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Abstract and Figures

Learning disabilities (LD) are problem that influence the brain capacity to receive, process, analyse and store information. These processing issues can interfere with learning fundamental abilities, for example, reading (Dyslexia), writing (Dysgraphia) and math (Dyscalculia). Fortunately, in today's world technology, we have numerous option techniques for educating and supporting fundamental skills in reading, writing and math such as mobile learning by using mobile app. However, the research in mobile app design model for Dyscalculia children is still scarce: very few studies have focus on how to design and develop appropriate mobile app for Dyscalculia children from the perspective of mobile app designers and developers. The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate components that should be included in the mobile app model. Interview sessions were conducted with Dyscalculia practitioners that involved a teacher, paediatric and an educational psychology. This has resulted in identifying 16 components that can be included in the mobile app design model.
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* Corresponding author: fiqazureen@gmail.com
Towards the Development of Mobile App Design Model for
Dyscalculia Children in Malaysia
Fiqa Azureen Abd Halim1,*, Mazeyanti Mohd Ariffin2, & Savita K. Sugathan3
1, 2, 3 Computer & Information Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia
Abstract. Learning disabilities (LD) are problem that influence the brain capacity to receive, process,
analyse and store information. These processing issues can interfere with learning fundamental abilities, for
example, reading (Dyslexia), writing (Dysgraphia) and math (Dyscalculia). Fortunately, in today's world
technology, we have numerous option techniques for educating and supporting fundamental skills in
reading, writing and math such as mobile learning by using mobile app. However, the research in mobile
app design model for Dyscalculia children is still scarce: very few studies have focus on how to design and
develop appropriate mobile app for Dyscalculia children from the perspective of mobile app designers and
developers. The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate components that should be included in
the mobile app model. Interview sessions were conducted with Dyscalculia practitioners that involved a
teacher, paediatric and an educational psychology. This has resulted in identifying 17 components that can
be included in the mobile app design model.
1 Introduction
According to Malaysian Ministry of Education (2016),
29 810 primary school children are known to enrol in
special education integration program including learning
disability (LD). In Malaysia, LD is included Dyslexia,
Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia (Malaysian Social Welfare
Department, 2016). LD is neurologically-based
processing issues (Butterworth, 2013). These processing
issues can meddle with learning essential aptitudes, for
example, reading, writing and math. LD is a wide term
depicting various others, more particular learning
disability such as Dyslexia which refers to difficulty in
reading, Dysgraphia refers to difficulty in writing and
Dyscalculia refers to difficulty in math.
Nowadays, a lot of technologies have been developed
and some of them can help the children with LD such as
mobile app. According to Skiada, Soroniati, Gardeli, &
Zissis, (2014), the advantages of utilizing mobile
learning are to create interactive encounters and
idealistic learning surroundings that can motivate and
help children, along these lines offering them some
assistance with addressing their disabilities in early age
and potentially alleviate its negative impacts
differences. However, the research on the mobile app
design model is still limited (Ok, Kim, Kang, & Bryant,
2016). Thus, the mobile app designer and developer is
lacking of guidance on how to design appropriate mobile
app for LD children (Draper Rodriguez, Strnadova, &
Cumming, 2014). Hence, the objective of this research is
to identify the potential components that can be included
in the mobile app design model called Calculic Model.
As mentioned before, the designers and developers of
mobile app are lacking of guidance to design and
develop the effective mobile app particularly for
teaching and learning for LD children (Draper Rodriguez
et al., 2014). As a result, most of the mobile app for LD
children are poorly designed (Papadakis, Kalogiannakis,
& Zaranis, 2017). To address this issue, the purpose of
this study is to develop a Calculic Model that can guide
mobile app designers and developers in designing and
developing mobile app for Dyscalculia children. In order
to design and develop an effective mobile app for LD
children, the developer and designer of mobile app
should follow the model and guideline from the
researchers and teachers (Cumming, Strnadov, & Singh,
2014). Hence, the interview session with Dyscalculia
practitioners have been conducted to identify the
appropriate components in Calculic Model for
Dyscalculia children in teaching and learning.
2 Literature Review
2.1 Learning Disability
Dyslexia is a type of LD particularly in reading.
