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Nutrient content evaluation of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block (DPW-UMB) using proximate analysis

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Abstract

The research evaluated the nutrient content of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block (DPW-UMB). The use of dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-molasses block was as a substitution of urea and could improve the value added in dry season. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical analysis: the dried poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, fat, and gross energy. The statically formulation diet composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The results showed that the 20% manure layer chicken and 30% molasses T3 were better than T2 and T1 on nutrient content. The study concludes that DPW-UMB T3 are dried poultry waste containing sufficient levels of gross energy, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, and fat it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients.
ISSN : 0852-3681
E-ISSN : 2443-0765
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28 (1): 84 89
Available online at http://jiip.ub.ac.id
DOI: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.09 84
Nutrient content evaluation of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block
(DPW-UMB) using proximate analysis
Danung Nur Adli, Osfar Sjofjan, and Mashudi
Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University
Veteran Street, Malang 65145, Malang City, East Java, Indonesia
Submitted: 08 August 2017, Accepted: 23 January 2018
ABSTRACT: The research evaluated the nutrient content of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block
(DPW-UMB). The use of dried poultry waste in the manufacture of the urea-molasses block was as a
substitution of urea and could improve the value added in dry season. The treatments used for research
were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and
30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). Chemical analysis: the dried
poultry waste were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, fat, and gross energy. The
statically formulation diet composed with Microsoft Excel Ver. 2016. The results showed that the 20%
manure layer chicken and 30% molasses T3 were better than T2 and T1 on nutrient content. The study
concludes that DPW-UMB T3 are dried poultry waste containing sufficient levels of gross energy, crude
protein, crude fiber, ash, and fat it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the
required nutrients.
Keywords: urea, manure, broiler
INTRODUCTION
The number of beef cattle
population decreased in the dry season due
to the limited supply of feed resources
(Andi and Wahdi, 2011). A large quantity
of forage is mostly available during the
rainy season but scarce in the dry season.
Thus, such an imbalance quality and
quantity feed among the two seasons do not
support the feedlot system. Therefore,
smallholder beef cattle fattening apply rice
straw for feeding during the dry season.
Rice straw is a by-product of grain
production which contains low protein,
crude fiber, and nitrogen (Andi and Wahdi,
2011). This low nutrient content can
decrease rumen microbial population.
Supplementation from the feed which
consisted of energy, mineral, vitamin,
protein, and non-protein-nitrogen (NPN)
was essential in the fattening process (Andi
Corresponden author : danungnuradli1994@gmail.com
and Wahdi, 2011). Urea molasses block
(UMB) is one type of feed supplement
which contains microelements.
Supplementation from the molasses block
containing soluble carbohydrates provides
NPN as a source of ammonia and minerals
to enhance the formation of microbial
protein. Bacteria produce enzymes which
digest crude fiber and synthesize protein as
a feed source for microbial protein. Siti et
al. (2012) stated UMB consisted of rice
bran, pollard, salt, lime, and mineral can be
used for supplementation.
Andi and Wahdi (2011) stated the
nitrogen element on the urea-molasses
block is useful in protein synthesis. The first
digestion regarding forages is the rumen,
where the feed is retained for substantial
periods of time and subjected to extensive
microbial fermentation. The alternative is
using waste combine with the fermentation
J. Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28 (1):84 89
DOI: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.10 85
to increase nutrient content in the feedstuff.
Waste is derivation by-product of
processing that is still containing a lot of
nutrients. The urea NPN in layer chicken
manure could be used as animal feed (Vatta
et al., 2007). Boushy and Poel (2000) stated,
however, layer manure chicken consists of
a pathogenic microorganism. Therefore
past study suggested the utilization of the
low content of essential amino acid and
metabolic energy from the manure was less
than 5% of the total ration (Sinaga and
Silalahi, 2012).
The poultry industry produced 22
million tons of manure from over 18 billion
population of poultry (FAO, 2010). The
high poultry waste production causes an
adverse effect of ammonia content on the
environment, and thus it needs to be
recycled. One method to recover it is by
drying the poultry waste and use it as a
source of nitrogen in the urea-molasses
block. The laying chicken manure has high
CF content (14.9% DM). The aim of this
research is assessed the nutrient content of
dried poultry waste urea-molasses block
using proximate analysis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Location and time
The research was conducted from
21st January to 4th July 2015 at Janggan
Village, Poncol District Magetan, East Java
Province. We applied proximate analysis on
July-August 2016 at the Nutrition and
Animal Feed Laboratory, Animal Science
Faculty, Brawijaya University. We selected
Janggan village as a study site for some
reasons. First, we considered Janggan as a
center of beef cattle fattening. Second, we
found a sugarcane industry in the study site,
and third, the village was one of layer farm
centers in Magetan Regency.
