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Abstract

It is usually reported that the Tabata protocol (TP) is performed with eight bouts of 20:10 intervals at a load equivalent to 170% of iV̇O2max. However, the feasibility of accumulating 160 s of work at 170% iV̇O2max has been questioned. This article tested the intensity that would allow the performance of the original TP on a cycle ergometer, and measured the highest value of oxygen consumption (V̇O2) obtained during the TP and the time spent above 90% of the maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) during the TP performed at different intensities. Thirteen young active males (25.9 ± 5.5 years, 67.9 ± 9.2 kg, 1.70 ± 0.06 m, 23.6 ± 3.1 kg·m-2) participated in the study. Participants performed a graded exertion test (GXT) on a cycle ergometer to obtain maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and the intensity associated with V̇O2max (iV̇O2max). V̇O2, maximal heart rate (HRmax), and number of bouts performed were evaluated during the TP performed at 115%, 130%, and 170% of i V̇O2max. V̇O2max, HRmax, and iV̇O2max were 51.8 ± 8.0 mL.kg-1·min-1, 186 ± 10 bpm, and 204 ± 26 W, respectively. The number of bouts performed at 115% (7 ± 1 bouts) was higher than at 130% (5 ± 1 bouts) and 170% (4 ± 1 bouts) (p < .0001). The highest V̇O2 achieved at 115%, 130%, and 170% of iV̇O2max was 54.2 ± 7.9 mL·kg-1·min-1, 52.5 ± 8.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, and 49.6 ± 7.5 mL·kg-1·min-1, respectively. Non significant difference was found between the highest V̇O2 achieved at different intensities, however qualitative magnitude-inference indicate a likely small effect between 115% and 170% of iVO2max. Time spent above 90% of the V̇O2max during the TP at 115% (50 ± 48 s) was higher than 170% (23 ± 21 s; p < 0.044) with a probably small effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that the adequate intensity to perform a similar number of bouts in the original TP is lower than previously proposed, and equivalent to 115% of the iV̇O2max. In addition, intensities between 115 and 130% of the iV̇O2max should be used to raise the time spent above 90% V̇O2max.

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... Em 1998 foi proposto por TABATA et al. (1996) um protocolo de exercício intervalado que consistia na realização de 7 a 8 repetições de 20 segundos de esforço a 170% da potência associada ao consumo máximo de oxigênio (PP) intercalados por 10 segundos de recuperação passiva. Desde então, esse protocolo têm sido amplamente utilizado no cotidiano prático e na literatura científica (MA et al. 2013;MCRAE et al. 2012;SCRIBBANS et al. 2014), entretanto, a maior parte desses estudos apresentam incosistências na descrição da intensidade (MA et al. 2013;MCRAE et al. 2012;SCRIBBANS et al. 2014), este fato pode estar ligado a provável inviabilidade da realização do protocolo completo na intensidade original (GENTIL et al. 2016;VIANA et al. 2018). Essas inconsistências podem limitar a validade externa e consequente extrapolação dos resultados para outras populações, portanto, mostra-se necessária a definição de uma intensidade que seja viável de ser executada em 7 a 8 repetições. ...
... Não atletas ( et al. (1996), podemos observar a inviabilidade da execução do número de sprints relatados no estudo original, tanto pelos atletas ou não atletas. Este fato já foi motivo de questionamento anteriormente (GENTIL et al. 2016;VIANA et al. 2018) e volta como um ponto a ser discutido. VIANA et al. (2018) também testaram a viabilidade de execução deste protocolo, entretanto, os achados diferem dos encontrados no atual. ...
... Este fato já foi motivo de questionamento anteriormente (GENTIL et al. 2016;VIANA et al. 2018) e volta como um ponto a ser discutido. VIANA et al. (2018) também testaram a viabilidade de execução deste protocolo, entretanto, os achados diferem dos encontrados no atual. Nele, os sujeitos foram capazes de realizar apenas 7 ± 1 sprints em intensidade equivalente a 115%PP, menos do que os sujeitos do presente estudo foram capazes de realizar em intensidade de 130%PP. ...
... The Tabata protocol was originally reported as a type of SIT, involving seven to eight 20-s bouts of high-effort cycling interspersed with 10 s of rest [64]. It is commonly suggested to perform the protocol at a given percentage (110 to 170%) of the intensity associated with maximum oxygen consumption [65,66], which would require specific tests and equipment. However, in the original protocol, exercise was performed at a constant load and was interrupted when the participants were unable to maintain the predetermined intensity [64], which might be more practical. ...