According to Nayton, Hettrich, Samar, & Wilkinson
(2017), Dyslexia alludes to a group of symptoms’, which
result in individuals experiencing issues with particular
language abilities, especially reading. Children with
Dyslexia usually encounter troubles with other language
aptitudes, for example, spelling, writing, and professing
words. British Dyslexia Association claims that Dyslexia
Abstract. Learning disabilities (LD) are problem that influence the brain capacity to receive, process,
analyse and store information. These processing issues can interfere with learning fundamental abilities,
for example, reading (Dyslexia), writing (Dysgraphia) and math (Dyscalculia). Fortunately, in today's
world technology, we have numerous option techniques for educating and supporting fundamental skills
in reading, writing and math such as mobile learning by using mobile app. However, the research in
mobile app design model for Dyscalculia children is still scarce: very few studies have focus on how to
design and develop appropriate mobile app for Dyscalculia children from the perspective of mobile app
designers and developers. The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate components that should
be included in the mobile app model. Interview sessions were conducted with Dyscalculia practitioners
that involved a teacher, paediatric and an educational psychology. This has resulted in identifying 16
components that can be included in the mobile app design model.
MATEC Web of Conferences 150, 05016 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005016
MUCET 2017
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
frequently happens in association with the other
formative disorder, such as Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia.
According to Drigas, Pappas, & Lytras (2016),
children with Dyscalculia often have difficulties in
number processing and basic math operation such as
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Dysgraphia is a learning disability that related to writing
difficulties. Dysgraphia was initially incorporated into
the depiction of Dyslexia however is presently separated
as a component inside the wide range of writing issue,
alluding particularly to spelling, and indecipherable
handwriting (Fletcher-Flinn, 2016).
Cortiella & Horowitz (2014) estimated that 2.4
million of American public schools’ students were
identified with LD. 66% of students identified with LD
are male. Meanwhile, the percentage of female students
with LD is about 51% (Cortiella & Horowitz, 2014). The
male students are more likely to be diagnosed with the
LD as compared to the female students.
2.2 Dyscalculia
Dyscalculia is induced at first as a persevering trouble in
the learning or comprehension of number such as
knowing fundamental number names, segregating the
bigger or smaller number, counting number sequence,
and troubles in basic math operation (Plerou, 2014).
Research by Renwick (2014) found that possible
indicators of Dyscalculia are numeric issues, spatial
issues, memory issues and measure issue. Table 1 shows
the early signs of Dyscalculia by Plerou (2014).
Table 1. Signs of Dyscalculia.
Signs of Dyscalculia
Difficulties in basic number
counting
Unable to memorize the
number sequence
Difficulties in determine
which objects are bigger or
smaller
Difficulties in objects
counting
Difficulties in connecting the
number concept to the
symbolic form (example: 5 =
five)
Difficulties in number
comparison which numbers
are bigger or smaller
Poor in sense direction such
as right or left.
Difficulties in clock reading.
According to Morin (2014) the children with
Dyscalculia show different signs at different age and
Dyscalculia tend to be more visible as children get older.
However, it can be recognized as early as preschool.
Dyscalculia can be detected at an early age by
difficulties noticed in calculating the quantity of objects,
in counting and in the recognition of the mathematical
operations symbol (Plerou, 2014). British Dyslexia
Association claims that Dyscalculia frequently happens
in association with the other formative disorder, such as
Dyslexia and Dysgraphia.
2.3 Mobile Learning & Dyscalculia
Mobile learning might be favoured by children, as it can
possibly provide an extensive variety of function and
segments which offer an exceptionally intelligent
learning background. (Skiada et al.,2014). Dyscalculia
children should utilize the mobile learning to make
learning easier and easy to adapt this method of learning
(Mulligan, 2012). Mobile apps have potential in
education due to the graphic and sound that can help
them to stimulate their brain to learn math effectively
and grab the concept quickly (Nagavalli & Juliet, 2015).
A study conducted by Mohd Ariffin, Abd Halim &
Abd Aziz (2017) reported that learning through mobile
app show positive improvement for Dyscalculia children
in math learning.
2.4 Initial Calculic Model
A study conducted by Abd Halim, K. Sugathan & Mohd
Ariffin (in press), illustrated the initial Calculic Model
that comes from the literature review. They have
extended the components in the instructional factor by
adding one new component which is language. Vukovic
& Lesaux (2013) supported that language has a
relationship in learning and teaching Maths and language
also relate to Dyscalculia children mathematical
performance. Language is important for the development
of mathematical proficiency (Vukovic & Lesaux, 2013).
Figure 1 shows initial Calculic Model.
