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Background: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia, are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a spray-dried preparation of potato juice is applicable for treating and preventing gastrointestinal mucosal damage. Methods: We assessed potential protective effects of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) against gut inflammation in the co-culture Caco-2/RAW264.7 system, as well as a gastroprotective activity in a rat model of gastric ulceration. Results: The obtained results indicated that SDPJ down-regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression and protein production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the co-culture model. Moreover, SDPJ provided dose-dependent protection against LPS-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. In rats, five-day pretreatment with SDPJ in doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg suppressed HCl/ethanol-induced TNF-α expression in gastric mucosa by 52% and 35%, respectively. In addition, the pretreatment with the lower dose of SDPJ reduced the incidence of ulcers (by 34%) expressed as ulcer index. Conclusion: The spray-dried potato juice appears to be an attractive candidate for ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
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nutrients
Article
Spray-Dried Potato Juice as a Potential Functional
Food Component with Gastrointestinal
Protective Effects
Małgorzata Kujawska 1, *ID , Anna Olejnik 2, Gra˙
zyna Lewandowicz 2,
Przemysław Kowalczewski 3ID , Renata Forjasz 4and Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert 1
1Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 30 Dojazd Str., 60-631 Pozna´n, Poland;
liebert@ump.edu.pl
2Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 48 Wojska
Polskiego Str., 60-627 Pozna´n, Poland; aolejnik@up.poznan.pl (A.O.); gralew@up.poznan.pl (G.L.)
3Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 31 Wojska Polskiego Str.,
60-624 Pozna´n, Poland; przemyslaw.kowalczewski@up.poznan.pl
4Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 5a Rokietnicka Str.,
60-806 Pozna´n, Poland; rforjasz@ump.edu.pl
*Correspondence: kujawska@ump.edu.pl; Tel.: +48-61-8470721
Received: 11 December 2017; Accepted: 17 February 2018; Published: 24 February 2018
Abstract:
Background: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia,
are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal
inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal
mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study was undertaken
to evaluate whether a spray-dried preparation of potato juice is applicable for treating and preventing
gastrointestinal mucosal damage. Methods: We assessed potential protective effects of spray-dried
potato juice (SDPJ) against gut inflammation in the co-culture Caco-2/RAW264.7 system, as well
as a gastroprotective activity in a rat model of gastric ulceration. Results: The obtained results
indicated that SDPJ down-regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression and protein
production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-
α
in the co-culture model. Moreover,
SDPJ provided dose-dependent protection against LPS-induced disruption of intestinal barrier
integrity. In rats, five-day pretreatment with SDPJ in doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg suppressed
HCl/ethanol-induced TNF-
α
expression in gastric mucosa by 52% and 35%, respectively. In addition,
the pretreatment with the lower dose of SDPJ reduced the incidence of ulcers (by 34%) expressed
as ulcer index. Conclusion: The spray-dried potato juice appears to be an attractive candidate for
ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Keywords:
potato juice; anti-inflammatory activity; antiulcerogenic effect; gastrointestinal protection
1. Introduction
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), including gastric and duodenal ulcers, is associated with defects
in the gastrointestinal mucosa and is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and
mortality. The most common causes of PUD are Helicobacter pylori infection, as well as the use of
anti-inflammatory drugs, which additionally aggravate the disease leading to complications, such as
gastrointestinal haemorrhage or perforation. Since the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
and corticosteroids is becoming more widespread, peptic ulcer complications have emerged as a
substantial healthcare problem [
1
,
2
]. In addition, infection by H. pylori causes chronic inflammation,
which has been suggested to develop to gastric cancer—the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths,
according to the World Health Organization (WHO) [
3
,
4
]. Interestingly, new evidence suggests that
Nutrients 2018,10, 259; doi:10.3390/nu10020259 www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 2 of 13
abnormalities in gastroduodenal mucosa are also present in a substantial group of patients suffering
from functional dyspepsia [
5
]. Although eradication therapy for H. pylori is superior in PUD patients
and some functional dyspepsia patients, pharmacological and nonpharmacological prevention and
treatment to enhance the healing of the gastroduodenal region is highly recommended for patients
from both groups [
2
,
5
]. In traditional European medicine, gastrointestinal disorders were commonly
treated with freshly squeezed potato juice. Clinical trials have proved its potential for relieving
dyspeptic complaints [
6
8
]. An increasing number of studies have revealed that potatoes, as a rich
source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, proteins, glycoalkaloids (GAs), and lectins, exhibit
health-promoting properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity [
9
].
Generally, it is believed that the anti-inflammatory properties of potato are related to proteins with
protease inhibitor activity. Potato proteins have been demonstrated to alleviate perianal inflammation
by inhibiting faecal proteases in patients with gastrointestinal resections and in infants [
10
]. On the
other hand, the anti-inflammatory effect of potato is suggested to be attributable to antioxidants,
including phenolic acids, carotenoids, or anthocyanins [
11
]. Human cohort studies proved the systemic
anti-inflammatory effect of potato as measured by serum C-reactive protein, at a level that was inversely
correlated with the serum concentration of certain potato antioxidants [
12
,
13
]. The anticarcinogenic
effects of potato have been attributed to the presence of anthocyanins, as well as GAs and lectins,
which may be toxic in high doses. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of research has been devoted
to the study of the inhibitory effects of potato GAs (solanine and chaconine) on the growth of human
cancer cell lines including human colon and stomach cancer cells [
9
,
13
]. GAs have been demonstrated
to reduce cancer metastasis by suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-kB
signalling pathway and to induce apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2
phosphorylation, and
α
-chaconine was proved to be more effective than
α
-solanine [
9
]. Although
in vitro
studies are burdened with limitations, their findings suggest that potato GAs may not be as
menacing as once thought [13].
The nutritional approach is recommended for complementary treatment of gastrointestinal
diseases, including peptic ulcer, to prevent, alleviate or even heal the symptoms involving this
pathology [
14
]. The application of freshly-squeezed potato juice is, however, troublesome, as it
is extremely unstable. It instantly undergoes colonisation with microorganisms and changes its
physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional properties. Therefore, we have developed a formula for
potato juice for its using in health-oriented food products. Previously, we designed functional food
products, such as pâtés, pasta, and frankfurters fortified with potato juice, addressed to patients with
inflammatory bowel disease [
15
17
]. The object of the present study is spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ),
which is suitable for incorporation into food products and dietary supplements. As heat processing can
change phytochemical content in potato juice, as well as its bioactivity, our aim here was to evaluate
whether SDPJ is capable of ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Test Material
Fresh potato juice was collected as a by-product of potato starch production from a starch plant
(WPPZ S.A., Lubo´n, Poland) according to the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point)
principles. Potato varieties with white and yellow flesh were derived from Polish cultivated areas.
The juice was cooled to 4
C and transported to our laboratory, where it was subjected to a spray
drying process according to the procedure described previously [
17
,
18
]. Drying was carried out in a
pilot-scale P-dryer Niro Atomizer 6.3 (GEA Co., Soeborg, Denmark) using the following conditions:
170 C at the inlet to the drying chamber, 95 C at the outlet, and the feed rate of juice 12 L/h.
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 3 of 13
2.2. Spray-Dried Potato Juice Analysis
Protein content in SDPJ was determined by Kjeldahl’s method in accordance with the 1871:2009
standard method, and the ash content according to ISO 763:2003.
