed kidney
development. [4] These findings were supported by a 2009 Austrian study. In fact, the disruption of protein synthesis is
so severe that authors specifically noted, “this cell property is especially pronounced in growing tissues, that is, in
children and youth. Consequently, these population groups would be more susceptible than average to the described
effects.” [5] In short, bathing the developmentally young in Wi-Fi increases their risk of developmental issues.
II.7. Affects Cell Growth
When a group of Danish ninth graders experienced difficulty concentrating after sleeping with their cell phones by their
head, they performed an experiment to test the effect of wireless Wi-Fi routers on garden cress. One set of plants was
grown in a room free of wireless radiation; the other group grew next to two routers that released the same amount of
radiation as a cell phone. The results? The plants nearest the radiation didn’t grow.
II.8. Derails Brain Function
Just as the Danish high schoolers noticed problems with concentration, scientists have begun to look at the impact of
4G radiation on brain function. Using MRI technology, research performed just last year found that persons exposed to
4G radiation had several areas of reduced brain activity.
II.9. Reduces Brain Activity in Females
A group of 30 healthy volunteers, 15 men and 15 women, were given a simple memory test. First, the entire group was
tested without any exposure to Wi-Fi radiation no problem. Then, they were exposed to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi from a
wireless access point for about 45 minutes. During that portion of the testing, brain activity was measured and the
women had a noticeable change in brain activity and energy levels. [8] Sorry ladies! But guys, don’t get too
comfortable.
II.10. Neutralizes Sperm
…Because we’ve known for a long time that the heat generated by laptops kills sperm. Well, now it turns out that heat
isn’t the only threat to a man’s virility. Research has found exposure to Wi-Fi frequencies reduce sperm movement and
cause DNA fragmentation. [9] Both human and animal testing has confirmed that exposure negatively affects sperm.
II.11. May Impact Fertility
The results of an animal study suggest that some wireless frequencies may prevent egg implantation. During the study,
mice exposed 2 hours a day for 45 days had significantly increased oxidative stress levels. The cellular damage and
impact on DNA structure from exposure suggest a strong possibility of abnormal pregnancy or failure of the egg to
implant.
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 579
The Karolinska Institute in Sweden released a warning in 2011, stating:
“Pregnant women are cautioned to avoid using wireless devices themselves and distance themselves from
other users,”
“Current US [and Canada]…standards for radio frequency and microwave radiation from wireless technology
are entirely inadequate,” and
“Safety standards also ignore the developing fetus…”
II.12. Provokes Cardiac Stress
If you think your heart races when surrounded by wireless networks or 3G or LTE cell phones, it may not be in your
head. A study involving 69 subjects reported that many of them experienced a real physical response to electromagnetic
frequencies. Exactly what was the physical response? Increased heart rate similar to the heart rate of an individual
under stress.
III. HEALTH HAZARDS ARISING DUE TO RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION FROM MOBILE TOWERS/
ANTENNA
III.1 Fachkrankenhaus Nordfriesland; the German hospital dealing with health problem arising from Electro-
magnetic fields has come out with its research findings (on their website www.fachkrankenhausnf.de) about E-smog. It
is discovered that due to E-smog, there is massive reduction in “Melatonin hormonal levels. Melatonin is an important
hormone required for sound sleep & stable immune system. Further it exercises a protective function against neuro
generative diseases like Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s diseases & multiple sclerosis. It lowers blood pressure &
cholesterol. Massive reduction in Melatonin levels of @ 30 % are observed in case studies.
III.2 Dr Vini Khurana, Australian neurosurgeon of Indian origin says, Cell phones are today, what tobacco and asbestos
companies were 40 yrs ago. Cell phones cause more cancer than smoking & asbestos.
III.3 Dr. Neil Cherry, biophysicist from Lincoln university of New Zealand, said at Scientific workshop on biological
& health effects of RF EMF held in Vienna in 1999, “Every night, as we go to sleep, our melatonin level rise.
Melatonin goes through our blood & clears our cells up, that is to say, scavenges free radicals, which are highly
damaging chemicals. If free radicals persist for long, they damage the DNA, cause damaged cells & are shown to be
carcinogenic. Melatonin is one of those agents, that cleans us up every night to reduce the possibility that cells will
become carcinogenic. Power lines, Radio, TV & Cell phone towers must be kept away from houses, hospitals, schools.
III.4 The earth is fully covered with haze of electro-smog from a host of wire-less radiation devices, which is showing
its effect only on human population but plants, animals & climate. We are engaging into a world were biology &
physics are co-dependent/ interdependent.
