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Nutritional complications and its effects on human health

Authors:
  • MY University

Abstract

The present review study was an attempt to investigate the perceptions of worldwide researcher about nutritional complication and its effects on health. In this regard, 20 research articles were included in the study. Focusing on nutritional complication and its effects on health, the findings of 10 research articles were carefully reviewed and then it is concluded that improper intake in both form under nutrition and over-nutrition have adverse effects on health.
J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Volume 1 Issue 1
17
http://www.alliedacademies.org/journal-food-science-nutrition/
Review Article
Introduction
Nutrition is the quantity and quality of food that the body
receives. The body breaks down the food to get the molecules
that it actually needs: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,
and minerals. Nutrition refers to sum of all processes involved
in how organisms obtain nutrients, metabolize them, and use
them to support all of life’s processes [1]. If body does not have
these things, than the body will unable to work properly. And
the possessions of bad nutrition can be terrible.
Nutrition has been one of the basic needs of every individual
living on the earth. Nutrition is that process which provides
energy to the body to perform various tasks in routine life.
Different kinds of disease, weakness and disabilities are closely
related with the intake of insufcient amount to food nutrients.
This study focus upon nutritional complications and its effects
on human health. The research study conducted under the title
“Nutritional complications and its effects on human health.
All possible efforts were made to reach at certain ndings and
conclusions of the study.
Objectives of the Study
1. To assess the nutrition complication and its effect on
human health.
2. To investigate the causative factors of nutrition
complication.
3. To assess the relationship of nutrition complication and
its effect on human health.
As this study was related with nutritional complications and its
effects on health. Similarly systematic reviews of 20 articles
were drawn for the purpose to extract the ndings and conclusion
of the study. At the end of the study 10 research articles were
included. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were:
Inclusion criteria
Research articles published from 2010 to 2016 were
included in the study.
The articles having data base of PubMed, Google scholar
were included in the study.
Exclusion criteria
The articles having no indexation with PubMed and
Google scholar were excluded from the study.
The articles published before 2010 were excluded from
the study.
Review
According to World Health Organization (WHO) Nutrition is
a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development
across the entire life span. From the earliest stages of fetus
development, at the time of birth, through infancy, childhood,
adolescence and old age. Proper food and good nutrition are
essential for survival, physical growth, mental development,
performance and productivity, health and well-being. It is an
essential foundation for human development. Healthy eating in
childhood and adolescence is important for proper growth and
development and to prevent various health conditions. Nutrition
also indirectly impacts Academics performance [2].
The proper amount of food plays a vital role in the complete
health of an individual. The food which we provide to the body
is having more nutrient content. The food contains energy,
protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and
function properly. We need a wide variety of different foods
to provide the right amounts of nutrients for good health.
Enjoyment of a healthy diet can also be one of the great cultural
pleasures of life. The foods and dietary patterns that promote
good nutrition are outlined in the Infant Feeding Guidelines and
Australian Dietary Guidelines. An unhealthy diet increases the
risk of many diet-related diseases [3].
The fundamental world health organization (WHO) goal of
health for all means that people everywhere, throughout their
lives, have the opportunity to reach and maintain the highest
attainable level of health. This is impossible in the presence
of hunger, starvation, and malnutrition. Basic nutrients, such
as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, are the basis of all life
activities. These constitute the carbon skeleton of numerous
useful molecules, and deliver energy through oxidative
decomposition. Traditionally, the main aim of nutrition is
The present review study was an attempt to investigate the perceptions of worldwide researcher
about nutritional complication and its effects on health. In this regard, 20 research articles were
included in the study. Focusing on nutritional complication and its effects on health, the ndings
of 10 research articles were carefully reviewed and then it is concluded that improper intake in
both form under nutrition and over-nutrition have adverse effects on health.
Abstract
Nutritional complications and its effects on human health.
Alamgir Khan1*, Sami Ullah Khan1, Salahuddin Khan1, Syed zia-ul-islam1, Naimatullah Khan Baber2,
Manzoor Khan3
1Department of Sports Science & Physical Education, Gomal University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2Department of Agriculture, Gomal University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
3Hazara University Manshera, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan
Accepted on January 26, 2018
Keywords: Nutritional, Complications, Human health
18
Citation: Alamgir K, Sami UK, Salahuddin K, et al. Nutritional complications and its effects on human health. J Food Sci Nutr. 2018;1(1):17-20.