Analyses of the SDPJ phenolic compounds were performed using an Agilent 1200 series HPLC
system (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with a G1312A binary pump,
a G1329A autosampler, a G1316A temperature-controlled column compartment, and a G1315D
photodiode array detector. Chromatographic separations were carried out on an Agilent ZORBAX
SB-C18 column at 25
C. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: 5% (v/v) formic acid in water
(A) and methanol (B). A gradient elution procedure was performed as follows: 5%
20% B, 0
10 min;
20% B, 10
15 min; 20%–30% B, 15–30 min; 30% B, 30–35 min; 30%–45%, 35–50 min; 45%, 50–60 min;
and 45%
5% B, 60–70 min. The flow rate was at 1 mL/min, and the injection volume was 10
µ
L.
The HPLC chromatograms were recorded at 280 and 320 nm. Quantification of SDPJ phenolic
compounds was based on the standards of 5-O-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic), ferulic, and caffeic acids.
Data acquisition and processing were performed using an Agilent ChemStation for LC 3D Systems
software rev. B.03.02 (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA).
The
β
-carotene content was determined by UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible) spectrophotometric
method according to Biswas et al., 2011 [19].
The concentration of GAs (
α
-chaconine and
α
-solanine) in SDPJ was determined using an isocratic
HPLC method with ultraviolet detection at 200 nm [20].
The total antioxidative activity was determined by ABTS radical method (2,2
0
-azinobis-
(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) according to Re et al. [
21
] and expressed as mmol of Trolox
equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (DM).
The total content of phenolic compounds was assessed using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent [
22
] and
expressed as an equivalent of the chlorogenic acid (CAE) per 100 g of DM.
2.3. In Vitro Experiments
2.3.1. Cell Cultures
A co-culture model consisting of a differentiated 21-day Caco-2 cell monolayer and a 24-h culture of
RAW264.7 macrophages (both obtained from the European Collection of Cell Cultures and supplied by
Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of SDPJ. In this
co-culture system, the RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides to induce
an inflammatory response, while the Caco-2 cells were exposed to SDPJ at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1,
and 1 mg/mL, and budesonide (a reference glucocorticoid with strong anti-inflammatory potential).
The anti-inflammatory activity of the test material was determined as described previously [23].
2.3.2. Cytotoxicity Assay
To detect the cytotoxic effect of SDPJ, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and budesonide on the Caco-2
and RAW264.7 cells under experimental conditions, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
was determined using a CytoTox-One
Homogeneous Membrane Integrity Assay, according to the
manufacturer’s protocol (Promega GmbH, Mannheim, Germany).
2.3.3. Transepithelial Electrical Resistance
The integrity of the Caco-2 monolayer was assessed by measuring the transepithelial
electrical resistance (TEER) using the Millicell Electrical Resistance System (Millipore, Merck KGaA,
Darmstadt, Germany).
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 4 of 13
2.3.4. Quantification of Proinflammatory Gene Expression Using Real-Time PCR
Total RNA was isolated from the RAW264.7 macrophages using TRI-Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich)
according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The total RNA was reverse-transcribed using a
Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis kit (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany),
following the manufacturer’s protocol. The resulting cDNA was amplified using a real-time
quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) system (SmartCycler DX real-time PCR system,
Cepheid,
Sunnyvale, CA, USA
) with SYBR Select Master Mix (Life Technologies,
Carlsbad, CA, USA
).
The following primers were used:
β
-actin forward primer: 5
0
-ATGG AGGG GAAT ACAG CCC-3
0
;
β
-actin reverse primer: 5
0
-TTCT TTGC AGCT CCTT CGTT-3
0
; IL-6 forward primer: 5
0
-TCTG AAGG
ACTC TGGC TTTG-3
0
; IL-6 reverse primer: 5
0
-GATG GATG CTAC CAA ACT GGA-3
0
; TNF-
α
forward
primer: 5
0
-AGGG TCTG GGCC ATAG AACT-3
0
; and TNF-
α
reverse primer: 5
0
-CCAC CACG CTCT
TCTG TCTAC-3
0
. The level of transcripts was normalized using
β
-actin as an internal standard.
Quantitative gene expression analysis was carried out following the protocol described previously [
23
].
2.3.5. Determination of TNF-αand IL-6
The secretion of TNF-
α
and IL-6 cytokines was determined in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7
macrophages using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (R&D Systems Inc.,
Minneapolis, MN, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
2.4. In Vivo Experiment
2.4.1. Experimental Design
Animals: We used male Wistar rats bred in the Department of Toxicology, Poznan University
of Medical Sciences (Pozna´n, Poland). Animals were held (4 rats/cage) in polycarbonate cages
(Techniplast, Italy) with wood shavings at 22
±
2
C, 40%–54% humidity, and controlled circulation of
air with a 12 h light/dark cycle. A commercial diet (ISO 22000 certified laboratory feed Labofeed H)
and drinking water were available ad libitum.
Experimental design: Sixty (12-week old) rats weighing 250
±
22 g were divided randomly into
five groups, twelve animals in each. The experiment was performed according to the procedure
described by Caldas et al. [
24
] with slight modifications. Three groups of rats were orally treated
with the suspension of the preparation of dried potato juice in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w.
per day (groups II and V) and 200 mg/kg b.w. per day (group IV) for five days. On the fifth day of the
experiment one hour after SDPJ treatment, animals from groups III–V orally received the mixture of
0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1) in a dose 1 mL per 150 g b.w to induce acute gastric lesions. Group I
(control) and group II were given distilled water. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation 2 h
after induction of gastric lesions; their stomachs were removed and examined for quantification of
the lesions. Photographs of haemorrhagic erosions were taken, and specimens of gastric mucosa
were collected.
Before starting the
in vivo
study, we had conducted a 90-day subchronic toxicity test on rats
(data not shown), the results of which confirmed the safety of SDPJ at both doses used in the experiment.
This animal study followed the animal welfare regulations according to EU Directive 201/63/EU,
and it was approved by the Local Animal Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (protocol
No. 52/2012).
2.4.2. Ulcer Index
The number and severity of haemorrhagic lesions per stomach were scored according to the
following scoring system: 0 = no pathology; 1 = a small ulcer (1–2 mm); 2 = a medium ulcer (3–4 mm);
4 = a large ulcer (5–6 mm); and 8 = a larger ulcer (>6 mm). The mean ulcer index UI
±
SD (standard
deviation) was expressed as the sum of the total scores divided by the number of animals in a group [
25
].
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 5 of 13
2.4.3. Inflammatory Cytokines (TNF-αand IL-6)
Levels of TNF-
α
and IL-6 were quantified by using ELISA kits according to the manufacturer’s
instructions (R&D Systems, Inc. Minneapolis, MN, USA). Gastric mucosa tissue homogenate was
prepared with nine volumes of 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4.
2.5. Statistical Analysis
All analyses were performed with the use of the GraphPad InStat statistical package, version 3,
(GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA). The mean values and standard deviations were calculated.
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple
comparisons was used, p< 0.05 was considered the limit of significance.
3. Results
3.1. Spray-Dried Potato Juice Characteristics
Results of the determination of bioactive compounds in SDPJ are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Content of bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant activity of SDPJ.