The initial Calculic model has three 3 factors
which are instructional factor, personal factor and
environment factor. There are 8 components under the
instructional strategic factor which are ‘objective’,
‘strategy’, ‘example’, ‘practice’, ‘error correction and
feedback’, ‘error analysis’, ‘progress monitoring’, and
‘language’. Meanwhile, there are 9 components that fall
in personal factor which are ‘motivation’, ‘navigation’,
‘font’, ‘color’, ‘layout’, ‘image’, ‘video’, ‘sound’ and
Instruction
al Factors
Environme
nt Factors
Personal
Factors
Initial
Calculic
Model
-Motivation
-Navigation
-Font
-Colour
-Layout
-Image
-Video
-Sound
-Speech
-Objective
-Example
-Practice
-Error correction
& feedback
-Error Analysis
-Progress
monitoring
-Strategy
-Language
settings
-Content error
& bias
Figure 1. Initial Calculic Model.
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‘speech’. There are 2 components under the environment
factor which are ‘customized settings’ and ‘content error
and bias’.
Besides that, the presentation style is very
important because inappropriate presentation layout can
be confusing particularly when the text is written too
close (Chinn & Ashcroft, 2017). According to Chinn &
Ashcroft (2017), most of the mobile apps use a crowded
layout and it is very difficult for Dyscalculia children to
read the information in the correct order. Thus, this kind
of presentation can distract Dyscalculia children. Drigas
& Kokkalia (2016); Weng & Taber-Doughty (2015),
proposed to use clear, simple and consistent layout
design so that Dyscalculia children can navigate the app
easier. The layout design should avoid cramping
material, use short text and numbering or bullet point
(Aziz, Husni & Jamaludin, 2013). Hence, Calculic
Model have included the layout component to support
learning for Dyscalculia children.
3. Methodology
As a preliminary study, an interview session was
conducted with Dyscalculia practitioners that involved a
teacher, paediatrician and educational psychology in
order to support the components that come from
literature review. The interview session was aimed to
review the initial Calculic model that come from
literature review. The interview session was conducted
to gather information about Dyscalculia children, the
appropriate method to teach them, and how to design an
effective mobile app for Dyscalculia children.
3.1 Participants
Three Dyscalculia practitioners were recruited. The
number of Dyscalculia practitioner in Malaysia is very
limited. All the participants have more than 5 years’ of
experiences in handling Dyscalculia children. The details
of the participants are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Details of Participants.
Participant
ID
Profession
Years of
Experience
P1
Educational
psychology
17 years
P2
Pediatrician
15 years
P3
Teacher
7 years
Hence, the role of P1 is to assess the difficulty of
Dyscalculia children in learning and suggested the
methods or strategies that can help Dyscalculia children
in learning based on their cognitive style and
behavioural. The main role of P2 is to do physical
examinations to the children and diagnose the children
with Dyscalculia. Thus, the main role of P3 is to teach
Dyscalculia children particularly in maths. All the
participants have different role in their profession.
3.2 Instruments
The author conducted face to face semi structured
interview with P2 and P3. Meanwhile, the interview
session with P1 was conducted via telephone. Each
interview took between 45 minutes to 80 minutes.
Participants were asked about: (1) their experience in
handling Dyscalculia children; (2) to describe how they
teach the Dyscalculia children and (3) what components
or features that suitable for Dyscalculia children in
learning. The main questions in the interview guide
comprise:
1. How was your experience in handling Dyscalculia
children?
2. How to teach Dyscalculia children in math learning?
3. What are the potential components that should have
if you want to design mobile app for Dyscalculia
children for math learning?
All of the components were probed with more
specific questions and in depth discussion during
interviews to understand which components are
important for Dyscalculia children during learning
through mobile app and how to design for each
component.
3.3 Data Analysis
The data from the interview session were transcribed
verbatim with consent. The data were analyzed to find
which components are most important and which
components are least important.
4 Results & Discussion
Dyscalculia children are different from normal children.
As mentioned earlier, they have troubles in
understanding numerical concept. Thus, they have
different style of learning and it is crucial to identify the
appropriate teaching strategy for Dyscalculia children.
4.1 Participants Perspective on Dyscalculia
Based on the interview session with Dyscalculia
practitioners that involved educational psychology,
paediatrician and a teacher, they found out that
Dyscalculia children are special need children that have
different learning style compared to the normal children.
From the interview session, all the participants talked
about multisensory approach. They agreed that
multisensory approach is one of the teaching strategies
for Dyscalculia children. The multisensory learning
involved auditory, visual, tactile and kinaesthetic. The
multisensory learning strategy can be applied in mobile
app. Moreover, the multisensory approach is proven to
be an effective teaching approach for Dyscalculia
children (Duijzer, Shayan, Bakker, Van der Schaaf, &
Abrahamson, 2017).