III.5 Scientists are now zeroing on how man made RF/ microwave frequency signal can interfere with the body. The
process is called frequency coupling/ resonance. The theory concludes, “When a material (the body) is activated by
interaction with another source of energy (RF/MW) at same resonant frequency; a more powerful & intensive response
occurs. If frequency is pulse modulated; a significant changes can be created in the codes of DNAs of human body.
Scientists have observed how EM-RF radiation alter biological processes. Scientists have shown, that wireless radiation
affects everything from cellular functions to general well being to more end point diseases. EM – RF radiations cause
increase in micronuclei levels & reduced Melatonin levels. Micronuclei are indicators of compromised immune factors
& precursors to cancer. RF radiation impacts & penetrates cellular growth & division processes, which could ultimately
be linked with more acute & chronic diseases such as DNA damage, increased micronuclei formation, activation of
stress proteins etc. EM-RF frequencies break in the blood – brain barrier, a barrier which keeps toxins from entering the
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 580
brain. Breaking blood – brain barrier contributes to increase in development of Alzheimer, Parkinson & other
neurological diseases; reduced sperm count.
IV. SOME CASE STUDIES IN INDIA
RIDDHI PARK, THAKURLEE (WEST):
Mrs Roopa Bhat, Builder had installed mobile tower before the residents had occupied the building. Within 4 months
of occupying the top floor flat, Mrs Roopa Bhat started suffering from “brain tumor”. She used to feel fatigued; and
also suffered from white rashes on the body.
Mrs Roopa Bhat’s neighbor delivered a baby with cancer of spinal chord name not disclosed at request of the patient’s
parents.
Another neighbor (name not to disclosed) gave birth to child having “BIRTH DEFECTS”; and the child died
immediately after birth.
All the residents of the building are now demanding the demolition of the tower. In spite of these demands by residents,
builder has installed another “VODAPHONE” tower. Mrs. Roopa Bhat has left her flat in Thakurlee and she is now
staying in Goregaon and spent @ Rs. 10 lakhs for treatment on brain tumor. She has to pay for additional rental money.
However her health is now improving.
(ii) Mr. Bhagwant Deshpande, of North Kasba peth, Deshpande galli, Solapur; has come out with an interesting
statistics about people staying in 300 ft radius of “Vodaphone” & “Airtel” mobile towers. There has been a death of 9
persons in last four years.
Many persons are facing sleep disorders, restlessness and fatigue due to radiation coming from mobile towers.
Sleep disorders in an individual, if observed after installation of mobile tower on his/ her respective building, in fact
violate Section 21 of “Indian Constitution”, which guarantees peaceful living & liberty. If one can’t sleep, how his/ her
life would be peaceful?
V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
Smartphones and mobile phones are now almost integral part almost every persons in the globe. As it is not good for
health so therefore, more research work should be done on prolonged usage of smartphone/mobile phone. The time is
coming when most of the household goods will be operated my smart phones. So therefore it must be full proof that
there should not be any kind of risk factor of using this small electronic device. Especially the pregnant women and
children are in greater danger from cell phone towers than the normal population. A recent study on pregnant women
with heavy cell phone use found behavior problems in their children. According to Dr. Om Gandhi, an eminent
scientist in the area of bio electromagnetics, cell phone radiation makes children more susceptible to DNA breakage,
genetic damage, and incidence of cancer. It reduces their life span. However, we aree hopeful that the manufacturer, the
big industries must come forward and do extensive research work on effects of usage of smartphone/mobile phone on
human health.
VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm performs better with the total transmission energy metric
than the maximum number of hops metric. The proposed algorithm provides energy efficient path for data transmission
and maximizes the lifetime of entire network. As the performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed between two
metrics in future with some modifications in design considerations the performance of the proposed algorithm can be
compared with other energy efficient algorithm. We have used very small network of 5 nodes, as number of nodes
increases the complexity will increase. We can increase the number of nodes and analyze the performance.