Parameter Unit Amount
Dry matter g/100 g FM 90.1 ±0.5
Protein g/100 g DM 49.22 ±0.40
Ash g/100 g DM 16.34 ±0.09
Total phenolic compounds:
by Folin-Ciocalteu mg CAE/100g DM 366 ±35
by HPLC mg CAE/100g DM 330.2 ±12.0
Individual phenolic compound:
Chlorogenic acid mg/100g DM 13.3 ±1.8
Ferulic acid mg/100g DM 17.8 ±2.3
Caffeic acid mg/100g DM 22.2 ±1.4
β-carotene mg/100g DM 0.020 ±0.008
Glycoalkaloids:
α-solanine mg/100 g DM 59.1 ±1.1
α-chaconine mg/100g DM 99.0 ±2.0
Antioxidant activity * mmol TEAC/100g DM 26 ±2
SDPJ: spray-dried potato juice. FM: fresh matter. DM: dry matter. CAE: chlorogenic acid equivalent. TEAC: Trolox
equivalent antioxidant capacity. * According to ABTS method
3.2. Effect of Spray-Dried Potato Juice on Intestinal and Macrophage Cell Viability
Prior to the assessment of the ability of SDPJ to suppress the LPS-induced production of
inflammatory cytokines, an LDH assay was performed to exclude the possibility of an inhibitory
effect caused by cytotoxicity. The viability of both Caco-2 cells treated with SDPJ and LPS-activated
RAW264.7 macrophages did not differ significantly (p> 0.05) from the untreated cells constituting
the control cell culture system. The analysed preparation of potato juice at concentrations ranging
from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL did not show any cytotoxic effects on differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells
(Figure 1A) and RAW264.7 macrophages (Figure 1B), respectively. Moreover, the treatment of the
non-activated Caco-2/RAW264.7 model with SDPJ at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL did not affect
either the intestinal barrier integrity, or the transepithelial permeability (Figure 2).
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 6 of 13
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 13
(A) (B)
Figure 1. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on Caco-2 cells (A) and
RAW264.7 macrophage (B) viability determined in a Caco-2/RAW264.7 co-culture system
nonstimulated () or stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means ± SD (n
= 3).
3.3. Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice on TEER in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
The stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS was followed by a 26% decrease in TEER, which
serves as a marker of the Caco-2 monolayer integrity. Treatment with budesonide or SDPJ at all tested
doses protected the Caco-2 cell monolayer against injury induced by LPS. Furthermore, the TEER
values measured in LPS-stimulated cells treated with the tested preparation of potato juice at doses
of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL were quantitatively comparable to that of budesonide and were similar to that
determined in the control cells, which were not treated with LPS (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on TEER values determined
in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages nonstimulated () or stimulated
by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). a) p < 0.05 vs the untreated
group. b) p < 0.05 vs the LPS-treated group.
3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
Stimulation of the RAW264.7 cells with LPS significantly upregulated the mRNA expression and
production of both TNF-α and IL-6 (Figures 3 and 4). The LPS-induced overexpression of TNF-α at
both mRNA and protein level was significantly suppressed by the treatment with the tested
preparation of potato juice at a dose of 0.1 mg/mL, by 33 and 25%, respectively (Figure 3).
Figure 1.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on Caco-2 cells (
A
) and RAW264.7
macrophage (
B
) viability determined in a Caco-2/RAW264.7 co-culture system nonstimulated (
) or
stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means ±SD (n= 3).
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 13
(A) (B)
Figure 1. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on Caco-2 cells (A) and
RAW264.7 macrophage (B) viability determined in a Caco-2/RAW264.7 co-culture system
nonstimulated () or stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means ± SD (n
= 3).
3.3. Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice on TEER in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
The stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS was followed by a 26% decrease in TEER, which
serves as a marker of the Caco-2 monolayer integrity. Treatment with budesonide or SDPJ at all tested
doses protected the Caco-2 cell monolayer against injury induced by LPS. Furthermore, the TEER
values measured in LPS-stimulated cells treated with the tested preparation of potato juice at doses
of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL were quantitatively comparable to that of budesonide and were similar to that
determined in the control cells, which were not treated with LPS (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on TEER values determined
in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages nonstimulated () or stimulated
by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). a) p < 0.05 vs the untreated
group. b) p < 0.05 vs the LPS-treated group.
3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
Stimulation of the RAW264.7 cells with LPS significantly upregulated the mRNA expression and
production of both TNF-α and IL-6 (Figures 3 and 4). The LPS-induced overexpression of TNF-α at
both mRNA and protein level was significantly suppressed by the treatment with the tested
preparation of potato juice at a dose of 0.1 mg/mL, by 33 and 25%, respectively (Figure 3).
Figure 2.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on TEER values determined in
a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages nonstimulated (
) or stimulated by
lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Values represent the means
±
SD (n= 3). a) p< 0.05 vs the untreated group.
b) p< 0.05 vs the LPS-treated group.
3.3. Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice on TEER in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
The stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS was followed by a 26% decrease in TEER, which serves
as a marker of the Caco-2 monolayer integrity. Treatment with budesonide or SDPJ at all tested doses
protected the Caco-2 cell monolayer against injury induced by LPS. Furthermore, the TEER values
measured in LPS-stimulated cells treated with the tested preparation of potato juice at doses of 0.1 and
1.0 mg/mL were quantitatively comparable to that of budesonide and were similar to that determined
in the control cells, which were not treated with LPS (Figure 2).
3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in the Caco-2/RAW264.7 Co-Culture System
Stimulation of the RAW264.7 cells with LPS significantly upregulated the mRNA expression and
production of both TNF-
α
and IL-6 (Figures 3and 4). The LPS-induced overexpression of TNF-
α
at both
mRNA and protein level was significantly suppressed by the treatment with the tested preparation of
potato juice at a dose of 0.1 mg/mL, by 33 and 25%, respectively (Figure 3).
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 7 of 13
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 13
(A) (B)
Figure 3. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of TNF-
α (A) and the production of TNF-α (B) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7
macrophages nonstimulated () or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). b) p <
0.05 vs. the LPS-treated group.
SDPJ at doses of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL also caused a remarkable dose-dependent decrease in the
induced IL-6 mRNA level, by 24 and 46%, respectively (Figure 4A), and in IL-6 secretion by 22 and
41%, respectively (Figure 4B). However, the inhibitory effect of SDPJ on the induced gene expression
and secretion of both cytokines was lower than that of budesonide.
(A) (B)
Figure 4. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of IL-6
(A) and the production of IL-6 (B) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages
nonstimulated () or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). b) p < 0.05 vs. the
LPS-treated group.
3.5. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
As shown in Figure 5B, administration the mixture of HCl/ethanol induced extensive visible
haemorrhagic red bands of different sizes along the stomach. Rats pretreated with the lower dose of
SDPJ (200 mg/kg b.w.) before the administration of the mixture of HCl/ethanol had considerably
fewer regions of gastric ulcer development (Figure 5C) compared with the rats administered the
mixture alone (Figure 5B). The ulcer index calculated from the size and number of the gastric lesions
was 29 ± 10 in HCl/ethanol-treated rats. SDPJ treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited
the formation of gastric lesions (ulcer index = 19 ± 12), while a dose of 500 mg/kg did not affect the
HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulceration (ulcer index = 25 ± 15) (Figure 5D).
Figure 3.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of TNF-
α
(
A
) and the production of TNF-
α
(
B
) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages
nonstimulated (
) or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means
±
SD (n= 3). b) p< 0.05 vs.
the LPS-treated group.
SDPJ at doses of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL also caused a remarkable dose-dependent decrease in the
induced IL-6 mRNA level, by 24 and 46%, respectively (Figure 4A), and in IL-6 secretion by 22 and
41%, respectively (Figure 4B). However, the inhibitory effect of SDPJ on the induced gene expression
and secretion of both cytokines was lower than that of budesonide.
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 13
(A) (B)
Figure 3. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of TNF-
α (A) and the production of TNF-α (B) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7
macrophages nonstimulated () or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). b) p <
0.05 vs. the LPS-treated group.
SDPJ at doses of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL also caused a remarkable dose-dependent decrease in the
induced IL-6 mRNA level, by 24 and 46%, respectively (Figure 4A), and in IL-6 secretion by 22 and
41%, respectively (Figure 4B). However, the inhibitory effect of SDPJ on the induced gene expression
and secretion of both cytokines was lower than that of budesonide.
(A) (B)
Figure 4. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of IL-6
(A) and the production of IL-6 (B) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages
nonstimulated () or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means ± SD (n = 3). b) p < 0.05 vs. the
LPS-treated group.
