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Thwarted: relinquishing educator beliefs to understand translanguaging from learners’ point of view

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Abstract

This study took place in a 300-level Filipino class at Hawai’i's state university. Originally, the researchers intended to study how English-Filipino translanguaging, the use of linguistic features of different languages to achieve meaning-making, (1) supports development of academic writing skills in Filipino for heritage learners who have undergone subtractive bilingualism and (2) challenges the ideology of discrete languages and speech communities. However, throughout the term, students’ translanguaging practices did not necessarily improve their writing skills in Filipino, and interviews revealed that they still saw themselves as having varied proficiency in English, Filipino (Tagalog-based), and other Filipino languages, which they linked to particular speech communities. Nevertheless, students participated actively and felt they were learning, and translanguaging led to understanding of deeper and more critical content. From these findings, we propose a translanguaging pedagogy that recognises the different social realms in which students have various opportunities to develop different parts of their linguistic repertoires, rather than a pedagogy that simply strives to dissolve linguistic barriers to promote bilingualism and biliteracy.

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... Among the 42 studies, two (4.8%) investigate the writing processes of monolingual/English-only college students (Hanson, 2013) and sixth-grade students (Panos, 2017) from a translingual approach. Two studies (4.8%) explore the writing processes of writers who write in languages other than English, such as Filipino (Mendoza & Parba, 2018) and Spanish and Mandarin (Severino, 2017). The other 38 studies (90.5%) research how EAL writers write with multiple language resources. ...
... Table 3 shows that 16 of 42 studies (38.1%) focus on instruction with translingual pedagogies. Among these 16 studies, two (Hanson, 2013, andPanos, 2017) concentrate on the teaching of Cavazos, 2017 English to English-only students and one (Mendoza & Parba, 2018) focuses on Filipino writing instruction to heritage language learners. The other 13 studies investigate how a translingual approach affects the teaching of EAL writing. ...
... Regarding participants, a translingual approach has been adopted to study the writing of ESL writers, EFL writers, English language learners (ELLs), and bilingual writers from K-12 and college levels and beyond. Two studies (Mendoza & Parba, 2018;Severino, 2017) focus on writers who write in languages other than English (Filipino, Spanish, and Mandarin). Two studies (Hanson, 2013;Panos, 2017) examine the writing processes of monolingual/English-only writers. ...
Article
With increasing interest in a translingual approach to writing studies, a considerable amount of empirical research has been conducted to investigate how this approach can affect writing practice and pedagogy. This article reports on 42 empirical studies on a translingual approach to writing and discusses the approach’s implications for teaching writing in English as an additional language (EAL). The results reveal that a translingual approach has been enacted in various contexts with diverse writer groups and for different research foci. The findings show that a translingual approach that advocates for writer agency, languages other than English as resources rather than impediments, heterogeneity as the norm in the classroom, and a challenge to English monolingualism (1) brings more ideological discussions to the teaching of EAL writing, (2) enriches written feedback studies with more negotiation of unconventional language use, and (3) facilitates EAL writing instruction and learning through viewing oral genres as resources for written genres. Nevertheless, the findings also indicate the need for caution (such as balancing language norms and deviations rather than resisting the norms and crossing rather than flattening language differences) in adopting a translingual approach to EAL writing.
... A translanguaging perspective is consistent with CLP's view of students as social agents, who are capable of attaining and mobilizing their social agency (see [37]). In Mendoza and Parba [38] and Parba and Crookes [25], for instance, a translanguaging language policy in my classes allows students to leverage their full linguistic repertoires, encouraging student participation and engagement in critical discourse without worrying about getting penalized for not speaking only in Filipino. This is contrary to my personal experience of growing up and studying in the Philippines as a Cebuano speaker in the 90s and early 2000s, in which the use of mother tongue in Philippine classrooms was punished because the old (and now defunct) Bilingual Education Policy only promoted English and Tagalog in education [39,40]. ...