Materials
The primary equipment for the
manufacture of dried poultry waste urea-
molasses block (DPW-UMB) were gloves,
bucket capacity 10,000 g, plastic 500 g,
UMB-block 500g with shape round and
love, pressing tool, and analytic scale. The
principal ingredients were molasses,
manure layer chicken, rice bran, limestone,
cement, brick, salt, water, urea, and mineral
mix.
Methods
We obtained the poultry waste from
a layer farm in Magetan Regency, East Java
under the battery cages of laying house
accommodating approximately 50,000
hens. The poultry waste collected was fresh
and was not subjected to any treatments on
the farm. We placed it in clean plastic bags
and transported to the Janggan Village.
Then we dried it at temperature 1050C. The
treatments used for research were T1 (10%
manure of laying chicken and 25%
molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying
chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20%
manure of laying chicken and 30%
molasses). For chemical analysis, we
analyzed the dried of poultry waste
regarding the dry matter, crude protein,
crude fiber, ash, fat, and gross energy
according to AOAC (1990). The statically
formulation diet composed with Microsoft
Excel Ver. 2016.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Dry matter content on dried of poultry
waste urea-molasses block
With regards to the dry matter (DM)
analysis, the study found that the DM of the
dried poultry waste urea-molasses block on
T1 (61.42%) was lower than that of T2
(90.92%) and T3 (92.04%). The condition
happens from drying method during the
manufacturing dried poultry waste urea-
J. Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28 (1):84 89
DOI: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.10 86
molasses block. Dried poultry waste urea-
molasses block packaged and sun-dried for
seven days. The drying process did not
cover the T1 and dry matter only 61.42 %
indicated that the manure was still wet. The
second factor indicated by the treatment T1
due to the addition of additives (molasses)
in each treatment that increasing water
content in the DPW-UMB. The higher
availability of dissolved carbohydrates
during the fermentation activity caused an
increased activity of fermentation by
bacteria to produce lactic acid (Ghaly and
Macdonald, 2012). According to Nurhayu
et al., (2010), the decrease of dry matter was
affected by respiration and thus broke down
a lot of nutrients and reduced the dry matter.
The fermentation itself produced lactic acid
and water. We found higher water content
during the production of DPW-UMB, hence
increased the loss of dry matter. Andi and
Wahdi (2011) stated that the omasum
helped the absorption of water. The dry
matter variation in omasum of either dairy
or beef cattle were 0.6%, 1.2%, and 3.3% of
the body weight respectively.
Crude protein content on dried of
poultry waste urea-molasses block
Table 1 presents the results of
proximate analysis of the UMB. Several
factors that affected the nutrient contents
were processing, formulation, and the
origin of the material. We found that crude
protein (CP) of the DPW-UMB was higher
in T3 (13.34%) compared to T1 (10.05%)
and T2 (10.33%). These findings were in
line with the percentage of formulation
ration layer manure in T3 (20%), T1 (15%)
and T2 (10%).
Table 1. DPW-UMB nutrient content
Code Name
Feedstuff Content
CP
CF
Ash
Fat
GE
----------------------------%------------------------------
(Kcal/kg)
T1
10.05
17.41
27.26
3.51
3065.82
T2
10.33
8.20
31.69
3.95
2949.50
T3
13.34
13.39
37.16
3.44
2631.63
Source: Nutrition and Feed Animal Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya
University Malang, (2016)
Our result shows that crude protein
on T3 was 13.34%. The result supports the
finding of Sinaga and Silalahi (2012) which
found that the content of protein in dried
layer chicken manure was in the range of
12-31%. Protein is high molecular weight
organic compounds which are essential to
the structure and formation of all living cells
(Ghaly and Macdonald, 2012). Meanwhile,
the UMB had 12.76% of the crude protein
(Nurhayu et al., 2010).
The sun-dry process of layer
chicken manure for three days could reduce
heavy metals, pesticide residues,
pathogenic bacteria, and fungi from the
feed. The formulation that combines 30% of
layer manure and 20% of molasses has a
dense texture and hence needs a dry
treatment before the transformation into the
animal feedstuff. We did the drying process
manually to reduce the water content of the
layer manure chicken, and to reduce the
odor from the layer manure chicken.