J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Volume 1 Issue 1
to prevent and treat nutritional deciencies. However, when
nutrition is adequate or excessive, the body faces the problems
of quantitative control of the nutrients absorption and storage,
The Study revealed that the prime cause of malnutrition in
developed countries is disease, hence the expression “disease-
related malnutrition”. Pakistan is one among the developing
countries of the world. Just like other developing countries, the
people of Pakistan facing so many health problems due to poor
or insufcient intake or unavailability of nutrition. According
to National Health Services Directory (NHSD) human body
need to utilize sufcient amount of food on daily basis [4,5].
Poor eating habits such as insufcient intake or high intake both
have adverse effects on health. These problems include obesity,
high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and stroke,
type-2 diabetes, osteoporosis and so on. Poor nutrition leads an
individual to illness or lead to headaches and stomachaches [6].
Poor intake of nutrition is a part of one behavior. “Poor nutritional
and dietary habits affect how you feel, look, think and act. A bad
diet results in lower core strength, slower problem solving ability
and muscle response time, and less alertness”[7]. The author
further stated that poor nutrition adversely effect on health. Poor
nutrition early in life can impair neural development, leading to
lower IQ in humans being.
Development and growth of the body directly concerned with
nutrition and diet use by a person on daily basis. Use of balance
diet helps one to stay healthy and to perform the social activities
in benecial manner. Lack of balance diet has adverse effect on
overall structural and functional capacity of then body [8].
According to UNICEF poor nutritional habits may cause many
health problems such as weakens of immune system, severity
of illness and impeding recovery. It means that use of little
or high amount of nutrition may cause the failure of various
body mechanisms. Malnutrition commonly affects all groups
in a community, but infants and young children are the most
vulnerable because of their high nutritional requirements
for growth and development. Another group of concern is
pregnant women, given that a malnourished mother is at high
risk of giving birth to a LBW baby who will be prone to growth
failure during infancy and early childhood, and be at increased
risk of morbidity and early death [9]. Malnourished girls, in
particular, risk becoming yet another malnourished mother,
thus contributing to the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.
Malnutrition is related to a decline in general functional status
and to decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, delayed post-
surgery recovery, high hospitalization and readmission rates, and
increased mortality [10]. Obesity is a serious health problems
and a very huge number of people in now-e-days are facing
the problem of obesity. There are so many factors responsible
for this problems but the over nutrition is the one among the
main factors caused obesity among the masses [11]. Obesity is
fast growing problem throughout the world. Obesity may cause
of Type II diabetes because it causes insulin resistance and is
associated with physical inactivity. A person become obese when
he get too much energy and not utilize it properly (World Health
Organization) Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a series of a metabolic
disorder as sociated with high glucose level due to either defect
in insulin secretion, insulin action or both [12].
The major causes of death, illness and disability in which diet
and nutrition play an important role include coronary heart
disease, stroke, hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, some
forms of cancer, Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, dental caries,
gall bladder disease, dementia and nutritional anemia’s. The
Infant Feeding Guidelines and Australian Dietary Guidelines
assist us to eat a healthy diet and help minimize our risk of
developing diet-related diseases [13]. The author stated that
health expert always recommends diets for the well maintenance
of health. Lack of sufcient intake of diet adversely affects the
functional capacity of the body [14]. Balance or healthy diet
refers to the diet maintain and promote health It estimated that
80% of all cardiovascular disease, 90% of all type 2 diabetes
and 30% of all cancer could be prevented by eating a healthy
diet, increasing physical activity and avoiding smoking [15]. In
contrast, nutritional deciencies (particularly zinc, B vitamins,
Omega-3 fatty acids, and protein) early in life can affect the
cognitive development of children [16].
According to Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) diet and
exercise both are necessary for controlling the weight of the
body [17]. For reducing body weight one need to eat according
to need of the body, Eat according to the nature of activity and
Perform regular exercise. Human body need to utilize sufcient
intake of food on daily basis. Many people may leads to
weakness or obesity due to unawareness about the daily intake
of nutrition. Therefore, it is necessary to have awareness about
the daily intake of food [18].
Presentation and Analysis of the Previous
Research Studies
Table 1 shows the ndings of the previous research studies.
Discussion
Based on analysis, the researcher draws the following
ndings
Lacking of sufcient intake of food may cause of
weakness.
Over intake of food may cause obesity.
Exercise is the basic tool for promoting health.
It is found by the present research study that lacking of sufcient
intake of food may cause of weakness. This emerging concept
is supported by the study conducted by different Researchers
by indicating that insufcient intake of food may lead the body
toward weakness. The ndings of the study conducted also inline
of the present study because they concluded that insufcient
intake of nutrition may cause weakness and improper growth
of the body [14].
The ndings of the present study depicted that over intake of
food may cause obesity. The study conducted to nd out that
high intake of food ingredients may cause rise in fats in the
body. Same ndings is drawn by the study conducted indicating
that use or high intake of food may cause obesity among the
child’s as well as among the adults.