3.5. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
As shown in Figure 5B, administration the mixture of HCl/ethanol induced extensive visible
haemorrhagic red bands of different sizes along the stomach. Rats pretreated with the lower dose of
SDPJ (200 mg/kg b.w.) before the administration of the mixture of HCl/ethanol had considerably
fewer regions of gastric ulcer development (Figure 5C) compared with the rats administered the
mixture alone (Figure 5B). The ulcer index calculated from the size and number of the gastric lesions
was 29 ± 10 in HCl/ethanol-treated rats. SDPJ treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited
the formation of gastric lesions (ulcer index = 19 ± 12), while a dose of 500 mg/kg did not affect the
HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulceration (ulcer index = 25 ± 15) (Figure 5D).
Figure 4.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) and budesonide (BD) on mRNA expression of IL-6
(
A
) and the production of IL-6 (
B
) in a co-culture system of Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages
nonstimulated (
) or stimulated by LPS. Values represent the means
±
SD (n= 3). b) p< 0.05 vs.
the LPS-treated group.
3.5. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
As shown in Figure 5B, administration the mixture of HCl/ethanol induced extensive visible
haemorrhagic red bands of different sizes along the stomach. Rats pretreated with the lower dose of
SDPJ (200 mg/kg b.w.) before the administration of the mixture of HCl/ethanol had considerably
fewer regions of gastric ulcer development (Figure 5C) compared with the rats administered the
mixture alone (Figure 5B). The ulcer index calculated from the size and number of the gastric lesions
was 29
±
10 in HCl/ethanol-treated rats. SDPJ treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly inhibited
the formation of gastric lesions (ulcer index = 19
±
12), while a dose of 500 mg/kg did not affect the
HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulceration (ulcer index = 25 ±15) (Figure 5D).
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 8 of 13
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 13
Figure 5. Representative images of gastric lesions in rats treated with spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ)
(A) SDPJ 500 mg/kg alone; (B) rats treated with the mixture of HCl/ethanol alone; (C) SDPJ 200 mg/kg
+ HCl/ethanol; and (D) SDPJ 500 mg/kg + HCl/ethanol.
3.6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
Treatment of rats with the mixture of HCl/ethanol caused a significant increase in the gastric
mucosal level of TNF-α by 123%, as compared to controls. The tested preparation of potato juice
significantly inhibited the induced secretion of TNF-α in rats administered 200 and 500 mg/kg b.w.,
by 52% and 35%, respectively, as compared to the ulcer-induced rats (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on level of gastric TNF-α in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ± SD (n = 8). a) p < 0.05 vs. the
untreated group. b) p < 0.05 vs. the HCl/ethanol-treated group.
In this experiment, IL-6 level was not affected significantly neither by the mixture of
HCl/ethanol, nor SDPJ (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on the level of gastric IL-6 in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ±SD (n = 8).
Figure 5.
Representative images of gastric lesions in rats treated with spray-dried potato juice
(SDPJ) (
A
) SDPJ 500 mg/kg alone; (
B
) rats treated with the mixture of HCl/ethanol alone;
(C) SDPJ 200 mg/kg + HCl/ethanol; and (D) SDPJ 500 mg/kg + HCl/ethanol.
3.6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
Treatment of rats with the mixture of HCl/ethanol caused a significant increase in the gastric
mucosal level of TNF-
α
by 123%, as compared to controls. The tested preparation of potato juice
significantly inhibited the induced secretion of TNF-
α
in rats administered 200 and 500 mg/kg b.w.,
by 52% and 35%, respectively, as compared to the ulcer-induced rats (Figure 6).
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 13
Figure 5. Representative images of gastric lesions in rats treated with spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ)
(A) SDPJ 500 mg/kg alone; (B) rats treated with the mixture of HCl/ethanol alone; (C) SDPJ 200 mg/kg
+ HCl/ethanol; and (D) SDPJ 500 mg/kg + HCl/ethanol.
3.6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
Treatment of rats with the mixture of HCl/ethanol caused a significant increase in the gastric
mucosal level of TNF-α by 123%, as compared to controls. The tested preparation of potato juice
significantly inhibited the induced secretion of TNF-α in rats administered 200 and 500 mg/kg b.w.,
by 52% and 35%, respectively, as compared to the ulcer-induced rats (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on level of gastric TNF-α in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ± SD (n = 8). a) p < 0.05 vs. the
untreated group. b) p < 0.05 vs. the HCl/ethanol-treated group.
In this experiment, IL-6 level was not affected significantly neither by the mixture of
HCl/ethanol, nor SDPJ (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on the level of gastric IL-6 in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ±SD (n = 8).
Figure 6.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on level of gastric TNF-
α
in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means
±
SD (n= 8). a) p< 0.05 vs. the untreated
group. b) p< 0.05 vs. the HCl/ethanol-treated group.
In this experiment, IL-6 level was not affected significantly neither by the mixture of HCl/ethanol,
nor SDPJ (Figure 7).
Nutrients 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 13
Figure 5. Representative images of gastric lesions in rats treated with spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ)
(A) SDPJ 500 mg/kg alone; (B) rats treated with the mixture of HCl/ethanol alone; (C) SDPJ 200 mg/kg
+ HCl/ethanol; and (D) SDPJ 500 mg/kg + HCl/ethanol.
3.6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spray-Dried Potato Juice in Rats
Treatment of rats with the mixture of HCl/ethanol caused a significant increase in the gastric
mucosal level of TNF-α by 123%, as compared to controls. The tested preparation of potato juice
significantly inhibited the induced secretion of TNF-α in rats administered 200 and 500 mg/kg b.w.,
by 52% and 35%, respectively, as compared to the ulcer-induced rats (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on level of gastric TNF-α in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ± SD (n = 8). a) p < 0.05 vs. the
untreated group. b) p < 0.05 vs. the HCl/ethanol-treated group.
In this experiment, IL-6 level was not affected significantly neither by the mixture of
HCl/ethanol, nor SDPJ (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on the level of gastric IL-6 in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ±SD (n = 8).
Figure 7.
Effect of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) on the level of gastric IL-6 in rats treated with the
mixture of HCl/ethanol. SDPJ I: SDPJ 200 mg/kg. SDPJ II: SDPJ 500 mg/kg. HCl/ethanol: the mixture
of 0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (1:1). Values represent the means ±SD (n= 8).