... The answer to the first question was 'yes'. After all, I knew that my students are bilinguals who aspire to use their language resources for various reasons (see [25,38]). The second question involved planning and various processes that the whole class had to go through in order to be able to use the code, in the form of a book chapter Filipino-Americans: Model Minority or Dog Eaters [53], while at the same time build vocabulary and phrases to help them articulate their understanding in Filipino. ...
Article
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Engaging in critical dialogues in language classrooms that draw on critical pedagogical perspectives can be challenging for learners because of gaps in communicative resources in their L1 and L2. Since critically oriented classrooms involve discussing social issues, students are expected to deploy “literate talk” to engage in critiquing society and a wide range of texts. Although recent studies have explored teachers’ and students’ engagement with critical materials and critical dialogues, research that explores language development in critical language teaching remains a concern for language teachers. In this paper, I share my experience of fostering language development, specifically the overt teaching of critical vocabulary to students of (Tagalog-based) Filipino language at a university in Hawai’i. Through a discussion of racist stereotypes targeting Filipinos and the impacts of these discourses on students’ lived experiences, the notion of “critical vocabulary” emerges as an important tool for students to articulate the presence of and to dismantle oppressive structures of power, including everyday discourses supporting the status quo. This paper defines critical vocabulary and advances its theoretical and practical contribution to critical language teaching. It also includes students’ perspectives of their language development and ends with pedagogical implications for heritage/world language teachers around the world.
... As distance teacher education becomes more widely available and more internationalised (Maringe, 2013), there is a need for pedagogical evolution. The acceptance of multilingualism is a top priority, as it affords students a great opportunity to understand the world by making use of every linguistic resource at their disposal (Mendoza & Parba, 2018;Ocampo, 2018). Multilingual education is associated with transformation, social justice (Hurst & Mona, 2017) and decolonisation, all of which are essential for an efficient and productive higher education (Palfreyman & Walt, 2017). ...
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Technology use can introduce fundamental pedagogical changes that are integral to achieving significant academic improvements in higher education. When used to support learning, technology permeates higher education with digital learning mechanisms; enlarges course offerings and instructional alternatives; facilitates learning 24 hours a day; develops 21st century skills; enables greater student motivation; and facilitates deeper comprehension of concepts. The use of technology also has the potential to modify learning by instituting a new model of intertwined instruction. Present-day multilingual technology has transcended the debate about language dominating the educational space. Instead, it is now a question of how progressive multilinguals act differently as they take part in current opportunities offered by the various languages on the web. The appreciation and embracing of heteroglossic perspectives in e-learning repudiate inscribed ideologies that posit monolingualism as the default norm in education.Through a sociolinguistic lens focusing on the Funds of Knowledge theory, this article seeks to explore the role language plays in e-learning and how educators can use multilingualism as a teaching/learning resource in higher education. The study presents results from a mixed methods approach in which 42 purposively sampled distance teacher education undergraduate students were taught through English and Shona. Data was collected through focus group interviews and a written assessment activity. Quantitative data suggests an improved performance while qualitative data presents an acknowledgement by students of the efficacy of multilingual pedagogy.The article recommends the use of multilingual approaches in today’s linguistically diverse e-learning higher education classrooms. It further justifies acknowledging that multilingualism is not new, even if the dramatic secularisation of the term seems recent.
... As HE becomes more widely available and more internationalised (Maringe 2013), the acceptance of translanguaging in HE opens up windows of opportunity for multilingual students to understand the universe by employing all linguistic resources at their disposal (Mendoza & Parba 2018;Ocampo 2018), and this is associated with transformation, social justice (Hurst & Mona 2017) and decolonisation essential for an efficient and productive HE (Palfreyman & Walt 2017). This is exemplified in Madiba's (2014) study of the simultaneous use of isiXhosa, Tshivenda and English by the science students of the University of Cape Town. ...