Boushy and Poel (2000) found that a high
moisture content on the manure layer (75-
80%) was possibly due to the contamination
with pathogen microorganism.
J. Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28 (1):84 89
DOI: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.10 87
Our result was in agreement with
Arnita et al., (2010) who stated that non-
protein nitrogenous (NPN) in the
formulation of beef cattle feedstuff has a
specific limitation. The use of urea which is
more than 5% can cause poisoning due to its
high nitrogen content (45%).
Crude fiber content on dried of poultry
waste-urea molasses block
We found that crude fiber (CF) of
dried poultry waste UMB on the T1
(18.41%) was higher than T2 (8.20%) and
T3 (13.39%) (Table 1). Wayne et al. (2003)
stated that crude fiber would stimulate the
process of rumination and rumen
contractions, which in turn would improve
the fermentation process of the fiber. The
main result of the fermentation of fibrous
carbohydrates was acetic acid (Boushy and
Poel, 2000). However, the crude fiber
content can be a limiting factor for feed
consumption. Crude fiber will stay longer in
the rumen and can suppress the feed
consumption (Mubi et al., 2013).
Boushy and Poel (2000) stated
crude fiber was also an indicator of the low
digestibility of feed material. The
digestibility of crude fiber depends on its
content in the formulations. Our result
matches with Wayne et al., (2003)
mentioning that supplementation in the
substantial form had the same effect with
the concentrate because both have a
function to increase growth and number of
rumen microbes.
Ash content on dried of poultry waste-
urea molasses block
Our finding showed the content of
ash in T3 (37.16%) was higher than that in
T2 (31.69%) and T1 (27.26%). Ash was
residues remaining after all the combustible
material has been turned off. The nutritional
values of ash have little importance on
DPW-UMB. In this component salt and
limestone gave the content of ash. The
function of cement in the DPW-UMB was
for silica source (micro-mineral) and
hardener. The ash content has a positive
correlation with crude protein (CP) content
in the dry poultry waste urea-molasses
block. Nurhayu et al., (2010) stated urea-
molasses block (UMB) consisted of urea
and molasses contains 14.04% ash. We
could determine total ash for many
purposes. In this case, we used it in the dried
poultry waste urea-molasses block (Boushy
and Poel, 2000). The total ash knew the type
of material composed and as a determinant
of the nutritional value parameters of a
feedstuff AOAC (1990).
Fats content on dried of poultry waste-
urea molasses block
Lipids or fats were a heterogeneous
group of organic compounds found in living
microorganism (Boushy and Poel, 2000).
Lipid was soluble in the organic solvents
like ether or chloroform. We required fats
for long-term storage of metabolic energy to
supply essential fatty acids and to carry fat
vitamin. The fat in the dried poultry waste
urea-molasses block on the T3 (3.44%) was
lower than T2 (3.95%) and T1 (3.51%).
Urea molasses block (UMB)
consisted of urea and molasses which
contained 2.51% of fat (Nurhayu et al.,
2010). The rice bran provided some key
nutrients including fat and phosphorus
(Nurhayu et al., 2010). Rice bran helped the
absorption of the moisture in molasses and
gave the structure of the block. The fats
were highly digestible and reduced
dustiness (Nurhayu et al., 2010).
J. Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28 (1):84 89
DOI: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.10 88
Gross energy content on dried of poultry
waste-urea molasses block
The energy was defined as the
ability or capacity to work in a living
organism (AOAC, 1990). Arnita et al.,
(2010) argued energy was essential for the
maintenance of life processes including
cellular metabolism, growth, reproduction,
and physical activity. Gross energy (GE)
was the quantity of heat resulting from the
complete oxidation of food, feed, or other
substances (Boushy and Poel, 2000). The
result showed that GE on T1 (3065.82
kcal/kg) was higher than in T2 (2949.50
kcal/kg) and T3 (2631.63 kcal/kg) (Table 1).
The proximate analysis result affected from
the molasses. The molasses collected from
Rejosari sugarcane industry was a residual
liquid of sugarcane which provided energy
and as a source of carbohydrate.
The result of T1 was higher because
molasses mixed with other feedstuff could
absorb well into the dried poultry waste
urea-molasses block. The method of DPW-
UMB production was the factor that
affected the content of DPW-UMB. Our
result was in line with Mubi et al., (2013)
who stated molasses and sugar were sources
of energy for ruminants. The molasses used
in the formulation formula was less than 8%
of dry matter and could increase microbial
growth in the rumen.