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Aerobic exercise is traditionally recommended to improve general health and prevent many non-communicable diseases. However, the measures adopted to control the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak culminated with closing of exercise facilities and fitness centers and, as a primary consequence, impaired aerobic exercise practice. This contributed to an increase in risk factors associated with physical inactivity such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, weight gain, and mental health problems. The scenario is worrisome, and it is important to propose alternatives for exercise practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interval training (IT) emerges as an exercise mode that might be feasible, low-cost, and potentially safe to be performed in many different places. IT consists of interspersing relative brief bouts of high-intensity exercise with recovery periods and promotes similar or greater health benefits when compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise. Among the different types of IT, sprint interval training and "Tabata protocols" might be particularly useful during social isolation. These protocols can be controlled and performed without the need of complex equipment and can be adapted to different places, including domestic environments. In this article, we present variations of IT as possible alternatives to cope physical inactivity during COVID-19 pandemics with a focus on its practical applications. The protocols suggested can be performed without the need of specialized equipment or facilities, in a time-efficient manner, and aiming to prevent detraining or even improve physical fitness and general health.
... As reported by Schuch et al. (43), when considering the available data, aerobic exercise performed three sessions per week over 12 to 24 weeks, delivered in groups, and supervised by an instructor seems to have greater efficacy. In spite of the elevated physiological strain associated with interval training (15,44) and higher contribution from anaerobic metabolism for energy production, interval training is predominantly aerobic (45). Also, training protocols were delivered in groups by a specialized instructor. ...
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Background: Despite important advances in the relationship between exercise and mood disorders, especially regarding moderate-intensity continuous training, there is a lack of information about the chronic effects of interval training protocols. We compared the effects of two different interval training protocols [sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT)] on depressive and anxious symptoms in healthy women. Methods: Thirty-six women were randomly allocated to HIIT (n = 18) or SIT (n = 18) groups and performed 24 training sessions over 8 weeks (thrice a week). Levels of state–trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using State–Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively, before and after training intervention. Results: Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal a significant effect of time (p > 0.05), group intervention (p > 0.05), or time × group interaction (p > 0.05) on state–trait anxiety; however, two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on depressive symptoms (p = 0.025) but not group effect (p = 0.548) or time × group interaction (p = 0.373). Depressive symptoms of the participants in both HIIT and SIT groups were reduced from baseline, (ΔHIIT) −17.5 ± 27.9% and (ΔSIT) −28.6 ± 47.5%, respectively. Conclusion: HIIT and SIT groups similarly improved depressive symptoms but not anxiety levels in healthy and physically active young adult women.
... The few studies to date have examined intensity, work time, and training mode. Viana et al. reported that the intensity of HIIT influenced the aerobic metabolic system in relation to the differences in intensity [11]. The authors suggested that the intensity of Tabata's protocol should be applied between 115-130 % of the VO 2max . ...
Article
To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with different work-to-rest ratios on athletic performance in athletes. Forty-seven male Taekwondo athletes (aged 15–18 yrs) were randomly assigned into 3 HIIT groups and a control group. Each group performed 6 and 8 bouts of HIIT: 1) 1:2 (30:60 s), 2) 1:4 (30:120 s), and 3) 1:8 (30:240 s) groups while the control group performed only Taekwondo training program. All HIIT groups completed 10 sessions over 4 weeks. Athletic performance tests including VO2max test, Wingate anaerobic test, vertical jump, and agility T-test were measured at both pre- and post-tests. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied to examine the performance changes between protocols. VO2max improved significantly in all HIIT groups (p<0.01), and the post-hoc test indicated that the only 1:4 group showed significant improvement compared to the control group. The HIIT with 1:4 ratio showed the effective protocol for enhancing anaerobic capacity including relative peak and mean power compared to control (p<0.01). Ten sessions of HIIT involving the 1:4 group, lasting over a brief 4-week period revealed the effective protocol for enhancing both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Our findings provide practical implications to develop a performance-enhancing program specialized for adolescent Taekwondo athletes.
... Tabata pada umumnya merupakan latihan dengan intensitas yang tinggi dimana satu kali latihan seseorang akan mendapati pengulangan hingga 6 set, hal ini sangat cukup untuk memberikan hasil untuk meningkatkan performa. (Viana, et al., 2018). ...