... As higher education becomes more widely available and more internationalised (Maringe 2013), the acceptance of translanguaging in higher education opens up windows of opportunity for multilingual students to understand the universe by employing all linguistic resources at their disposal (Mendoza & Parba 2018;Ocampo 2018), and this is associated with transformation, social justice (Hurst & Mona 2017) and decolonisation essential for an efficient and productive higher education (Palfreyman & Walt 2017). This is exemplified in Madiba's (2014) study of the simultaneous use of isiXhosa, Tshivenda, and English by the science students of the University of Cape Town. ...
Chapter
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Throughout the history of mankind, language has been used as a tool of ascendance and colonisation to consolidate power and create governable subjects. During the colonial era, white minority governments have wielded language policy in education as an instrument of political manoeuvring, which is key to the transformation agenda of Africa, in general, and South Africa, in particular. Upon attaining political independence, African nation states embarked on educational reforms by revising their curricula in the name of 'decolonising education'. Decolonisation of education should entail the incorporation of epistemic perspectives, knowledge, thinking and languages from the African continent. A closer look at the curricula of African countries shows that they are still largely Eurocentric following the monolingual ideology of 'one nation, one language', with foreign languages being the lingua franca for these multilingual societies. Whilst the recognition of the 12 official languages was hailed as a victory for the constitutional rights of speakers of African languages, this has not translated into something tangible in the education sector where the instructional language still hinders effective education. This chapter argues that monolingual pedagogy in higher education reduces some tertiary students to speechless and underperform academically because of their low proficiency in the instructional language, and thus, advocates for translanguaging, a term with the potential to end our self-colonisation by decolonising our perception of language and linguistic practices in higher education. 7.
... The findings are supported by several researchers who found that translanguaging through collaborative learning engages students in requesting, clarifying, and negotiating conversation drawing from their cultural and language background to ensure that their peers listen and can comprehend text ideas (Hungwe-Mbirimbi, 2018;Mgijima& Makalela, 2016;Makalela, 2015).Through a process of reading from the relevant sections in the text and simultaneously engaging with the text in other languages, they know, like Tswana, Zulu, and the idiomatic expressions and at times proverbs in those languages, students were able in their multiple voices to engage profoundly and understanding with the text. Idea articulations and communication was fluid and versatile.Therefore, the use of students' linguistic communicative repertoires in translingual group discussions on texts, can encourage cognitive and active engagement in learning to make meaning and understand concepts from academic books (Mbirimi-Hungwe, 2016;Alamillo, Yun & Bennett, 2017;Mendoza & Parba, 2019).Thus, translanguagingserves as a form of epistemic democratization, which facilitates thinking between two, three, or more languages -taking linguistic fluidity as the norm and building reading pedagogy from students' language practices andaccessing additional language and communicative resources supported or deepened participants' extrapolation of text meaning and the learning of text concepts in Communication 1. ...
Article
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We question the validity of using one language for learning and teaching in our contemporary literacy and other classrooms. We argue in favour of linguistic and cultural diversity as a precondition for academic reading-literacy accomplishment in particular, and education in general. We lament that despite its harmful effects on educational achievement for multilinguals, monolingual bias is still among us and remains the biggest threat for identity assertion and epistemic access for mainstream multilingual students. The need to break the monolingual chains that shackle literacy and other pedagogy in the 21st C has never been more urgent. The paper reports on an academic reading intervention that draws from socio-cultural and translanguaging fluidity theories; it argues that students' own linguistic and cultural discursive resources can be valuable tools in academic reading pedagogy and concept uptake. Using the reading-development study as a proxy, we query the legitimacy of utilizing mono-language and or mono-culture for learning and teaching in our present-day reading classroom or tutorial room. Data was collected using qualitative methods. The results of this study support the premise that deep understanding ensues when students are actively involved in translanguaged academic reading. The study also found that cross-linguistic enquiry and procedures in academic reading and content uptake are beneficial. Moreover, pedagogy needs to be transformed translingually to democratise classrooms for academic access and success.