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 9 of 13
4. Discussion
A recent study demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori impairs the defensive response of gastric
epithelial cells to acid, contributing to diminished barrier function and inflammatory response,
and consequently leading to mucosal injury [
3
]. Although the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia
(FD) is not fully understood, some studies have provided evidence for the presence of minimal
inflammation in the duodenal mucosa of the FD patients. It has been hypothesised that increased
intestinal permeability is a potential pathogenic mechanism that could be involved in the generation of
low-grade duodenal inflammation and consequently symptoms of FD [
26
]. Potato antioxidants such as
phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acids, and carotenoids as well as GAs have been
reported to be capable of lowering inflammation and might be useful in treating inflammatory disease
conditions including gastrointestinal disorders [13]. However, the content of phenolic compounds in
potato tubers has been found to vary depending on the variety [
9
]. To examine whether spray-dried
potato juice can protect gastrointestinal mucosa against inflammatory damage we assessed its effect on
intestinal barrier integrity and production of proinflammatory mediators. The effect of SDPJ on barrier
dysfunction was investigated by measuring TEER in an intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells/macrophage
RAW264.7 cells co-culture system. The RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with bacteria-derived LPS to
induce the inflammatory response, while the Caco-2 cells were exposed to SDPJ at doses of 0.01, 0.1,
and 1.0 mg/mL. The treatment with the tested preparation of potato juice provided a dose-dependent
protection against LPS-induced disruption of monolayer integrity, with complete protection occurring
at 1.0 mg/mL. It seems probable that this effect is attributed to chlorogenic acid—the main polyphenol
found in yellow and white potatoes—since it has been demonstrated to be mostly taken up by the
Caco-2 cells [
27
]. In this context, our suggestion is in agreement with
Ruan et al. [28]
who have found
that chlorogenic acid decreased intestinal permeability by the maintenance of tight junction protein
expression, including zonula occludens-1 and occludin, in LPS-challenged rats. Whether increased
permeability is the cause, or the consequence of low-grade inflammation has not yet been fully
determined, notwithstanding a close relationship between impaired integrity and inflammatory activity
has been proven both in
in vitro
and
in vivo
studies [
26
,
28
]. In chronic inflammation, macrophages
have been reported to exert an important role locally by releasing cytokines including TNF-
α
and
IL-6 and, therefore, inhibition of these inflammatory agents is expected to reduce or inhibit disease
progression [
29
]. Hence, in this experiment, we evaluated the influence of SDPJ on the secretion of
proinflammatory cytokines in cell culture. The treatment of RAW264.7 cells with the tested preparation
of potato juice decreased the LPS-induced expression of mRNA for TNF-
α
and IL-6 which was
accompanied by a decrease in their secretion. Recently, similar inhibitory effects on the production
of the proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells have been demonstrated for
purple sweet potato extract [
30
], as well as for potato peel extracts enriched in individual potato
GAs [
31
], and different potato phytochemicals have been shown to contribute to this effect. Sugata
and co-workers [
30
] have reported that antioxidative compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids,
and anthocyanins, suppressed the production of nitric oxide, and some proinflammatory mediators and
cytokines, including NF
κ
-
β
, TNF-
α
, and IL-6. The beneficial effect of polyphenols on barrier integrity
associated with inhibition of inflammatory response has been reported by Ruan et al. [
28
]. The authors
have found that chlorogenic acid decreased the level of IFN-
γ
and TNF-
α
in the jejunum and colon
in LPS-challenged rats leading to improved intestinal permeability. Surprisingly,
Kenny et al. [31]
have found that potato GAs in sub-toxic concentrations exerted anti-inflammatory activity
in vitro
.
The authors suggested that this property may be associated with structural similarities of their
aglycones to diosgenin, a precursor of steroidal hormones, and anti-inflammatory steroids [31].
We verified via an animal experiment the gastroprotective activity of the dried potato juice,
demonstrated
in vitro
. However, some concerns arise from the probable presence of GAs, primarily,
solanine, and chaconine, in potato juice [
32
]. It has been reported that improper harvest and
storage methods may result in the formation of GAs in potatoes. Established acceptable limit of
GA content in potatoes is 200 mg/kg of fresh potato tubers [
33
]. The tested dried potato juice contained
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 10 of 13
591.2 ±11.4 µg
of
α
-solanine/g DM and 990.1
±
19.9
µ
g of
α
-chaconine/g DM, and their contents,
in terms of fresh weight, did not exceed the limit values. The doses of SDPJ used in the
in vivo
experiment were chosen based on available literature and did not cause any toxic effects related to the
presence of GAs [
33
]. The potential gastroprotective activity of the tested preparation of potato juice
was evaluated in rats using necrotising agents, such as ethanol and HCl, which have been demonstrated
to induce the gastric mucosal injury and gastritis. The mucosa injury has been demonstrated as
haemorrhagic red bands of different size along the glandular stomach [
34
]. The pre-treatment with the
lower dose of SDPJ (200 mg/kg b.w.) effectively reduced the severity of gastric damage and incidence
of ulcers. This is the first study demonstrating the anti-ulcerogenic activity of potato juice subjected
to a spray-drying process [
18
]. Ethanol causes acute inflammatory responses as a part of a defence
mechanism against tissue damage attributed to an imbalance between proinflammatory cytokines,
including TNF-
α
and IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) [
26
]. In this experiment,
the tested preparation of potato juice at both tested doses significantly inhibited ethanol-induced
secretion of TNF-
α
in the gastric mucosa. For IL-6, we observed a tendency to reduce its level; however,
the difference was not significant. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with SDPJ at a dose of
200 mg/kg b.w. notably inhibited HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions by inhibiting inflammatory
reactions. This agrees with previous reports demonstrating the ability of products made from potatoes
to relieve inflammation
in vivo
[
35
37
]. It has been reported that potato peel extract can inhibit the
production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-
α
,
and IL-6, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in
colonic tissue of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, resulting in the prevention
of colitis development [
35
]. Potato extract has been shown to increase the expression of IL-10 and
reduce the expression of TNF-
α
in serum and lung tissues of rats with cigarette smoke-induced chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease [
36
]. In mice with chemically-induced atopic dermatitis, potato extract
alleviated the exacerbation of skin lesions by suppressing total serum level of IgE and maintaining
T helper 1 (Th1; interferon-
γ
, and IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) balance [
37
]. In addition,
there are several reports on beneficial effects on colitis of pure phenolic acids present in potato
juice. Ferulic acid, as well as chlorogenic and caffeic acid, have been demonstrated to ameliorate
trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in rodents, respectively, which was
accompanied by down-regulation of synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1
β
[
38
,
39
],
TNF-
α
, IL-6, and COX-2 [
38
] in the colon. There is also clinical evidence that consumption of yellow
potato, rich in carotenoids, can decrease inflammation associated with IL-6 production [11].
Results of our study demonstrate that some parameters, i.e., antiulcer effect and TNF-
α
gastric
level display a biphasic dose-response. This type of response is defined as “a low-dose stimulation
and high-dose inhibition” [
40
]. The size and number of gastric lesions were substantially reduced
in rats pretreated with the lower dose of SDPJ; however, the higher dose did not enhance this effect.
Simultaneously, the decrease in the level of TNF-
α
was more pronounced in rats administered the lower
dose of SDPJ, which was in line with the
in vitro
findings presented above. Data on this phenomenon in
animal experiments are much less abundant than in cell culture assays. One of the examples is a report
of Dey et al. [
41
], who demonstrated the protective effect of resveratrol on an indomethacin-induced
gastric ulcer in mice was exerted by a dose 2 mg/kg, whereas the effect of a 10 mg/kg dose was the
opposite. The authors suggested that the explanation could be the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 by
resveratrol, which reduced PGE2 synthesis and angiogenesis, leading to delayed healing. On the basis
of the results obtained, it is difficult to explain the reason for the observed biphasic dose-response.
However, it could be speculated that multiple bioactive components present in the tested preparation
(SDPJ) might disturb at high doses the process of healing by various mechanisms, including modulation
of some cytokines production.
Increasing evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory potential of functional foods is attributed
to the synergy of bioactive compounds as well as to the specific interactions with other nutrients.
As there are many compounds present in the tested preparation of potato juice, such as phenolic acids,
Nutrients 2018,10, 259 11 of 13
glycoalkaloids, and proteins, which have been suggested to contribute to gastrointestinal protection,
further studies on their biological activities could improve our knowledge about the mechanisms
underlying the beneficial effects observed in the current experiments.
5. Conclusions
In conclusion, the presented findings demonstrate that spray-dried potato juice remarkably
suppresses inflammatory response
in vitro
in activated macrophages and in the gastric mucosa of
experimentally induced gastric lesions in rats. In addition, the tested preparation was beneficial for
relieving the severity of gastric ulcers in rats. Hence, the potato juice, processed by spray-drying, appears
to be an attractive candidate for ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal
tract, including peptic ulcer disease and functional dyspepsia. Moreover, its implementation is feasible,
since the spray-dried formulation is suitable for the incorporation of potato juice into food products
and dietary supplements
Acknowledgments:
The work was financially supported by the grant POIG 01.01.02-00-061/09 “Bioactive food”
implemented within the EU Innovative Economy Operational Programme 2007–2013.