Based on the interview, Dyscalculia children can be
cured if the teaching strategy is suitable for them in math
learning. According to P3, the teaching material should
be appropriate for Dyscalculia children because they
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require an appropriate learning material that can
empower their motivation in learning. For example, the
use of graphics and sounds in the mobile app can
motivate them in math learning.
According to P1, the cognition style and the
behavioural of Dyscalculia children are the important
aspects that need to be identified before developing any
learning material or tools. Usually the Dyscalculia
children have major difficulties in memory and
numerical processing.
According to P2, parents should be aware of the signs
shown by their children at the early age because LD can
be diagnosed as early as 6 years old. However, in
Malaysia, most of the children are diagnosed at 7 years
old. Hence, the intervention steps at the early age are
crucial because the intervention is likely to be more
effective.
4.2 Analysis of the Interview
From the interview session, preliminary analyses were
performed to the collected data. Table 3 shows the
analysis of the interview.
Table 3. Analysis from Interview
No
Components
P1
P2
P3
1
Motivation
/
x
/
2
Navigation
/
/
/
3
Font
/
/
/
4
Colour
/
/
/
5
Layout
/
/
/
6
Images
/
/
/
7
Video
/
/
/
8
Sound
/
/
/
9
Speech
/
/
/
10
Objective
/
/
/
11
Examples
/
/
/
12
Practice
/
/
/
13
Error correction &
feedback
/
/
/
14
Error analysis
/
x
x
15
Progress monitoring
/
/
/
16
Strategy
x
x
x
17
Language
/
/
/
18
Customized setting
x
/
x
19
Content error & bias
/
/
/
Based on the initial analysis shown in Table 3, there
are 3 components that need to be eliminated from the
proposed model which are ‘error analysis’, ‘strategy’ and
‘customized setting’. The components were eliminated
based on the majority from the participants.
4.2.1 Error Analysis
Two participants (P2 and P3), both agreed that ‘error
analysis’ is not necessary to include in the model.
P2 said:
“It is not necessary to include error analysis in the
mobile app. I think it is not important to keep record of
the children error because this will make them
demotivated”
Meanwhile, P3 said:
“It is not necessary because if they get incorrect answer
they can repeat the same question until they get correct
answer. They can do the same question in order to make
them more understand”
4.2.2 Strategy
All the participants gave opinion that ‘strategy’
component can be eliminated from the initial Calculic
Model. P1 said:
“The strategy can be used in examples such as show step
by step example, break down small part, show step by
step”
P2 said:
“Not necessary to include strategy because mobile app
should know the appropriate strategy to be used to teach
them. I think you can use a multisensory strategy in
example and practice”
Meanwhile P3 said:
“The strategy should be include in the practice
component such as give them hint for correct answer”
4.2.3 Customized Settings
Two participants (P1 and P3), gave opinion that
‘customized setting’ component is not necessary to
include in the model. P1 said:
“It is not necessary. The target user is Dyscalculia
children so just design specific to them”
Meanwhile P3 said:
“It is not necessary because the design of mobile app
should be appropriate so that they can learn effectively
without need to change anything”
4.3 Proposed Calculic Model
The Figure 2 shows the proposed Calculic Model after
the elimination of 3 components.
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MATEC Web of Conferences 150, 05016 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005016
MUCET 2017
Three components have been eliminated from the initial
Calculic model. The proposed Calculic model has three
3 factors which are instructional factor, personal factor
and environment factor. There are 6 components under
the instructional strategic factor which are ‘objective’,
‘example’, ‘practice’, ‘error correction and feedback’,
‘progress monitoring’, and ‘language’. Meanwhile, there
are 9 components that fall under personal factor which
are ‘motivation’, ‘navigation’, ‘font’, ‘color’, ‘layout’,
‘image’, ‘video’, ‘sound and ‘speech’. There are 1
components under the environment factor which is
content error and bias’.
Based on Figure 2, there are 16 components that are
important for Dyscalculia children in learning. For
example, ‘font’ component in personal factor is
important because the font can influent their reading
performance and word understanding (Rello & Baeza-
Yates, 2013). Moreover, from the interview session, all
the participants agreed that the font component is
important. P1 said:
“The font is important and the font chosen should be
suitable with Dyscalculia children and also readable”
While P2 said:
“The font is important component that should be include
in the mobile app. I think the suitable font is Arial type
font”
P3 said:
“The font is very important components that mobile app
should include because the font can affect their reading.