ISSN(Online): 2320-9801
ISSN (Print) : 2320-9798
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer
and Communication Engineering
(A High Impact Factor, Monthly, Peer Reviewed Journal)
Website: www.ijircce.com
Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2018
Copyright to IJIRCCE DOI: 10.15680/IJIRCCE.2018. 0601079 581
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To identify the adolescents life style, to assess adolescents life style with smart devices and socio demographic characteristics. A descriptive study designed to found relationship between smart devices and adolescents life style in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf from 5 September to 10 November 2019. The findings of present study indicate that more than 64% of the study sample between age group (12-15) years old, (72.2%) are males, (76.3%) from them are graduated from primary school, regarding to overall assessment of psychological and physical domain with smart devices are acceptable. Finally, there is a significant relationship between social lifestyle with smart devices in items as numbered (4, 8, 13 and 14) with gender of participants. The study confirms that there is a significant negative impact on psychological aspect. so that these devices affect the psychological state of the teenager negatively .The study indicate that there was a very significant impact on the social aspect of adolescents so that these devices cause social isolation.. Preferably rationalize the acquisition and use of adolescent smart devices under the direct and continuous supervision of the guardian. Enhancing the role of the parents in educating the adolescent about the harm caused by smart device. Parents should allocate specific time to treat the teenager with smart devices, and be after Ending his or her educational and social requirements.Provide sports activities, social and scientific by the family of the teenager, through which invest his time and reduce his recourse to these devices to fill his spare time.
... The application must follow the safety requirement IGRSM 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 540 (2020) 012074 IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/540/1/012074 2 for the human and environment. On the other hand, rice check that is provided by the Department of Agriculture must be followed by the farmers to prevent any pest, disease outbreak and weed infestation. ...
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In the last decade, smartphone use increased exponentially among the population mainly among adolescents and young adults. Today, people are constantly clinging to the smartphone in many situations of their life, even though this activity can have physical and psychological negative consequences. Through the popularization of smartphones, a new dependency was born, nomophobia, defined as the fear of being away from one's smart-phone. This study analyzes the propensity of young adults (18-24 years old) towards nomophobia and lifestyle. A sample of 495 participants showed a positive and moderate correlation between nomophobia and psychopath-ological symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, and the number of hours of smartphone use per day were identified as strong predictors of nomophobia. Results show that smartphone use, and feelings of personal inadequacy and inferiority are relevant when explaining nomophobia.
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The main objective was to determine the effect of mobile phone radiation on general health and electrolytes among students who use mobile phones. A questionnaire was designed and applied to 103 healthy and 36 deaf female students to select cases that meeting the inclusion criteria. For assessment of salivary parameters, the participants were classified into three groups. Group I was the control group, which included 17 deaf students. Group II was healthy students who have mobile phone for less than 5 years. Group III was healthy students who have mobile phone for 5 years or more. The results showed that the participants who use mobile phone had several problems in their health including dry mouth, bad odor from mouth, drooling of saliva, as well as ear and eye pain. The participants who use mobile phone complained of headache, anxiety and forgetfulness as compared to deaf participants. The study showed that there was no significant difference between pH and flow rate of saliva in all tested groups. This study has also shown that salivary level of Na+ and K+ were significantly lower in mobile phone users when compared to non users of mobile phone.
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Aims: This paper aims at exploring the purpose and frequency to use their smartphones and to see their reactions about the importance of using a smartphone. Method: Survey technique was applied to collect the data. A sample of 100 young aged adults and 100 middle-aged adults from Delhi and Delhi NCR region was selected to study the habit pattern of the mobile phone users. Findings: The study revealed that there is a big difference in the usage of the smartphone by young aged adults and middle-aged adults. Young aged adults use their smartphone mainly to browse over the internet, using online applications and to entertain themselves for more than 5 hours of a day. On the other hand, middle-aged adults use their smartphone mainly to contact with the people and use watts app for 2-3 hours of the day. It was found that most of the positives sides like tech-friendly, socializing, getting information from the internet, etc. and negatives like bad effect on the health, misuse of personal information through hacking by using a smartphone is affecting young aged adults but middle-aged adults are less affected by smart phone's positives and negatives also.
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A health survey was carried out in Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of a Cellular Phone Base Station working in DCS‐1800 MHz. This survey contained health items related to “microwave sickness” or “RF syndrome.” The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure.
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There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.
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Background: Impacts of emissions from cellular telephone relay stations are frequently discussed in the public and politics. Up to now population based studies about these effects on cancer incidence were not published. Method: By means of an ecologic study, we evaluated the possible association between the presence of cellular telephone relay stations and the incidence of malignant cancer. The study population consisted of 177,428 persons living in 48 municipalities in Bavaria. The observed municipalities were classified into three categories of relay station coverage. Results: Cancer incidence was not found to be elevated in municipalities with cellular telephone relay stations. The cancer incidence was highly variable in areas without any relay station. The mean age of cancer patients living in towns with relay stations was comparable to that of patients living in villages and towns far away from any relay station. Cancer occurrence in special tumour sites thought to be sensible for radiation effects did not show an association with the locations of the cellular telephone infrastructure. Conclusions: The high variance of cancer incidence in towns without a cellular telephone relay station qualifies reports about local cancer clusters in the surrounding of such relay stations.