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... It should be noted that, for estimating oxygen demand at supramaximal intensity, the relationship between exercise intensity (the work rate) and the submaximal level oxygen uptake measured by an incremental test [e.g., a graded exertion test (GXT)] [32] should not be used. The oxygen uptake at a specific exercise intensity measured by an incremental test procedure, which normally allots an identical time (1-2 min) for each exercise intensity, does not necessarily represents the oxygen uptake or oxygen demand, which is balanced with energy for re-synthesizing the ATP consumed during exercise at the specific intensity. ...
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For decades, high-intensity interval/intermittent exercise training methods have been used by elite athletes to improve their performance in sports. One of the most effective training methods, i.e., ‘Tabata training,’ is reviewed herein from the viewpoint of the energetics of exercise. The prior research describing the metabolic profile and effects of Tabata training is also summarized, with some historical anecdotes. © 2019, The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature.
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Background One of the most popular high-intensity interval exercises is the called “Tabata Protocol”. However, most investigations have limitations in describing the work intensity, and this fact appears to be due to the protocol unfeasibility. Furthermore, the physiological demands and energetic contribution during this kind of exercise remain unclear. Methods Eight physically active students (21.8 ± 3.7 years) and eight well-trained cycling athletes (27.8 ± 6.4 years) were enrolled. In the first visit, we collected descriptive data and the peak power output (PPO). On the next three visits, in random order, participants performed interval training with the same time structure (effort:rest 20s:10s) but using different intensities (115%, 130%, and 170% of PPO). We collected the number of sprints, power output, oxygen consumption, blood lactate, and heart rate. Results The analysis of variance for multivariate test (number of sprints, power output, blood lactate, peak heart rate and percentage of maximal heart rate) showed significant differences between groups ( F = 9.62; p = 0.001) and intensities ( F = 384.05; p < 0.001), with no interactions ( F = 0.94; p = 0.57). All three energetic contributions and intensities were different between protocols. The higher contribution was aerobic, followed by alactic and lactic. The aerobic contribution was higher at 115%PPO, while the alactic system showed higher contribution at 130%PPO. In conclusion, the aerobic system was predominant in the three exercise protocols, and we observed a higher contribution at lower intensities.
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High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a well-known, time-efficient training method for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, physical performance in athletes. HIT involves repeated short (<45 s) to long (2-4 min) bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods (refer to the previously published first part of this review). While athletes have used 'classical' HIT formats for nearly a century (e.g. repetitions of 30 s of exercise interspersed with 30 s of rest, or 2-4-min interval repetitions ran at high but still submaximal intensities), there is today a surge of research interest focused on examining the effects of short sprints and all-out efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory. Prescription of HIT consists of the manipulation of at least nine variables (e.g. work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, between-series recovery duration and intensity); any of which has a likely effect on the acute physiological response. Manipulating HIT appropriately is important, not only with respect to the expected middle- to long-term physiological and performance adaptations, but also to maximize daily and/or weekly training periodization. Cardiopulmonary responses are typically the first variables to consider when programming HIT (refer to Part I). However, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and neuromuscular load should also be considered to maximize the training outcome. Contrasting HIT formats that elicit similar (and maximal) cardiorespiratory responses have been associated with distinctly different anaerobic energy contributions. The high locomotor speed/power requirements of HIT (i.e. ≥95 % of the minimal velocity/power that elicits maximal oxygen uptake [v/p[Formula: see text]O2max] to 100 % of maximal sprinting speed or power) and the accumulation of high-training volumes at high-exercise intensity (runners can cover up to 6-8 km at v[Formula: see text]O2max per session) can cause significant strain on the neuromuscular/musculoskeletal system. For athletes training twice a day, and/or in team sport players training a number of metabolic and neuromuscular systems within a weekly microcycle, this added physiological strain should be considered in light of the other physical and technical/tactical sessions, so as to avoid overload and optimize adaptation (i.e. maximize a given training stimulus and minimize musculoskeletal pain and/or injury risk). In this part of the review, the different aspects of HIT programming are discussed, from work/relief interval manipulation to HIT periodization, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to the cardiorespiratory adaptations outlined in Part I, as well as to anaerobic glycolytic contribution and neuromuscular/musculoskeletal load.