The suitable font should be non-serif font”
Moreover, Rello & Baeza-Yates (2013), reported
that the san serif font and roman style lead to better
readability to LD children. Research by Brittany & Ross,
(2015), supported that the san serif category font is
suitable for Dyscalculia children because the font is
readable for Dyscalculia children. Thus, this research
aimed to include font as one of the components to
support learning for Dyscalculia children.
Besides, the ‘practice’ component in instructional
factor is also important. Thus, practice should provide
clear and consistent guidance for Dyscalculia children
because they need sufficient practice to enhance deeper
learning (OK & Bryant, 2015). From the interview
session, all the participants agreed that practice is
important that should be included in the model. P1 said:
“Practice is important in learning process. Practice
should have a level of difficulty”
P2 said:
“The practice should be include in the mobile app so
that they can try the practice after they have learn
through example”
Meanwhile P3 said:
“The practice is important because it is the part of
learning process. Provide them a guidance in doing the
practice”
In addition, a study conducted by Mohd Ariffin,
Abd Halim & Abd Aziz (2017) reported that guidance
elements such as providing hint through font colour in
the practice can encourage them to choose the correct
answer. Hence, this research aimed to include ‘practice’
as one of the components to support learning for
Dyscalculia children.
Next is the ‘content error and bias’ component in
environment factor. According to Bryant, Bryant, &
Pfannenstiel (2015) leaning material is prohibited for
content error because incorrect example or misstated
formula can lead to confusion. The effective content of
mobile app for Dyscalculia children is free from error,
up-to-date and free from bias (Ok, Kim, et al., 2016).
From the interview session, P1 said:
“Any learning material should free from bias and error.
That’s the good feature of any learning material”
P2 said:
“Content in the mobile app should be free from error
and bias because they need an appropriate learning
material in learning”
Meanwhile, P3 said:
“It is important that the mobile app should be free from
error and bias to avoid the confusion”
The effective content of mobile app for Dyscalculia
children is free from error, up-to-date and free from bias
(Ok, Kim, et al., 2016). Thus, this research aimed to
include content error and bias as one of the components
to support learning for Dyscalculia children.
5. Conclusion & Future Work
This paper presented the development of the mobile app
design model called Calculic Model. As mentioned
earlier, the Calculic Model is for mobile app designers
and developers to design and develop an appropriate
Instructio
nal
Factors
Environm
ent
Factors
Personal
Factors
Proposed
Calculic
Model
-Motivation
-Navigation
-Font
-Color
-Layout
-Image
-Video
-Sound
-Speech
-Objective
-Example
-Practice
-Error
correction &
feedback
-Progress
monitoring
-Language
-
Content error
& bias
Figure 2. Proposed Calculic Model
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MATEC Web of Conferences 150, 05016 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005016
MUCET 2017
mobile app for Dyscalculia children in Malaysia. An
interview session was conducted with Dyscalculia
practitioners that involved a teacher, paediatrician and an
educational psychology to review the components of
initial Calculic Model. Initially there are 19 components
in Calculic Model. As a result, there were 16
components included in the proposed Calculic Model.
Hence, 3 components were eliminated which are ‘error
analysis’, ‘strategy’ and ‘customized setting’. For the
future work, the proposed Calculic Model will be
verified by mobile app designers and developers.
This research work is currently undertaken by Fiqa Azureen
Abd Halim, Msc student in Information Technology at
Universiti Teknologi Petronas.
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6
MATEC Web of Conferences 150, 05016 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005016
MUCET 2017
... (Nagavalli & Juliet, 2015), reported that assistive technology such as mobile apps can be utilized to help Dyscalculic children perform in classroom and empower them to independently learn. Moreover, research by (Azureen, Halim, Ariffin, & Sugathan, 2018), reported that Dyscalculic children show positive improvement when they learn through mobile app. (Butterworth, Varma, & Laurillard, 2011). ...
... Hence, the cognitive of Dyscalculic children are connected to the personal factor of proposed Calculic Model. (Azureen et al., 2018) proposed a model for the developers to use it as a guideline in developing the apps and for the designers to design the app that will accommodate the Dyscalculic children. ...
... ‗Narration' is the last feature in Personal factor. Recent studies found that narration in mobile app could lead to better learning effect and experiences (Azureen et al., 2018;Weng & Taber-Doughty, 2015). According to, the pace for speech should be in slow pace so that the Dyscalculic children can understand. ...