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Abstract Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasize the need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.
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A survey study using a questionnaire was conducted on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaint frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation to the distance from base stations and sex show significant (p <0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base stations, up through 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disruption, discomfort, etc., 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disruption, depression, discomfort and visual disruptions. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in the vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, the of minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. © 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS base station / bioeffects / cellular phone 1. INTRODUCTION Chronic exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields or microwaves brings on bioeffects in man such as headaches, fatigue, and sleep and memory disruptions [1, 2]. These biological effects, associated with others (skin problems, nausea, irritability, etc.) constitute what is known in English as "Non Specific Health Symptoms" (NSHS) that characterize radiofrequency sickness. [3] Cellular mobile phone technology uses hyperfrequencies (frequencies of 900 or 1800 MHz) pulsed with extremely low frequencies (frequencies < 300 Hertz) [4]. Even though the biological effects resulting from mobile phone use are relatively well known and bring to mind those described in radiofrequency sickness [5, 6], to our knowledge no study exists on the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. We are reporting here the results pertaining to 530 people living in France, in the vicinity or not, of base stations, in relation to the distances from these stations and to the sex of the study participants.
Article
This is the 2nd part of a survey study conducted on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Comparison of complaints frequencies for 16 Non Specific Health Symptoms was done with the CHI-Square test with Yates correction. Our results show significant increase (p < 0.05) in relation with age of subjects (elder subjects are more sensitive) and also, that the facing location is the worst position for some symptoms studied, especially for distances till 100 m from base stations. No significant difference is observed in the frequency of symptoms related to the duration of exposure (from < 1 year to > 5 years), excepted for irritability significantly increased after > 5 years. Other electromagnetic factors (electrical transformers, radio-television transmitters,...) have effects on the frequency of some symptoms reported by the subjects.
Article
The erection of mobile telephone base stations in inhabited areas has raised concerns about possible health effects caused by emitted microwaves. In a cross-sectional study of randomly selected inhabitants living in urban and rural areas for more than one year near to 10 selected base stations, 365 subjects were investigated. Several cognitive tests were performed, and wellbeing and sleep quality were assessed. Field strength of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) was measured in the bedrooms of 336 households. Total HF-EMF and exposure related to mobile telecommunication were far below recommended levels (max. 4.1 mW/m2). Distance from antennae was 24-600 m in the rural area and 20-250 m in the urban area. Average power density was slightly higher in the rural area (0.05 mW/m2) than in the urban area (0.02 mW/m2). Despite the influence of confounding variables, including fear of adverse effects from exposure to HF-EMF from the base station, there was a significant relation of some symptoms to measured power density; this was highest for headaches. Perceptual speed increased, while accuracy decreased insignificantly with increasing exposure levels. There was no significant effect on sleep quality. Despite very low exposure to HF-EMF, effects on wellbeing and performance cannot be ruled out, as shown by recently obtained experimental results; however, mechanisms of action at these low levels are unknown.
Impact vof Mobile Phone/Smartphone: A pilot study on positive and negative effects
  • Asoke Nath
  • Sneha Mukherjee
Asoke Nath, Sneha Mukherjee, "Impact vof Mobile Phone/Smartphone: A pilot study on positive and negative effects", International HJournal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies(IJARCSMS, ISSN:2321-7782, Impact Factor SJIF 2017 : 7.327), Vol-3, Issue-5, Page: 294-302, May(2015).
Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study
  • Vg Khurance
  • C Teo
  • M Kindi
  • L Hardell
  • M Carlberg
  • J Sarah
  • Hepworth
  • J Minouk
  • Schoemaker
  • R Kenneth
  • Muir
  • J Anthony
  • Swerdlow
  • J Martie
  • Van Tongeren
  • A Patricia
  • Mckinney
(a) Khurance VG, Teo C, Kindi M, Hardell L, Carlberg M. (2009) Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surg Neurol;72:205-14. (b) Sarah J Hepworth, Minouk J Schoemaker, Kenneth R Muir, Anthony J Swerdlow, Martie J A van Tongeren, Patricia A McKinney: Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38720.687975.55 (published 20 January 2006).
The Impacts of Radiofrequency Radiation from Mobile Phone Antennas
"The Impacts of Radiofrequency Radiation from Mobile Phone Antennas", EMR Australia PL, 2008.