... As HE becomes more widely available and more internationalised (Maringe 2013), the acceptance of translanguaging in HE opens up windows of opportunity for multilingual students to understand the universe by employing all linguistic resources at their disposal (Mendoza & Parba 2018;Ocampo 2018), and this is associated with transformation, social justice (Hurst & Mona 2017) and decolonisation essential for an efficient and productive HE (Palfreyman & Walt 2017). This is exemplified in Madiba's (2014) study of the simultaneous use of isiXhosa, Tshivenda and English by the science students of the University of Cape Town. ...
Chapter
(1) Ajani O.A & Uleanya C (2021). Decolonisation and the aims and purposes of Teacher Education. In Felix Maringe (Ed), Higher Education in the melting pot: Emerging discourses of the 4IR and Decolonisation. CapeTown, AOSIS International. https://books.aosis.co.za/index.php/ob/catalog/book/305.
... There has been numerous research on translanguaging practice(S) (e.g. (Duarte, 2019;Garza & Arreguín-Anderson, 2018;Lin & He, 2017;Mendoza & Parba, 2019;(Pavón Vázquez & Ramos Ordóñez, 2019). Its main discussion in academic settings has touched upon the possible ways of incorporating translanguaging into educational systems in western countries. ...
Article
p class="abstrak"> Recent research developments have an increased focus on the complexity and the dynamic nature of language practices. Translanguaging views multilingual speakers as having one integrated language repertoire which they can use strategically to communicate and involve in the process of meaning-making activities. This research aims to investigate attitudes and practices of translanguaging among English department students in the Language Assessment course at Universitas Bunda Mulia, Jakarta. A series of observations and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data to five students. The data was interpreted using a thematic analysis and critically evaluated using the sociocultural theory of mind. This research revealed that the students translanguaged not only for cognitive functions, but also for creative and critical linguistic practices. Positive attitudes were also demonstrated through the students’ active participation in using their full repertoires. Further pedagogical implications in this particular context are also discussed. </p
... It also encourages experimentation with breaking the learned boundaries of counted and named languages for those elite multilinguals whose socialization at home, school, or in the community has naturalized language separation. There is no guarantee, of course, that all multilinguals will feel comfortable embracing translanguaging when invited to do so within the walls of the classroom (e.g., Mendoza & Parba, 2018). Many multilinguals have been socialized in school into an ideology of language separation and have grown accustomed to see and feel language in normative ways, at considerable cost to their linguistic confidence and well-being (Flores & Rosa, 2015;García & Tupas, 2019). ...
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The Douglas Fir Group (2016) sought to articulate a transdisciplinary agenda for SLA but said little about multilingualism specifically. Moreover, many multilinguals are under siege in a worrisome world where threats to human difference have risen to the mainstream in the aftermath of Brexit and the 2016 U.S. presidential election. I argue that considering multilingualism as the central object of inquiry and embracing social justice as an explicit disciplinary goal are two moves necessary to provide sustainable support for the kind of transdisciplinary SLA that the Douglas Fir Group (2016) envisioned. I examine some missing pieces of the puzzle of transdisciplinary transformation that may make it possible for SLA researchers, and particularly those who investigate linguistic–cognitive dimensions of language learning, to contribute knowledge about the human capacity for language while supporting equitable multilingualism for all.