Chapter
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Kanban System is nothing new and has been around since the 1980‘s, first introduced to the world by Taichi Ohno, who is credited as the father of the Toyota Production System (Schonberger, 2007). A Kanban system is an information system that assists the company in producing the right product, in the right quantity and at the time it is actually required (Monden, 1981). This article focuses on one part on the Toyota Production System, namely management of suppliers using the Supplier Kanban System. This framework was developed over a period of three years from 2012 to 2014 using the action research approach consisting of core action research project and thesis action research project as proposed by Chad Perry and Ortun Zuber Skeriit (Perry & Zuber-Skerritt, 1992). The study was conducted in APM AutoelectricsSdn. Bhd‘s (APMAE) warehouse as the unit of analysis (Kock, 2004). The objective of the core action research was to reduce the inventory stored in the warehouse and that of the thesis action research was to develop a framework for the implementation of the Supplier Kanban System. The framework was developed through learning cycles and reflected during the implementation of the SKS in APMAE.
... Ngoài ra, bài tổng quan này có sự hạn chế ở chỗ chưa bao gồm những nghiên cứu đánh giá sự hiệu quả của các chương trình game điện tử trên nền tảng ứng dụng điện thoại. eo Abd Halim et al. (2018), ứng dụng game mang tính can thiệp cho trẻ có RLTT trên điện thoại thông minh hoặc máy tính bảng là một hướng phát triển có tiềm năng lớn, bởi điện thoại và máy tính bảng là những thiết bị di động và có thể dễ dàng được sử dụng trong hoặc sau giờ học. Gần đây, đã có một số nghiên cứu phát triển và đánh giá sự hiệu quả của các ứng dụng game trên thiết bị di động dành cho trẻ có RLTT (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
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Rối loạn tính toán (RLTT) là một rối loạn chuyên biệt học tập khiến cho trẻ gặp khó khăn đáng kể với toán học theo nhiều cách khác nhau, bao gồm cảm giác về số, đếm, làm tính và ước lượng. Những khiếm khuyết này ảnh hưởng trực tiếp đến thành tích học tập, cơ hội nghề nghiệp và chất lượng cuộc sống của trẻ. Một số nghiên cứu thực nghiệm đã cho thấy kết quả khả quan rằng trò chơi (game) trên máy tính có thể được sử dụng với mục đích giáo dục để giúp trẻ có RLTT luyện tập, thúc đẩy và khắc phục một số kỹ năng số học trọng yếu. Do đó, bài viết này có mục đích tổng quan những chứng cứ hiện có đối với việc sử dụng game máy tính để cải thiện các khả năng liên quan đến toán và số học cho trẻ có RLTT. Sau đó, bài viết sẽ bàn luận và đưa ra một số khuyến nghị cho việc thiết kế và kiểm chứng tác động của game tại Việt Nam.
... The need of proper model / framework is needed to guide developers/ designer in building a usable mobile application towards the user. Unfortunately there is less study that proposes a model in guiding the developer in designing any such mobile application for special children since the focus, component Figure 1 shows the improvised Calculic Model [3]. Hence this study attempts in verifying the usability and the effectiveness of the Calculic model in developing the MathFun mobile app for the dyscalculia children. ...
Article
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Learning disability can vary from dyslexia (reading), dyscalculia (math) and dysgraphia (writing) where it focuses on certain learning disability that is being faced by the children. Dyscalculia is one of the common learning disabilities where in this category children are lack in ability of studying the math. However, with the enhancement of technologies, variety of application can be created in aiding the children learning process such as mobile learning by using mobile app. This paper focuses on examining the design model (Calculic Model) in designing a mobile app for Dyscalculia children. MathFun is a mobile app created by the mobile app developer while following the Calculic Model approach for Malaysia Dyscalculia children. The outcomes of this paper view on the effectiveness of the model towards building a mobile application for these children. Usability was performed in order to assess the usability and verifying the effectiveness of MathFun. This study involved 3 teachers and three children. Descriptive analysis was performed from the collected data. Based on the outcome, it’s shows that by using the suggested model there is an increased in the acceptance and usability of the application by the children.
Article
Full-text available
Learning disability can vary from dyslexia (reading), dyscalculia (math) and dysgraphia (writing) where it focuses on certain learning disability that is being faced by the children. Dyscalculia is one of the common learning disabilities where in this category children are lack in ability of studying the math. However, with the enhancement of technologies, variety of application can be created in aiding the children learning process such as mobile learning by using mobile app. This paper focuses on the findings from the result of the MathFun app on the effectiveness towards enhancing the learning process for the learning disability children. MathFun is a mobile app created by following the Calculic Model approach for Malaysia Dyscalculia children. Usability was performed in order to assess the usability and verifying the effectiveness of MathFun. This study involved 3 teachers and three children. Descriptive analysis was performed from the collected data. Based on the outcome, it’s shows that the MathFun app able to help and improve the learning and has the potential to be use in the classrooms.