Author Contributions:
Małgorzata Kujawska performed the
in vivo
experiment, analysed and interpreted
the results of the
in vivo
experiment, as well as wrote the manuscript. Anna Olejnik performed the
in vitro
experiments, analysed and interpreted results of the
in vitro
experiments, and contributed in preparing the
manuscript. Gra˙
zyna Lewandowicz designed the technology of the potato juice preparation from potato and
contributed in the manuscript preparation. Przemysław Kowalczewski contributed to the potato juice preparation
and characterisation, as well as in the manuscript preparation. Renata Forjasz contributed to the
in vivo
study design. Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert designed and supervised the
in vivo
study, supervised the manuscript
preparation, and evaluated the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest:
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... The results of in vivo experiments with the use of spray-dried PJ obtained from industrial starch production deserve special attention. These have the ability of PJ to reduce inflammation in the digestive tract (Kujawska et al., 2018), thus enabling the development of a dietary support strategy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD manifests itself as a chronic inflammatory condition that often leads to malnutrition or anemia. ...
... An increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies indicated that PJ may have local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory potential of PJ was attributed to antioxidants (phenolic acids and carotenoids), proteins with protease inhibitor activity, peptides and glycoalkaloids (a-solanine and a-chaconine) (Kujawska et al., 2018) Potato glycoalkaloids in sub-toxic doses and glycoalkaloid-rich potato peel extract evoke anti-inflammatory effects in vitro (Kenny et al., 2013). GAs significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-8) and nitric oxide (NO) in stimulated human leukemia T lymphoblasts (Jurkat cells). ...
... As a result, PJ protected the intestinal barrier against inflammationinduced integrity disruption. Moreover, spray-dried PJ reduced the incidence of HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer formation and TNF-a expression in gastric mucosa in rats (Kujawska et al., 2018). Based on the promising results of this research, PJ has been recommended as an attractive candidate for attenuating inflammationrelated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Article
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), consumed daily by millions of people around the world, are one of the most important food crops. Potato juice (PJ) is a by-product of the starch production process and contains all the constituents of potato tubers except starch and fiber. A large volume of PJ is produced annually during the starch campaign. Currently, it can, at best, serve as a source of protein for animal nutrition. The proteins are isolated using an acidification and thermal treatment, and the remaining liquid fraction is generally considered a problematic waste. Literature reports indicate that PJ is a valuable raw material not only because of its high nutritional value but, above all, due to the biological activity that can facilitate the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tract diseases. Medicinal use of PJ in folk medicine dates back to the beginning of the 19th century when it was used to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions. Currently, the compounds responsible for this activity have been identified, and their mechanism of action is known. Additionally, many more compounds were found in potato which are responsible for invoking various health-benefiting effects. This manuscript provides an overview of the data published on the production of potatoes and the accompanying PJ. First, the chemical characteristics of the protein and non-protein fractions are described together with the conventional methods for the handling of this by-product. Second, novel technologies of PJ processing are presented with emphasis on the separation of protein and its hydrolysis, and various potential applications in food technology and biotechnology. Finally third, the medical potential of PJ is reviewed. This includes antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive activities of various constituents of the juice. The wide range of potential applications and a vast spectrum of beneficial properties make PJ a substance well worth the attention of researchers and industry.
... Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PJ subjected to thermal treatment was demonstrated in in vivo studies. In particular, Kujawska et al. [28] showed that spray-dried PJ could be used for ameliorating inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
... In our previous work, we showed that different preparations derived from PJ could be used for the manufacturing of functional foods (pasta, frankfurters, breads, or pâtés); however, the attractiveness of the products to consumers strongly depends on the form of protein in the foods [15][16][17]44]. Moreover, the method used for the isolation of the protein fraction from PJ also influenced the biological activity of the products [22,23,28]. The application of a membrane reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein fraction of PJ could result in a product with high nutritional value, attractive functional properties, and increased biological activity. ...
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The results of recently published studies indicate that potato juice is characterized by interesting biological activity that can be particularly useful in the case of gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, the studies also described the high nutritional value of its proteins. This article is a report on the impact of the enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins combined with membrane filtration. The obtained potato juice protein hydrolysate (PJPH) and its concentrate (cPJPH) were characterized in terms of their nutritional value and biological activity. The amino acid profile and scoring, the content of mineral compounds, and the antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic activity were assessed. The study proved that the antioxidant activity of PJPH is higher than that of fresh potato juice, and the cy-totoxicity against human gastric carcinoma cell line (Hs 746T), human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29), and human normal colon mucosa cell line (CCD 841 CoN) showed biological activity specifically targeted against cancer cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that the membrane filtration-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of potato juice proteins may increase their biological activity and allow for potato juice to be used in the production of medicinal preparations.
... Nitrates and nitrites are natural components of tubers that arise as a result of metabolic disturbances in plants or get to them from a polluted environment [Correia et al. 2010, Zarzecka et al. 2016, Kujawska et al. 2018. They are precursors of toxic N-nitroso compounds found in food, an example of which is 1,2-dimethylnitrosamine, which causes liver damage and induction of tumors [Kościańska andRodecka-Gustaw 2011, Brkić et al. 2017]. ...
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The research was based on a 3-year field experiment carried out in south-eastern Poland, in 2013‒2015, on brown, slightly acidic soil. The experiment was established by the randomized subblock method, where the first-order factors were foliar fertilization: (A) Fortis Duotop Zn Mn + Fortis Aminotop, (B) Fortis B Mo + Ferti Agro, (C) Fortis Zn Mn + Fortis B Mo and (0) standard object, without foliar fertilization. The factors of the second order were 4 edible potato cultivars (‘Viviana’, ‘Vineta’, ‘Jelly’ and ‘Agnes’). Foliar application of all fertilizer combinations contributed to the reduction of the content of nitrates and nitrites in potato tubers. However, the response of cultivars to foliar fertilization was varied. The medium late cultivar ‘Jelly’ was characterized by the lowest tendency to accumulate nitrates, while the early cultivar ‘Vineta’ was the highest. The highest content of both nitrates and nitrites in tubers was recorded in the dry year, with a significant shortage of rainfall during the potato growing season, and the lowest in the year, about wet June, and September.
... Bioactive soy peptides possess antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anticancer properties (De Mejia & De Lumen, 2006). Solanum tuberosum L., commonly known as potatoes, rich starch content and also possess nutritionally valuable compounds like proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers, and antioxidants; potato protein contents were similarly beneficial as egg and soy proteins (Kujawska et al., 2018;Valinas et al., 2015). Like soy peptides, potato protein hydrolysate (PPH) also possess pharmacological activity like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities (Kudoh et al., 2003). ...
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a serious clinical complication, which could cause significant liver dysfunction including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Obesity could lead to NAFLD and contributes to liver disorder and related complicated liver diseases. Effect of exercise combined with alcalase treatment derived potato protein hydrolysate (APPH) on high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced hepatic injury was investigated in senescence accelerated mouse‐prone 8 (SAMP8) mice in the present study. Mice were divided into six groups (n = 6): Group I‐Control, Group II‐HFD, Group III‐Exercise, Group IV‐HFD + APPH, Group V‐HFD + Exercise, and Group VI‐HFD + Exercise + APPH. Combined APPH treatment and exercise offer better cytoprotection in HFD‐induced histological changes than APPH treatment and exercise alone. Further, APPH and exercise activate the cell survival proteins PI3K/Akt and prevent FasL/FADD‐mediated apoptosis in HFD fed SAMP8 mouse. APPH with swimming exercise effectively modulate HFD‐induced liver damage and apoptosis in aged mice through activation of PI3K/Akt protein. Practical applications Exercise training is proven to reduce the health problems associated with aging and obesity, however, intensity and duration of the exercise differs between individuals. We used integrated pharmacological and nonpharmacological approach as a therapeutic strategy for preventing HFD‐induced hepatic injury in aged subjects.
