Article

Drivers of Cordial Employee Relations: The Study of a State-owned Public Sector Undertaking

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Abstract

The wave of change and rigorous competition has compelled the power sector to adopt a proactive resolution-oriented employee relations (ER) approach towards employee satisfaction and organizational performance. A cordial ER is based on fairness, trust and mutual respect and leads to motivated, loyal and high-performing employees and facilitates them to achieve the optimum results for their organization. Therefore, the study aims to examine the employer–employee relations prevalent in power sector. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect the data from a sample of 175 full-time working members including both executives and non-executives and were analysed using SPSS. For this study, a hypothesized research model was developed to investigate the relationship between drivers of ER and cordial ER. The regression analysis entails that the variables such as: interpersonal relationships, safe and healthy work environment, and employee welfare were significant predictors of cordial ER. The research will add practical insights for managers to realize the importance of these drivers of ER and to design appropriate strategies and policies for maintaining better ER.

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Chapter
Employee welfare is a prerequisite element for the success and growth of any form of organisation. The provision of welfare facilities improves the relations among the employees and the management of an organisation. These provisions boost the competence levels and value of the employees. The balance between employees'quality of life at the workplace and home is vital, as employees are the pillars of any organisation. The central aim of any organisation in adopting the welfare schemes is to secure the workforce by providing a proper work environment and minimising its hazardous effect on the employees' work life. The basic purpose of employee welfare is to enrich the lives of employees and to keep them happy and conducted. The provision of employees' welfare may be regarded as a wise investment as these would bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. The chapter focuses on determining the various employee welfare provisions adopted by different private organisations and its influence on the employee's satisfaction and effectiveness.
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In Britain and other developed economies, the world of work has been undergoing profound, and often inter-related, processes of change during the past few decades. Employment has shifted away from manufacturing and other 'heavier' industries to the service sector; non-manual work has grown in importance; trade union membership and power have generally declined; small and medium-sized enterprises have become a more important source of employment; and there has been a marked growth of outsourcing as organisations have increasingly sought to contract 'third parties' to deliver services on their behalf, provide them with labour, or undertake internal, or formerly internal, work activities. On top of this, in recent years governments have introduced major changes to their regulatory strategies and, more generally, shown a growing interest in the role that 'soft' forms of regulation – such as methods of education, persuasion and advice – can play within them.It almost goes without saying that these changes have potentially important implications for the nature and levels of the work-related health and safety risks faced by workers. Whether these implications are of a generally positive or negative type, however, is an issue that has received relatively little detailed attention. As a result, both optimistic and pessimistic interpretations could, on the basis of existing evidence, be easily, and misleadingly, put forward, with potentially dysfunctional consequences for the design of regulatory strategies and the priority accorded to the identification and control of risks.Focusing primarily on the case of Britain, this paper seeks to provide an exploratory examination of the links between the above types of change and levels of work-related injury and ill health, and to consider the implications that they have for regulatory policy. Initially, attention is paid to the potential relationship that exists between the changes and the extent of the health and safety risks faced by workers through an exploration of four related themes:• the 'occupational, contractual and industrial reconfiguration' of employment• the 'deconcentration' of employment• the changing nature of work activities and control• the way in which regulatory strategies have been undergoing a process of revision.Following this, attention turns to a consideration of what the currently available evidence tells us about the way in which the levels of risk facing workers have recently been changing, and how far it accords with the arguments advanced concerning the potential impact of these changes.
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Found support for the empirical relationship between employer practices in disability prevention and management and their workers' compensation (WC) claims experience in Michigan using data from 19,250 WC cases. A survey instrument was developed to study organizational factors and practices that might contribute to differences in WC claims among 124 firms. Results suggest that a significant portion of a company's WC experience is due to internal factors that can be influenced or controlled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Pratt and Dirks offer a compelling appraisal of the role of trust in positive relationships at work. They begin by observing that trust is central to all positive relationships. They go on to observe that positive relationships are more resilient than other relationships in that positive relationships can offer their members support even in the face of adversity. Pratt and Dirks reason that if positive relationships are characterized by resilience, it is important to understand not only the role of trust in positive relationships, but also the processes involved with the breaking and repair of trust. They make the case that traditional social exchange perspectives do not address how trust is repaired and regained in relationships, and thus fall short in capturing processes in positive relationships. As an alternative to social exchange perspectives, Pratt and Dirks use a relationship-based commitment perspective that focuses on members' commitment to the relationship. They explain that whereas social exchange perspectives allow for the positive and negative aspects of a relationship to cancel each other out, a commitment-based perspective allows members to experience both positive and negative elements simultaneously, leading to a state of ambivalence. They contend that the resolution of this ambivalence becomes the fuel for trust, and that the ability to manage positive and negative elements simultaneously gives the relationship energy and resilience. Pratt and Dirks reconceptualize trust as a volitional acceptance of the existence of both the vulnerability and the benefits associated with being in the relationship. By offering a new lens on the building and rebuilding of trust, this thought-provoking chapter offers a powerful explanation for the resiliency underlying positive relationships at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examine antecedents and outcomes of leader–member exchange (LMX) differentiation, or the variability in LMX patterns within work groups. Individual-level characteristics and behaviors of leaders and followers, group context, and organizational context variables are presented as antecedents. We review and offer theoretical extensions to research examining the outcomes of LMX differentiation at the individual, group, and organizational levels. Our aim is to contribute to a meso-model of leadership and stimulate research that attends to the core element of the LMX model–LMX differentiation.