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Mathematics is the universal language, and also known as the Queen of science. At the basic level, it deals with the concept of numbers, sequence, functions, geometric shapes, place values and comparing quantities. These basic concepts are crucial for our daily living. This concept has to be built at the primary level of schooling. But, unfortunately, children with Developmental Dyscalculia who constitute around 3-6% face difficulty in the acquisition of basic primary level arithmetic skills. These children have difficulty learning and recalling basic number facts, poor understanding of the signs, trouble with understanding place value, sequencing, comprehending math language and phrases. The purpose of this present study was to analyze the efficacy of virtual manipulatives in enhancing basic arithmetic among primary school students with Dyscalculia. In the present study, the researcher explores the efficacy of virtual manipulative in enhancing Basic Arithmetic of children with developmental Dyscalculia. The current investigation was carried out with 32 students with symptoms of Dyscalculia in a rural district of Tamilnadu. The purposive sampling design was adopted. Virtual manipulatives involving various learning modalities was designed based on the diagnostic test. The intervention was given for two months. The findings of the study showed that virtual manipulatives enhance the basic arithmetic skill of children with Dyscalculia and also enhance their motivation to learn Mathematics. Introduction "I hear, and I forget. I see, and I remember. I do, and I understand."-Confucius 551-479 BC.
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Learning disabilities (LD) is a term that describes specific kinds of learning problem. LD affects how the people understand, remember and respond to information. The most common LD are including Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia. Dyslexia is difficulties in reading, Dyscalculia refer to difficulties in math and Dysgraphia is difficulties in writing. Nowadays, mobile learning is widely used in special educational practice. Hence, Dyscalculia children should utilize the mobile or tablet devices as supportive learning tools to support their learning. However, currently there are inadequate studies on mobile app design model for mobile app designers and developers in designing and developing mobile app for Dyscalculia children. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop mobile app design model called Calculic Model that includes 3 factors which are personal, instructional and environment. The purpose of this paper is to report on the features under personal factor that relates to the cognitive of Dyscalculia children. The interview sessions were conducted with Dyscalculia practitioners involving teachers, pediatric and educational psychology. This has resulted in identifying the features of each component under the personal factor. Later the development of the Calculic Model will be based on the components and features that have been identified through interview session.
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Proportional reasoning is important and yet difficult for many students, who often use additive strategies, where multiplicative strategies are better suited. In our research we explore the potential of an interactive touchscreen tablet application to promote proportional reasoning by creating conditions that steer students toward multiplicative strategies. The design of this application (Mathematical Imagery Trainer) was inspired by arguments from embodied-cognition theory that mathematical understanding is grounded in sensorimotor schemes. This study draws on a corpus of previously treated data of 9–11 year-old students, who participated individually in semi-structured clinical interviews, in which they solved a manipulation task that required moving two vertical bars at a constant ratio of heights (1:2). Qualitative analyses revealed the frequent emergence of visual attention to the screen location halfway along the bar that was twice as high as the short bar. The hypothesis arose that students used so-called " attentional anchors " (AAs)—psychological constructions of new perceptual structures in the environment that people invent spontaneously as their heuristic means of guiding effective manual actions for managing an otherwise overwhelming task, in this case keeping vertical bars at the same proportion while moving them. We assumed that students' AAs on the mathematically relevant points were crucial in progressing from additive to multiplicative strategies. Here we seek farther to promote this line of research by reanalyzing data from 38 students (aged 9–11). We ask: (1) What quantitative evidence is there for the emergence of AAs?; and (2) How does the transition from additive to multiplicative reasoning take place when solving embodied proportions tasks in interaction with the touchscreen tablet app? We found that: (a) AAs appeared for all students; (b) the AA-types were few across the students; (c) the AAs were mathematically relevant (top of the bars and halfway along the tall bar); (d) interacting with the tablet was crucial for the AAs' emergence; and (e) the vast majority of students progressed from additive to multiplicative strategies (as corroborated with oral utterances). We conclude that touchscreen applications have the potential to create interaction conditions for coordinating action and perception into mathematical cognition.