... Medicinal plants are sometimes used by different ethnic groups as a natural source of substances used as a cure for diseases of both humans and domestic animals [1]. Some of the plant natural products can have various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiatherosclerotic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimutagenic and antiallergic activities [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts have many applications, including raw and processed food preservation, as pharmaceuticals, alternative medicines and natural therapies [13,14]. ...
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Phytopathogenic fungi have been responsible for considerable economic losses in vineyards, and therefore, more attention should be paid to the development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of ten essential oils (EOs) (viz. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Pinus mugo var. pumilio, Mentha piperita L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Pinus sylvestris L., Satureja hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L.). For the antifungal activity evaluation against Penicillium brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, P. oxalicum, P. polonicum and Talaromyces purpurogenus a disc diffusion method was used. The ten EOs exhibited different antifungal properties. Three tested EOs (Carum carvi L., Satureja hortensis L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) at concentrations of 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.125 µL/mL showed antifungal activity, inhibiting the mycelial growth. The Origanum vulgare L. EOs exhibited a lower level of inhibition. Overall, Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Pinus mugo var. pumilio, Mentha piperita L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Pinus sylvestris L., Satureja hortensis L., Pimpinella anisum L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were effective as fungicidal agents but their efficiency varied between the strains of fungi. Carum carvi L. showed strong antifungal activity against all tested strains at both full strength and reduced concentrations. These EOs could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating plant fungal diseases.
... However, the scientific research about its safety and effectiveness as a treatment substance began only in the twenty-first century. Kujawska et al. [12] reported the anti-inflammatory effect of PJ. Until now, PJ has not been used in human nutrition, mainly due to the content of antinutritional substancesglycoalkaloids (solanine and chaconine) [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the technological and antioxidant properties of potato juice (PJ) protein concentrate obtained by the novel ultrafiltration method. Commercial products, obtained from waste PJ by the traditional method of acid coagulation of proteins, were studied for comparison. Functional properties such as water or oil absorption, foaming capacity, and foam stability (FS) as well as solubility at various pH were assessed. Moreover, the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant activity, and mineral composition were determined. The results showed that PJ protein concentrate obtained by ultrafiltration has good oil absorption properties (6.30 mL/g), which is more than two times higher than the commercial proteins used in the comparison (P2 = 2.33 mL/g and P3 = 2.67 mL/g). Moreover, the ability to create and stabilize foam was also higher (FS ranging from 20.0% at pH = 10 to 11.3% at pH = 2 after 60 min of testing). It had higher content of macro- and microelements and antioxidant activity compared to other samples. Therefore, it is possible to obtain interesting potato protein concentrate from the waste product of the starch production process, which may be an interesting raw material for enriching food.
... Pretreatment of rats with OMP or QP, QG, QB, QF significantly inhibited the overexpression of these inflammatory parameters and attenuated inflammatory responses. e inhibitory activity of the different types of processed red quinoa seeds close to omeprazole efficacy can be referred to the gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids, phenolic acids [64,66,67], and carotenoids [72,73] released variably from the processed red seeds [8,9] via blocking the signaling pathway of TNF-α and inhibition of the inflammatory mediators involved (COX-2 and iNOS) [74]. ...
Article
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The current study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of different processing techniques on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity and the gastroprotective potential of Chenopodium quinoa red seeds in acute gastric injury induced by absolute ethanol in rats. Seven groups of female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to normal and absolute ethanol (absolute EtOH) groups, given distilled water, reference control omeprazole (OMP, 20 mg/kg), pressure-cooked quinoa seeds (QP, 200 mg/kg), first stage-germinated quinoa seeds (QG, 200 mg/kg), Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria-fermented quinoa seeds (QB, 200 mg/kg), and Rhizopus oligosporus fungus-fermented quinoa seeds (QF, 200 mg/kg). One hour after treatment, all groups were given absolute ethanol, except for the normal control rats. All animals were sacrificed after an additional hour, and the stomach tissues were examined for histopathology of hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Stomach homogenates were evaluated for oxidative stress parameters and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Gene expression was performed for gastric tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa of B cells (NF-kB). QB and QG recorded the highest DPPH scavengers compared to QF and QP. The gastroprotective potential of QB was comparable to that of OMP, followed by QF, then QG, and QP as confirmed by the histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression assessments. In conclusion, differently processed red quinoa seeds revealed variable antioxidant capacity and gastroprotective potential, while the bacterial fermented seeds (QB) showed the highest potential compared to the other processing techniques. These results might offer promising new therapy in the treatment of acute gastric injury.
... Plants are a source of many compounds not only nutritious (such as proteins starches or fats [1][2][3][4][5][6] or antimicrobial, among which essential oils play an important role. Plant essential oils (EOs) are a natural blend of various organic compounds that are characterized by a strong fragrance. ...
Article
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Essential oils can be used as preservatives in foods because of their ability to inhibit bacteria growth in low concentration, which does not influence on foods’ organoleptic properties and does not generate the resistance mechanisms in cells. The aim of that work was to compare the effectiveness of commercial oils from black pepper (Piper nigrum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and juniper (Juniperus communis L.) with oils obtained in our laboratory. The typical cultivation method was supported by the flow cytometry to detect the cells of very low physiologic and metabolic activity. Our investigation demonstrated that both types of oils can effectively inhibit the growth of saprophytic bacteria P. orientalis. The oils distilled in our laboratory had a bacteriostatic effect at a lower concentration, which is important for application in the food industry. Flow cytometry analyzes and confirmed the thesis that essential oils do not have a germicidal effect on bacteria cells.
... The main characteristic of the inflammatory cascade begins by potato is suggested to be attributable to the antioxidant content [23]. Human cohort studies proved the systemic anti-inflammatory effect of potato as measured by serum C-reactive protein, at a level that was inversely correlated with the serum concentration of certain potato antioxidants [24]. Potato proteins have high nutritional value, attributed to a high proportion of the essential amino acids such as lysine [15], threonine, and tryptophan, and relatively high proportions of sulfur-containing amino acids such as methionine and cysteine [18]. ...
Article
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Inflammation and oxidative stress are always more recognized as responsible for chronic disease at the intestinal level. Currently, a growing interest is addressed to the discovery of diet-derived products which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This work aims to characterize the pharmacological potential of dehydrated potatoes. For this purpose, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion was carried out. The bioaccessible peptides were fractionated on the basis of their molecular weight and tested on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) under oxidative and inflammatory conditions. Our results demonstrate that the tested peptide fractions were able to significantly inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α release and cycloxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The tested peptides also showed significant antioxidant activity, being able to both reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, also from mitochondria, and nitrotyrosine formation, and increase the antioxidant response by heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase expression. Moreover, the peptide fractions were able to significantly increase the wound repair in IEC-6. The obtained results indicate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of dehydrated potatoes at the intestinal level.