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Presentation
Traditionally, language learning classrooms have adopted the monolingual language policy where only the target language is legitimised as the medium of instruction and student communication within the classroom (García & Sylvan, 2011). However, this position has been challenged through the proposal of translanguaging as an approach to bilingual/multilingual education (Cenoz, 2017; Creese & Blackledge, 2010, 2015; Duarte, 2016; García, 2013; García & Lin, 2017; García & Sylvan, 2011; Lasagabaster & García, 2014; Lewis, Jones & Baker, 2012). Research on translanguaging have also seen increased frequency in recent years, arguing on its transformative and pedagogical capabilities in the education of bilinguals/multilinguals (Jaspers, 2018; Poza, 2017). As translanguaging gains recognition as a pedagogical approach in bilingual/multilingual contexts, the current ongoing study sought to investigate its efficacy in language learning classrooms to bring about the learning of target named languages. This study conducted a literature review of fifty research articles published between 2014 to 2018 which employed empirical measures in the study of translanguaging in language classrooms. The articles were categorised according to a number of factors to differentiate the contexts of the language classrooms. A preliminary synthesis of the contexts and findings of the articles revealed a skewed cluster of pedagogic benefits and applicable contexts for translanguaging as a pedagogy. Limitations to generalise translanguaging to other language classrooms in bilingual/multilingual contexts were discussed while research gaps essential to the acceptance of translanguaging as a pedagogy were also highlighted. The relationship between translanguaging and named languages was also re-examined pertaining to current research findings to enrich the theory of translanguaging.
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Chapter
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Translanguaging is both going between different linguistic structures and systems and going beyond them. It includes the full range of linguistic performances of multilingual language users for purposes that transcend the combination of structures, the alternation between systems, the transmission of information and the representation of values, identities and relationships. Translanguaing space is a space for the act of translanguaging as well as a space created through translanguaging. It is a space where the process of what Bhabha calls “cultural translation” between traditions takes place. The notion of translanguaging space embraces the concepts of creativity and criticality, which are fundamental but hitherto under-explored dimensions of multilingual practices. Using a combination of observation of multilingual practices and metalanguage commentaries by three Chinese youths in Britain, the article retells their experiences of growing up in a society which is dominated by a variety of monolingual ideologies, their multilingual practices and the creativity and criticality shown through such practices, the identity positions they construct and present for themselves, and the social spaces they create and occupy within the wider space they find themselves in. It examines the following themes: fun with words, from weekend bilingualism to flexible multilingualism, creating space and cultivating relationships, and transnational space. In examining these themes, a method, called Moment Analysis, is proposed, which aims to capture what appears to be spur-of-the-moment actions that are semiotically highly significant to the actors and their subsequent actions, what prompted such actions and the consequences of such moments including the reactions by other people.
Article
Although much has been written about academic discourse from diverse theoretical perspectives over the past two decades, and especially about English academic discourse, research on socialization into academic discourse or literacies in one's first or subsequently learned languages or into new discourse communities has received far less attention. Academic discourse socialization is a dynamic, socially situated process that in contemporary contexts is often multimodal, multilingual, and highly intertextual as well. The process is characterized by variable amounts of modeling, feedback, and uptake; different levels of investment and agency on the part of learners; by the negotiation of power and identities; and, often, important personal transformations for at least some participants. However, the consequences and outcomes of academic discourse socialization are also quite unpredictable, both in the shorter term and longer term. In this review I provide a brief historical overview of research on language socialization into academic communities and describe, in turn, developments in research on socialization into oral, written, and online discourse and the social practices associated with each mode. I highlight issues of conformity or reproduction to local norms and practices versus resistance and contestation of these. Next, studies of socialization into academic publication and into particular textual identities are reviewed. I conclude with a short discussion of race, culture, gender, and academic discourse socialization, pointing out how social positioning by oneself and others can affect participants’ engagement and performance in their various learning communities.
Article
Although the originators of the language socialization (LS) paradigm were careful to cast socialization as a contingent, contested, 'bidirectional' process, the focus in much first language LS research on 'successful' socialization among children and caregivers may have obscured these themes. Despite this, I suggest the call for a more 'dynamic model' of LS (Bayley and Schecter 2003), while compelling, is unnecessary: contingency and multidirectionality are inherent in LS given its orientation to socialization as an interactionally-mediated process. This paper foregrounds the 'dynamism' of LS by examining processes comprising 'unsuccessful' or 'unexpected' socialization. Specifically, it analyses interactions involving 'oldtimer' 'Local ESL' students and their first-year teachers at a multilingual public high school in Hawai'i. Contingency and multidirectionality are explicated through analysis of two competing 'cultural productions of the ESL student.' The first, manifest in ESL program structures and instruction, was school-sanctioned or 'official.' Socialization of Local ESL students into this schooled identity was anything but predictable, however, as they consistently subverted the actions, stances, and activities that constituted it. In doing so, these students produced another, oppositional ESL student identity, which came to affect 'official' classroom processes in significant ways.