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High-intensity interval training (HIT), in a variety of forms, is today one of the most effective means of improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, the physical performance of athletes. HIT involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. For team and racquet sport players, the inclusion of sprints and all-out efforts into HIT programmes has also been shown to be an effective practice. It is believed that an optimal stimulus to elicit both maximal cardiovascular and peripheral adaptations is one where athletes spend at least several minutes per session in their 'red zone,' which generally means reaching at least 90 % of their maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max). While use of HIT is not the only approach to improve physiological parameters and performance, there has been a growth in interest by the sport science community for characterizing training protocols that allow athletes to maintain long periods of time above 90 % of [Formula: see text]O2max (T@[Formula: see text]O2max). In addition to T@[Formula: see text]O2max, other physiological variables should also be considered to fully characterize the training stimulus when programming HIT, including cardiovascular work, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and acute neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain. Prescription for HIT consists of the manipulation of up to nine variables, which include the work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, as well as the between-series recovery duration and intensity. The manipulation of any of these variables can affect the acute physiological responses to HIT. This article is Part I of a subsequent II-part review and will discuss the different aspects of HIT programming, from work/relief interval manipulation to the selection of exercise mode, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to T@[Formula: see text]O2max and cardiovascular responses. Additional programming and periodization considerations will also be discussed with respect to other variables such as anaerobic glycolytic system contribution (as inferred from blood lactate accumulation), neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain (Part II).
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various non-hypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained males and females (males: 29±9yr; females: 29±2yr, n=7 each) completed six weeks of very low volume high intensity sprint interval training (SIT-1). In a separate study, recreationally active males (n=16) and females (n=3) completed 6 weeks of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) (n=9: 21±4yr) or low volume sprint interval training (SIT-2) (n=10: 21±2yr). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis pre- and post-training. The fibre type specific SC response to training was determined as was the activity of the SC pool using immunofluorescent microscopy of muscle cross sections. Training did not induce hypertrophy as assessed by muscle cross sectional area (CSA) nor did the SC pool expand in any group. However, there was an increase in the number of active SC following each intervention. Specifically, the number of activated (Pax7+/MyoD+, p≤.05) and differentiating (Pax7-/MyoD+, p≤.05) SC increased following each training intervention. Here we report evidence of activated and cycling SC that may or may not be contributing to exercise-induced adaptation while the SC pool remains constant following three non-hypertrophic exercise training protocols. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
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High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ∼15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ∼2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ∼15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ∼75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
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WISLOFF, U, O. ELLINGSEN, and O.J. KEMI. High-intensity interval training to maximize cardiac benefits of exercise training? Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 139-146, 2009. We hypothesized that high-intensity aerobic interval training results in a greater beneficial adaptation of the heart compared with that observed after low-to-moderate exercise intensity. This is supported by recent epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of myocardial adaptation to exercise training are discussed in this review.
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There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
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Endurance exercise training results in profound adaptations of the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular systems that enhance the delivery of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria and enable a tighter regulation of muscle metabolism. These adaptations effect an improvement in endurance performance that is manifest as a rightward shift in the 'velocity-time curve'. This shift enables athletes to exercise for longer at a given absolute exercise intensity, or to exercise at a higher exercise intensity for a given duration. There are 4 key parameters of aerobic fitness that affect the nature of the velocity-time curve that can be measured in the human athlete. These are the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), exercise economy, the lactate/ventilatory threshold and oxygen uptake kinetics. Other parameters that may help determine endurance performance, and that are related to the other 4 parameters, are the velocity at VO2max (V-VO2max) and the maximal lactate steady state or critical power. This review considers the effect of endurance training on the key parameters of aerobic (endurance) fitness and attempts to relate these changes to the adaptations seen in the body's physiological systems with training. The importance of improvements in the aerobic fitness parameters to the enhancement of endurance performance is highlighted, as are the training methods that may be considered optimal for facilitating such improvements.
Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation, PLoS One Low-active male adolescents: A dose response to high-intensity interval training
  • J Parise
  • B J Quadrilatero
  • G R M Gurd
  • N Logan
  • S Harris
  • L D Duncan
  • F Plank
  • G Merien
  • Schofield
Parise, J. Quadrilatero, B.J. Gurd, Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation, PLoS One. 9 (2014) e98119. [4] G.R.M. Logan, N. Harris, S. Duncan, L.D. Plank, F. Merien, G. Schofield, Low-active male adolescents: A dose response to high-intensity interval training, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 48 (2016) 481-490. [5]