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Industrial safety is an important issue for operations managers — it has implications for cost, delivery, quality, and social responsibility. Minor accidents can interfere with production in a variety of ways, and a serious accident can shut down an entire operation. In this context, questions about the causes of workplace accidents are highly relevant. There is a popular notion that employees' unsafe acts are the primary causes of workplace accidents, but a number of authors suggest a perspective that highlights influences from operating and social systems. The study described herein addresses this subject by assessing steelworkers' responses to a survey about social, technical, and personal factors related to safe work behaviors. Results provide evidence that a chain reaction of technical and social constructs operate through employees to influence safe behaviors. These results demonstrate that safety hazards, safety culture, and production pressures can influence safety efficacy and cavalier attitudes, on a path leading to safe or unsafe work behaviors. Based on these results, we conclude with prescriptions for operations managers and others who play roles in the causal sequence.
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Using a sample of 285 matched pairs of employees and supervisors, we explore the extent to which congruence in leader and follower ratings of LMX quality is related to follower job performance and work attitudes. An original conceptual model is introduced that identifies four combinations of leader and follower LMX ratings: balanced/low LMX (low leader and follower LMX), balanced/high LMX (high leader and follower LMX), follower overestimation (low leader LMX/high follower LMX), and follower underestimation (high leader LMX/low follower LMX). As expected, balanced/low (high) LMX relationships were associated with relatively low (high) levels of follower job performance, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction, while the incongruent combinations generally yielded intermediate levels of follower outcomes. However, follower underestimation was also related to high levels of follower job performance, whereas follower overestimation was associated with high levels of follower satisfaction and organizational commitment. Implications of these findings for future LMX research are considered.
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This study examined the moderating impact of empowerment on the relationships between leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and the self-rated outcomes of job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as the supervisor-rated outcomes of job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Two samples, with 244 and 158 employees respectively, were used to test our hypotheses. Our results provided evidence that in general, empowerment moderates the relationships between LMX and job outcomes. These findings are important as previous research has only tested these variables as independent predictors, but our results suggest the relationships these constructs have with important consequences are dependent on both variables. Practical implications and directions for future research are offered.
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Although work-family research has mushroomed over the past several decades, an implementation gap persists in putting work-family research into practice. Because of this, work-family researchers have not made a significant impact in improving the lives of employees relative to the amount of research that has been conducted. The goal of this article is to clarify areas where implementation gaps between work-family research and practice are prevalent, discuss the importance of reducing these gaps, and make the case that both better and different research should be conducted. We recommend several alternative but complementary actions for the work-family researcher: (a) work with organizations to study their policy and practice implementation efforts, (b) focus on the impact of rapid technological advances that are blurring work-family boundaries, (c) conduct research to empower the individual to self-manage the work-family interface, and (d) engage in advocacy and collaborative policy research to change institutional contexts and break down silos. Increased partnerships between industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology practitioners and researchers from many industries and disciplines could break down silos that we see as limiting development of the field.
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To update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of worksite-based weight loss programs. The following databases were searched: Medline, PsychlNFO, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and LexisNexis. STUDY INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION: Studies were limited to those published in English from 1995 to 2006 to which the following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) worksite intervention, (2) body weight assessed before and after intervention, and (3) study duration of at least 8 weeks. Data were extracted on the following: study design; funding source; purpose of evaluation; participant and worksite characteristics; type, intensity and duration of intervention; primary and secondary outcomes; and methodological quality. Heterogeneity of study designs precluded quantitative data synthesis. Results. We identified 11 randomized controlled trials, most of which focused on education and counseling to improve diet and increase physical activity. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 18 months, with 56% to 100% of subjects completing the studies. The overall methodological quality of the studies was poor. Intervention groups lost significantly more weight than controls, with the mean difference in weight loss ranging from -0.2 to -6.4 kg. Worksite-based weight loss programs can result in modest short improvements in body weight; however, long-term data on health and economic outcomes are lacking. So What? There is a need for rigorous controlled studies of worksite-based interventions that integrate educational, behavioral, environmental, and economic supports.
Article
Environmental interventions are an important part of efforts to improve health in populations. With respect to strategies to encourage positive nutrition behavior, environmental approaches help create opportunities for action by removing barriers to following a healthy diet. This article reviews the rationale, conceptual models, program examples, and recent empirical evidence regarding the extent and effects of environmental interventions to promote healthy eating. The state of the art is described for five types of interventions: (1) changes in the food supply; (2) point of choice nutrition information; (3) collaboration with private sector food vendors; (4) worksite nutrition policies and incentives; and (5) changes in the structure of health and medical care related to nutrition. Environmental approaches to dietary behavior change can reach large segments of the population through increased availability of nutritious foods, provision of quality nutrition services in workplace and health care settings, and accessible information about healthful food choices. Nutrition intervention can also serve as a model for other types of health promotion initiatives using multidimensional environmental and educational technologies.