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International studies indicate that the use of smart mobile devices and their accompanying educational applications (apps) can revolutionize young children’s learning experiences. Although there is a vast array of educational apps for preschoolers, they are not actually educational in their majority. In this context, it is important for preschool teachers to be able to assess each app for its effectiveness in educational practice. To evaluate educational mobile apps, this paper presents a rubric (abbreviated as REVEAC) in four areas: contents, design, functionality, and technical quality, each having multiple aspects. In this paper, we discuss the known problems in using educational apps and we present a review of relevant literature, as well as the process of formulating REVEAC. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief discussion of REVEAC limitations and future work.
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In recent years there have been significant advances in the use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) in the education of students with learning disabilities. In this paper we represent some important studies which highlight the importance of using ICTs, with special reference to online and mobile learning applications, both for assessment and intervention required for students with dyscalculia. Results of the studies revealed that the use of ICTs in education and especially in children with dyscalculia, may in the future become an integral part of the global education process, however there are still many parameters to be investigated.
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This is a case study of an adolescent who had largely overcome his early difficulty in learning to read, but continued to have severe problems with spelling. He had no visual memory impairment, and his letter–sound knowledge and phonemic awareness were at adult levels. Testing revealed that his difficulties in both reading and spelling only manifested when processing unfamiliar words. He was slow and inaccurate when reading nonwords, despite a sublexical system dominated by the use of grapheme–phoneme units. It is suggested that limitations in the processing of the reading system were responsible for the lack of an extensive set of induced position-sensitive sublexical representations (ISRs) that are contextually dependent. This would have serious consequences for transfer to spelling.
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Nowadays the development of the Mobile Learning (ML) in children’s progress is thought significant. However, its role in special preschool education is recognized crucial, as it is a tool that can foster the knowledge and the experiences for this sensitive age. The support of specific areas in preschool education according to the educational perspective is thought significant with the maintenance of the mobile applications. In this paper we present a brief overview of the most representative studies of the last decade (2005-2015), which concentrates on skills that are examined in special kindergarten (early literacy, early mathematics, cognitive, social-emotional) and are supported by the mobile learning. The effectiveness of mobile applications in children who are autistic and face attention deficit problems is examined. The role of mobile learning in preschool children who face mental problems is also investigated.
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This paper presents a translation of interaction design (IxD) guidelines into a working prototype of dyslexic children's reading application in Bahasa Melayu. The IxD guideline was specifically designed and developed with the motivation to help ease and reduce dyslexic children's difficulties in reading. It is well established that dyslexics, due to dyslexia, have difficulties to learn, especially when it comes to reading that is caused by visual and auditory deficits. Unfortunately, reading applications, mostly in English language, are not designed specifically for dyslexics in terms of its form, content, and behaviour for such application. Hence, to help them read better, an IxD guidelines tailored specifically for dyslexic children is proposed. These guidelines are translated into prototype and show how the intended, suitable form, content, and behaviour would be. The Goal Directed Design (GDD) methodology is used in order to add customized guidelines and to embed the guidelines into the prototype.
Book
A seminal handbook in the field for more than 20 years, this new and updated edition of Mathematics for Dyslexicsand Dyscalculics contains the latest research and best practices for helping learners with numerical and mathematical difficulties. Provides a complete overview of theory and research in the fields of dyslexia and dyscalculia, along with detailed yet pragmatic methods to apply in the classroom Contains enhanced coverage of place value and the role of the decimal point, why fractions can challenge a developed logic for arithmetic, and the complexity of time along with new material on addressing anxiety, fear, motivation, and resilience in the classroom; and links to new resources including standardized tests and recommended reading lists Written by two mathematics teachers with 50 years of teaching experience between them, much of it in specialist settings for students with specific learning difficulties Offers effective teaching strategies for learners of all ages in a structured but accessible format
Chapter
The capacity to read fluently develops in response to effective instruction and is reliant on a range of cognitive capacities and processes. Although English is considered to be one of the most complex orthographic systems to master, most children can learn to read if provided with explicit instruction that is systematic, structured and cumulative. A minority of typically developing children do, however, struggle to acquire reading skills despite the provision of appropriate schooling and effective intervention. These students may meet the criteria for a specific learning disorder—with impairment in reading (commonly known as reading disorder or dyslexia). The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the component skills of reading, specifically reading accuracy, comprehension and fluency and the instructional approaches identified as best practice. The definition, prevalence and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of reading disorders will be discussed, as will the processing weaknesses frequently identified in students with reading disorders, including phonological processing, working memory and orthographic processing. In addition, the cross-battery approach to assessment and the RTI model will be examined.
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