The main use of molasses was as a
binding agent or binder in feedstuff (Bata,
2008). The molasses acted granules to
improve palatability in feedstuff ration.
Wayne et al., (2003) stated microbial
production was high-quality by-pass protein
and drastically altered rumen VFA.
CONCLUSION
Our findings suggest that T3 of the
DPW-UMB which contains sufficient
levels of gross energy, crude protein, crude
fiber, ash, and fat can be used as feedstuff
for ruminants together with the required
nutrients as supplementation.
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The supplementation of urea molasses block for increasing performance of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing gliricidia spium green forage ABSTRACT. The aimed of this experiment to study the supplementation of urea molasses block for performance increased of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing Gliricidia spium green forage has been conducted at Tabanan regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory. The Latin Square Design which four treatments and four replicates was used in this experiment. The four treatments were the levels of urea molasses block : 0, 50, 100 and 150g respectively. The animal access to ad libitum Gliricidia spium green forage and drink water. The animal fed twice a day urea molasses block at the morning and at the afternoon. The variables which were observed including feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The result of this experiment showed dry matter feed consumption, drink water, nutrient digestibility of the four treatments is not significantly different (P >0.05). The body weight gain at treatment C was significantly higher (P
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This study was carried out with the cooperation of farmers owning communally grazed indigenous goats in southwestern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, where farmers had identified poor reproductive performance in their herds as one of their major problems. The aim was to quantify the effects of 3 interventions and the interaction between these interventions on goat productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infection. The interventions were: urea-molasses block supplementation during the dry winter seasons of 2004 and 2005, tactical anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin (400 microg/kg) during the wet summer period (on 3 January 2005) and symptomatic treatment with ivermectin (400 microg/kg) of all goats judged anaemic throughout the entire study period. The FAMACHA system was used as a gauge of anaemia. It was noted that goats considered anaemic tended to remain so throughout the study period. The tactical anthelmintic treatment was effective as it markedly reduced (P = 0.066) the summer peak in faecal egg counts and is therefore recommended. By contrast, while the urea-molasses block supplementation appeared to reduce the faecal egg counts immediately following the 2004 supplementation (P < 0.05), this did not hold true in 2005. Interestingly, in the tactically treated anaemic goats, the improvement in the number of kids suckled per doe year-on-year tended to be greater than in the non-anaemic goats. It is considered that the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats may have been a key factor. More detailed investigations into the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats are therefore recommended.
Drying of Poultry Manure for Use Animal Feed
  • A E Ghaly
  • K N Macdonald
Ghaly, A.E. and Macdonald K.N. (2012). Drying of Poultry Manure for Use Animal Feed. American J. of Agri. and Bio. Sci. 7(3): 239-254.
Kajian Pemanfaatan Pakan Lokal dan Urea Molasses Blok (UMB) untuk Penggemukan Sapi Potong di Kabupaten Pinrang Sulawesi Selatan
  • A Nurhayu
  • D Pasambe
  • M Dan Sariubang
Nurhayu A., Pasambe D., dan Sariubang, M. (2010). Kajian Pemanfaatan Pakan Lokal dan Urea Molasses Blok (UMB) untuk Penggemukan Sapi Potong di Kabupaten Pinrang Sulawesi Selatan. J. Tek. Pet. dan Vet. 23(28): 194-199.
Benefit of UreaMolassesBlock Supplementation and Symptomatic and Tactical Anthelmintic of Communally Grazed Indigenous Goats in the Bulwer Area
  • A F Vatta
  • J F Villiers
  • De
  • S A Gumede
  • R C Krecek
  • N P Mapeyi
  • R A Pearson
  • M F Smith
  • M O Stenson
Vatta A.F., Villiers, J.F. de, Gumede, S.A., Krecek, R.C., Mapeyi, N.P., Pearson, R.A., Smith, M.F., Stenson, M.O., and Harrison, L.J.S. (2007). Benefit of UreaMolassesBlock Supplementation and Symptomatic and Tactical Anthelmintic of Communally Grazed Indigenous Goats in the Bulwer Area, Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. J. South Afr. Vet. Assess. 78(2): 81-89.
Feeds and Feeding Sixth Edition
  • P T Wayne
  • A E Cullison
  • R S Lowrey
Wayne, P.T., Cullison, A.E., and Lowrey, R.S. (2003). Feeds and Feeding Sixth Edition. New Jersey. Prentice Hall.