The present study showed that exercise is the basic tool for
promoting health and reducing health complications. The
Alamgir/Sami/Salahuddin/et al
19 J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Volume 1 Issue 1
exercise is the basic tool for promoting health and reducing
the chances of obesity among the child’s. This nding also
supported the ndings stated above. The ndings of the study
supported the present study ndings because they concluded
that for the wellbeing of health exercise is considered necessary
Based on previous literature the researcher found that:
1. Lacking of sufcient intake of food may cause of
weakness.
2. Over intake of food may cause obesity.
3. Exercise is the basic tool for promoting health and
reducing health complications.
Conclusion
Based on ndings of the previous research study the researcher
concluded that human health need to utilize sufcient nutrition
on daily basis. The ndings of previous research also both form
of malnutrition (Under nutrition and over nutrition) adversely
affect the health.
Recommendations of the Study
Based on ndings and conclusion the researcher recommended
that:
1. Good health experts discuss eating and drinking with
the patient and provide advice regarding healthy food
choices for the purpose to make sure the patient is
receiving a healthy, nutritious diet.
2. People may be made aware about the sufcient daily
intake of nutrition by conducting different awareness
programs.
3. Set a pattern of frequent meals and snacks during the day
rather than simply trying to eat more at meals.
4. Sufcient diet may be given to children for promoting
their health.
5. Safe and hygienic food may be taken for the purpose to
avoid health problems.
6. Diet may be given to the children according to the daily
need of their bodies.
References
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beef cattle on different planes of nutrition: I. Live-weight
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3. Ensminger ME, Ensminger AH. Foods & Nutrition
Encyclopedia. CRC press, US. 1993.
4. Stratton RJ, Green CJ, Elia M. Disease-related malnutrition:
an evidence-based approach to treatment. CABI,
Wallingford. 2003.
5. National Health Services Directory (NHSD). The risks of
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6. Brown JL, Beardslee WH, Prothrow-Stith D. Impact of
school breakfast on children’s health and learning: An
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Livestrong.Com. 2017.
8. Bruch H. Eating disorders: Obesity, anorexia nervosa, and
the person within. Basic Books, New York. 1973:396.
9. UNICEF. What is the role of nutrition? UNICEF. 2012.
10. Ahmed T, Haboubi N. Assessment and management of
nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin
Interv Aging. 2010;5:207-216.
11. Sturm R. Increases in morbid obesity in the USA: 2000–
2005. Public health. 2007;121(7):492-496.
12. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention
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13. https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines-publications/n55
Authors Study (Reference No.) Findings of the study
National Health Services Directory
(NHSD) (2015) [5]
Human body need to utilize sufcient amount of food on daily basis. Poor eating habits such as insufcient intake or high intake
both have adverse effects on health.
Ripha Ajmera [7] Poor nutritional and dietary habits affect how you feel, look, think and act. A bad diet results in lower core strength, slower
problem solving ability and muscle response time, and less alertness
Sturm [11] There are so many factors responsible for this problems but the over nutrition is the one among the main factors caused obesity
among the masses
Tuomilehto et al. [12] Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a series of a metabolic disorder as sociated with high glucose level due to either defect in insulin
secretion, insulin action or both
Department of Health and Ageing,
National Health and Medical Research
Council [13]
Mann et al. [14] Balance diet play vital role in maintenance of health. Lack of sufcient intake of diet adversely affects the functional capacity
of the body.
According Australian Bureau of Statistics
[17] Diet and exercise both are necessary for controlling the weight of the body.
Ahmed et al. [19] Malnutrition is related to a decline in general functional status and to decreased bone mass, immune dysfunction, delayed post-
surgery recovery, high hospitalization and readmission rates, and increased mortality
Table 1. Showing the ndings of the previous research studies.
20
Citation: Alamgir K, Sami UK, Salahuddin K, et al. Nutritional complications and its effects on human health. J Food Sci Nutr. 2018;1(1):17-20.
J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Volume 1 Issue 1
14. Mann T, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, et al. Medicare's search
for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer.
Am Psychol. 2007;62:220-233
15. World Health Organization. Nutrition for health and
development: a global agenda for combating malnutrition.
WHO, Geneva. 2000.
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on the Wider Benets of Learning Institute of Education,
London. 2006.
17. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4364.0.5
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18. Arvanitoyannis IS, Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou
M. Functional foods: a survey of health claims, pros and
cons, and current legislation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
2005;45(5):385-404.
*Correspondence to:
Alamgir Khan
Department of Sports Science & Physical Education
Gomal University
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Pakistan
Tel: 03329741015
E-mail: alamgir1989@hotmail.com
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