Article
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic and non-specific inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and mainly includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Aim: To explore the beneficial effect of ToxoROP16I/III-induced M2 phynotype macrophages in homeostasis of IBDs through downregulation of M1 inflammatory cells. Methods: RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (M1 cells) were co-cultured with Caco-2 cells as an inflammatory model of IBD in vitro. The expression of ToxoROP16I/III was observed in RAW264.7 macrophages that were transfected with pEGFP-rop16I/III. The phenotypes of M2 and M1 macrophage cells were assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase-1 (Arg-1) was detected. The expression of iNOS, Arg-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), p-Stat3, Stat6, p-Stat6, programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2), caspase-3, -8, and -9 was analyzed by Western blotting, and Griess assays were performed to detect nitric oxide (NO). TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1, and IL-10 expression in the supernatants was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Caco-2 cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry after mixing M1 cells with M2 cells in a Caco-2 cell co-culture system. Results: M1 cells exhibited significantly increased production of iNOS, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, while ToxoROP16I/III induced macrophage bias to M2 cells in vitro, showing increased expression of Arg-1, IL-10 and TGF-β1 and elevated production of p-Stat3 and p-Stat6. The mixed M1 and M2 cell culture induced by ToxoROP16I/III exhibited decreased production of NO and iNOS and upregulated expression of Arg-1 and PD-L2. Accordingly, Caco-2 cells became apoptotic, and apoptosis-associated proteins such as caspase-3, -8 and -9 were dampened during co-culture of M1 and M2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that co-culture of M1 cells with Caco-2 cells facilitated the apoptosis of Caco-2 cells, but co-culture of M1 and M2 cells alleviated Caco-2 cell apoptosis. Conclusion: ToxoROP16I/III-induced M2 macrophages inhibited apoptosis of Caco-2 cells caused by M1 macrophages. This finding may help gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanism and represent a promising therapeutic strategy for IBDs.
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Freshly squeezed potato juice was used in the traditional European folk medicine. Potato juice can be introduced into food products both in its fresh as well as in thermally preserved form as a component of functional food. An attempt was made to analyse the impact of potato juice supplementation on qualitative and quantitative parameters characterising water bonds in poultry meat batters and pâtés. On the basis of temperature studies of water activity changes and spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation times, the authors determined energy values of water transport in meat batters. It was found that supplementation with fresh potato juice limited significantly water transport. The performed analyses of temperature value changes of T2 spin–spin relaxation times revealed significant differences in the molecular dynamics of both water fractions in temperatures exceeding 50 °C. Measurement results of relaxation times in pâtés demonstrated that the amount of free water in relation to the amount of bound water in the examined systems depended on the addition of the probiotic factor and on the form in which it was added.
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis. Graphical Abstract: TNBS caused activation of T cells which interact with CD40 on antigen presenting cells i.e. dendritic cells (DC) that induce the key Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 T cell immune inflammatory response. It releases interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which in turn induces macrophages (MAC) to produce TNF-α and other pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6). This inflammatory influx resulted in induction of ulcerative colitis (UC). Administration of FA may inhibit this IFN-γ induced inflammatory cascade via a decrease in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines to ameliorate TNBS-induced colitis.
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Potatoes have shown promising health promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. Compounds present such as the phenolics, fiber, starch, and proteins as well the compounds considered antinutritional such as glycoalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect of potato consumption in weight management and diabetes while other studies demonstrate no effect, and a few studies suggest a negative effect. Because there are many biological activities attributed to the compounds present in potato, some of which could be beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, a long term study investigating the association between potato consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed.
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Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) ( Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF- κβ , TNF- α , and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.
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Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of potato extract (PE) on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: PE was first prepared by frozen centrifugation, and its amino acid composition was detected. Toxicity of PE was analyzed by changes in morphology, behavior, routine blood indexes, and biochemical criteria of mice. Then, the COPD rat model was established by CS exposure, and PE, doxofylline, and prednisolone acetate were used to treat these rats. After 45 days of treatment, the morphology and behavior of rats were recorded. In addition, the histopathology of lung tissue was evaluated by chest x-ray and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of interleukine-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was detected in serum and lung tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Various amino acids were identified in PE, and no toxicity was exhibited in mice. The CS-induced COPD rat model was successfully established, which exhibited significant thickened and disordered lung markings on 90% of the rats. After administering doxofylline and prednisolone acetate, inflammation symptoms were improved. However, side effects such as emaciation, weakness, and loosening of teeth appeared. In the PE group, obviously improved histopathology was observed in lung tissues. Meanwhile, it was revealed that PE could increase the expression of IL-10 and reduce the expression of TNF-α and G-CSF in COPD rats, and doxofylline and prednisolone acetate also elicited similar results. Conclusion: Our study suggests PE might be effective in the treatment of CS-induced COPD by inhibiting inflammation.
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myelope¬roxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis.
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The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease in 2014 and has created an English version. The revised guidelines consist of seven items: bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy, drug-induced ulcer, non-H. pylori, non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer, surgical treatment, and conservative therapy for perforation and stenosis. Ninety clinical questions (CQs) were developed, and a literature search was performed for the CQs using the Medline, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases between 1983 and June 2012. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Therapy is initially provided for ulcer complications. Perforation or stenosis is treated with surgery or conservatively. Ulcer bleeding is first treated by endoscopic hemostasis. If it fails, surgery or interventional radiology is chosen. Second, medical therapy is provided. In cases of NSAID-related ulcers, use of NSAIDs is stopped, and anti-ulcer therapy is provided. If NSAID use must continue, the ulcer is treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or prostaglandin analog. In cases with no NSAID use, H. pylori-positive patients receive eradication and anti-ulcer therapy. If first-line eradication therapy fails, second-line therapy is given. In cases of non-H. pylori, non-NSAID ulcers or H. pylori-positive patients with no indication for eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy is provided. The first choice is PPI therapy, and the second choice is histamine 2-receptor antagonist therapy. After initial therapy, maintenance therapy is provided to prevent ulcer relapse.
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In order to evaluate potential therapeutic properties of Sambucus nigra fruit extract, its anti-inflammatory effects were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Physiochemical changes in the extract composition, which occur following oral administration, were mimicked in an artificial alimentary tract, while transepithelial absorption was simulated using enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell monolayer, imitating intestinal barrier. The obtained results showed that gastrointestinal digested extract, transported across intestinal epithelium, down-regulated the expression of major genes of inflammatory pathway, such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2. Reduction of IL-6, TNF-α and prostaglandin E2 secretion was also observed as a result of LPS-stimulated macrophages' treatment. Moreover, enhanced nitric oxide production in response to inflammatory stimuli in RAW264.7 cells was controlled by the digested and intestinal permeable fraction of elderberry extract.
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Purpose of review: Structural causes are absent in more than 50% of patients with symptoms referred to the gastroduodenal region when routine diagnostic tests are applied. New knowledge holds the prospect that targeted therapy may more optimally manage subsets of these patients with functional dyspepsia. Recent findings: An understanding of gut-to-brain and brain-to-gut pathways in functional dyspepsia is expanding. Minimal mucosal inflammation with eosinophils (and in some cases mast cells) characterized by ultrastructural changes in the duodenum appears to be present in a substantial subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients as identified now by investigators globally. Although antibiotic therapy targeting Helicobacter pylori appears to be effective in a small proportion of functional dyspepsia patients, eradication therapy may be more effective in functional dyspepsia patients with microscopic duodenal inflammation, a potentially important finding needing to be confirmed. This may suggest that the effects of antibiotics for functional dyspepsia are not simply mediated by the eradication of gastric H. pylori, but have other antibacterial effects (e.g., on the duodenal microbiome). Abnormal visceral sensory function plays a key role not only in the manifestations of functional dyspepsia but also in peptic ulcer disease. Summary: The pathophysiologic concepts underlying functional dyspepsia and related treatment approaches are shifting from a focus on H. pylori, acid suppression or modulation of motility toward new models. New evidence suggests that minimal duodenal inflammation plays a role in symptom generation in at least a proportion of patients with otherwise unexplained symptoms. This is a paradigm shift and ultimately may change the treatment of many patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.