Article
This book is an account of the development and implementation of the University of Massachusetts English Family Literacy Project, presented as a curriculum guide for others who may be involved in developing English-as-a-Second-Language and family literacy programs for immigrants and refugees. An introductory section describes the program, the process of writing the guide, and the intended audience and purpose of the guide, and offers questions and guidelines for group discussion of curriculum content and related issues. The guide is designed and recommended for use by a group rather than by individuals. Subsequent chapters address the following topics: (1) what constitutes family literacy; (2) the participatory approach to curriculum development; (3) determining program structure; (4) examining the process that occurs within the classroom; (5) involving students in the process of uncovering themes and issues as an integral part of classroom interaction (6) developing curriculum around themes using a variety of techniques, procedures, and activities; (7) using literacy to address real issues and make changes in the social context through collective effort; and (8) determining what counts as student progress. A list of over 130 resources is included. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Are you trying to say it's about 26.4Sloth: There's another way to-it's not an exact number, but it's like about … Jay
  • P Papa
Papa P: Are you trying to say it's about 26.4Sloth: There's another way to-it's not an exact number, but it's like about … Jay: Ah! Mga. [Ah! Approximately.]
Tinataya, tinatayang nasa … ito ay, ito ay tinatayang nasa … ' ['Estimated, estimated to be about … this is, this is estimated to be about … '] Sloth: Ito ay-kuya, slow down! @@ 'This is about 26 billion people … ' [This is-kuya, slow down! @@ 'This is about 26 billion people
  • Arthur
  • Oh
  • Jay
Arthur: Oh, like estimate, or about … Jay: 'Tinataya, tinatayang nasa … ito ay, ito ay tinatayang nasa … ' ['Estimated, estimated to be about … this is, this is estimated to be about … '] Sloth: Ito ay-kuya, slow down! @@ 'This is about 26 billion people … ' [This is-kuya, slow down! @@ 'This is about 26 billion people … ']
American junk. Genius Retrieved from https://genius.com/Apo-hikingsociety-american-junk-lyrics Auerbach Making meaning, making change: Participatory curriculum development for adult ESL literacy
  • Apo References
  • Society
References APO Hiking Society. (1987). American junk. Genius. Retrieved from https://genius.com/Apo-hikingsociety-american-junk-lyrics Auerbach, E. R. (1992). Making meaning, making change: Participatory curriculum development for adult ESL literacy. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems.
Literacy as translingual practice: Between communities and classrooms
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Canagarajah, A. S. (2013). Literacy as translingual practice: Between communities and classrooms. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective
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García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Identity crisis [spoken word poetry performance]
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Sana, D. (2017, March 8). Identity crisis [spoken word poetry performance]. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i at Mānoa.
Linguistic genocide in education-or worldwide diversity and human rights? Abingdon: Routledge
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Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in education-or worldwide diversity and human rights? Abingdon: Routledge.
Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency
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Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95-108). London: Continuum.
Arfarniad o Ddulliau Dysgu ac Addysgu yng Nghyd-destun Addysg Uwchradd Ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education
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Williams, C. (1994). Arfarniad o Ddulliau Dysgu ac Addysgu yng Nghyd-destun Addysg Uwchradd Ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education] (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Wales, Bangor.
American junk. Genius
APO Hiking Society. (1987). American junk. Genius. Retrieved from https://genius.com/Apo-hikingsociety-american-junk-lyrics
Social class in applied linguistics
Bamboo. (2007). Tatsulok. Metro Lyrics. Retrieved from http://www.metrolyrics.com/tatsulok-lyricsbamboo.html Block, D. (2013). Social class in applied linguistics. Abingdon: Routledge.