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Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations Past, Present and Future

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... The contingency theory of accommodation provides a refined view of the normative excellence theory. The symmetrical model in excellence theory specifies two different worldviews and advocates for dialogic approaches that generate symbiotic changes in the ideas, attitudes, and behaviors of both organizations and publics (Dozier, Grunig, & Grunig, 1995;Grunig, 2001). Within this framework, the symmetrical worldview is more valued than the asymmetrical worldview for conflict management, and cooperative tactics are highly prized (Huang, 2001;Plowman, 1998). ...
... 43). Grunig later abandoned that view, arguing forcefully for the primacy of the two-way symmetrical worldview and practice (Grunig, 1989(Grunig, , 2001Grunig, Grunig, & Dozier, 2006;Grunig et al., 2002). ...
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Inter-public conflict has largely been neglected in PR research. When left to fester, such conflict may perpetuate prejudice, injustice, inequality, and other societal ills. From a PR standpoint, organizations may find it increasingly difficult to operate in the resulting climate of hostility. This piece aims to shift focus from managing direct, organization-public conflict to navigating indirect, inter-public conflict, thus broadening conflict management perspectives. Based on contingency and social identity theories, we test the dual orientation conflict model (DOCM) in the field of government public relations. The model posits two dimensions (embracing/excluding and in-group/out-group) and categorizes four types of conflict orientation (adaptation, in-group adoption, out-group adoption, and avoidance). The proposed four-factor model, comprised of 16 items, was found to be reliable and valid in an online survey of 2498 South Korean citizens across different conflictual problems. Theoretical and strategic implications are discussed.
... This paradigm does not exclude traditional PR activities such as media relations and the dissemination of information. Instead, it broadens the number and types of media and communication activities and fits them into a symmetrical framework of research and listening (Grunig & Grunig, 2001). ...
... Results further revealed that active listening, honesty and transparency were critical in preserving relationships with sister cities. Grunig and Grunig (2001) argued that these are characteristics of excellent communication practice. IR professionals stated that using tact and diplomacy appropriately can lead to improved relationships and are a way to build and develop mutual respect, which in turn leads to more successful outcomes. ...
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Approximately 70% of the world's cities are engaged in international cooperation and a global phenomenon-paradiplomacy. Since 1994, in South Africa, metropolitan municipalities have increasingly engaged in paradiplomatic activities. The cooperative relationships, managed by municipal International Relations (IR) practitioners, are initiated primarily to harness the opportunities Journal of African Foreign Affairs (JoAFA) ISSN 2056-5658 (Online) ISSN 2056-564X (Print) Indexed by: IBSS, JSTOR, EBSCO, ProQuest, J-Gate and Sabinet Volume 9, Number 1, April 2022 pp 31-52 The Role of Strategic Communication in … 32 of globalisation and economic interdependence and the interest of socio-economic development. Therefore, IR practitioners' role has become increasingly important as they can enhance the global profile and frame the international image of cities through relationship building and information sharing. This study offers an analysis of communication strategies used by IR practitioners in a selected South African municipality to build and maintain relationships with international sister cities. The researchers adopted a qualitative research methodology. The study's findings show that strategic communication is fundamental to paradiplomatic activity in South Africa and establish that municipal IR professionals use a combination of both one way and two-way symmetrical communication to sustain international relationships.
... According to Taghian, D'Souza and Polonsky (2015), CSR is a voluntary action an organisation takes and communicates to its stakeholders to benefit social and environmental causes. Grunig (2001) states that CSR, often referred to as a corporate social investment, reflects excellent public relations. Golob and Bartlett (2007) posit that organisations adopt CSR to be perceived as socially responsible and gain investor and other stakeholder support. ...
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This text is part of a broader project that seeks to examine the field of Public Relations from the systematic study of scientific production published in the main academic journal of the specialty: Public Relations Review (ISSN 0363–8111). From an analysis of the content of all the papers (n = 1037) published in this journal during 15 years, between 2000 and 2014, the authors, topics, universities, professional networks, countries, objectives, questions, hypotheses, methodologies, techniques, theories and type of applied research have been examined. The main authors, universities and countries with the highest productivity are identified, as well as the dominant topics in the field and their evolution over time, among others important issues, in order to contribute to an overview of the past, present and future of public relations research from what was addressed in the journal during the first fifteen years of the XXI century. It concludes with suggestions for future research.
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