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Pavia 3D: reading and decomposition of the city for the construction of dynamic databases on heritage

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Urban morphology and its study for the preservation of the image of city centers represents a topic of increasing scientific interest in the representation of cultural and perceptive values of landscape, especially in a context such as the Italian one where the rich architectural heritage requires a use of innovative monitoring technologies for more conscious intervention methods. The city of Pavia, Longobard capital of Roman origins, in its dual nature of historical center and university town, starts a research that combines the protection of architectural heritage to the evolution of Smart City, through a detailed documentation aimed at virtual modeling and fruition for the restitution of symbolic values and the identity of place, seismic monitoring and urban planning evolution, which develops from first metric analysis phases of urban building units and their fronts through detection campaigns and data processing of point clouds from laser scanners. The digital database obtained, result of investigations and survey actions, aims to figure as the best appropriate representative instrument to transform buildings into multimedia information containers that will guide visitors in the knowledge of their territory and city and technical planners in the control and intervention on buildings, generating new frontiers of interaction with the virtual space where users can find themselves actors and builders of visible and "invisible" reality around them, creating the bases for the project of the City of Future.
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CONTENTS
A. Golovin
Criticism of project approach to determination of urban agglomerations ................................... 6
Т. Gagnidze, T. Gudz
Development of the city of Perm by way of interaction between
the city and the campuses ........................................................................................................... 19
С. Парринелло, Ф. Пиккио, Р. Де Марко
Трехмерная Павия: чтение и декомпозиция города для построения динамических
баз данных по архитектурному наследию .............................................................................. 33
S. Maksimova, O. Popovtseva
Application of Prototyping method in urban planning on the example
of the development project of Dluga Street (Gdansk, Poland) ................................................... 46
A. Alekseev, A. Klejmenova, V. Spirina
Selection of aplace for the opening of a store within walking distance
(by the example of Oktyabrsky microdistrict of the city of Perm) ............................................. 58
A. Kuznetsova, Y. Bushmakova
Survey ofriversides landscapes in the city of Usolye ................................................................. 69
S. Zhukovsky, A. Surkov, A. Kychkin
Topical aspects of sustainable development of high-tech urban environment ........................... 80
E. Kolesova, T. Bochkareva
Research in principle of operating of ventilated facades ............................................................ 93
I. Shchukin, O. Ruchkinova
Multicomponent filtration media for stormwater bioretention filters ...................................... 105
S. Leontieva, G. Yagafarova, N. Fatihova, I. Gabitova, N. Zinovieva,
Yu. Fedorova, G. Kuznetsova, D. Yagafarova
Monitoring of minor rivers contamination by ecotoxicants
by the example of Shugurovka River ....................................................................................... 116
Yu. Kurbatov
Problems and possible directions of solving the task of structural-simulation modeling
of fiber-reinforced concrete composite..................................................................................... 126
K. Saraykina, V. Golubev, G. Yakovlev
Investigation of nanostructured modifiers influence on the processes of basalt
fibrous concrete structure formation ........................................................................................ 140
A. Martirosyan, V. Travush, G. Kashevarova
Study of influence of the rigid reinforcement geometry on the load distribution
in steel-concrete composite construction elements .................................................................. 147
M. Vodiannikov, A. Vorobiov
Analysis of Wood Structure Connections Using
Cylindrical Steel and Carbon Fiber Dowel Pins ....................................................................... 159
I. Zueva
Research stress-strain state structural design with the cjmpound bolted normal accuracy ....... 170
Градостроительство
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DOI 10.15593/2409-5125/2017.01.03
УДК 719.004.65
S. Parrinello, F. Picchio, R. De Marco
University of Pavia
PAVIA 3D: READING AND DECOMPOSITION OF THE CITY FOR
THE CONSTRUCTION OF DYNAMIC DATABASES ON HERITAGE
Urban morphology and its study for the preservation of the image of city centers represents a
topic of increasing scientific interest in the representation of cultural and perceptive values of land-
scape, especially in a context such as the Italian one where the rich architectural heritage requires a
use of innovative monitoring technologies for more conscious intervention methods. The city of Pa-
via, Longobard capital of Roman origins, in its dual nature of historical center and university town,
starts a research that combines the protection of architectural heritage to the evolution of Smart City,
through a detailed documentation aimed at virtual modeling and fruition for the restitution of symbol-
ic values and the identity of place, seismic monitoring and urban planning evolution, which develops
from first metric analysis phases of urban building units and their fronts through detection campaigns
and data processing of point clouds from laser scanners. The digital database obtained, result of inves-
tigations and survey actions, aims to figure as the best appropriate representative instrument to trans-
form buildings into multimedia information containers that will guide visitors in the knowledge of
their territory and city and technical planners in the control and intervention on buildings, generating
new frontiers of interaction with the virtual space where users can find themselves actors and builders
of visible and "invisible" reality around them, creating the bases for the project of the City of Future.
Keywords: 3D database, prevention cultural heritage, protection of historic cities, big data,
digital acquisition, point clouds, management of urban services, Smart Cities.
1. City must be digital and smart!
The theme of "smart cities" is, in recent years, the focus of numerous calls of
European interest and funding to create tools for the development of intelligent de-
vices to benefit of a greater ease of interaction between man and complex space.
These are instruments whose purpose is multiple: on the one hand the im-
provement of services, the management of the complexity and the organization
of information, on the other hand the development of the processes of interac-
tion between users and digital systems to promote the exploitation and the in-
crease of learning procedures and recognizability of the city. Object of this ac-
tion is the image of the city that, through new forms of representation, is
Parrinello S., Picchio F., De Marco R. Pavia 3D: reading and decomposition of the city for the
construction of dynamic databases on heritage. PNRPU. Applied ecology. Urban development. 2017.
No. 1. Рр. 33-45. DOI: 10.15593/2409-5125/2017.01.03
Парринелло С., Пиккио Ф., Де Марко Р. Трехмерная Павия: чтение и декомпозиция города
для построения динамических баз данных по архитектурному наследию // Вестник Пермского на-
ционального исследовательского политехнического университета. Прикладная экология. Урбани-
стика. – 2017. – 1. – С. 33–45. DOI: 10.15593/2409-5125/2017.01.03
Вестник ПНИПУ. Прикладная экология. Урбанистика. 2017. 11
34
changed redefining the relationship and interaction between public space and
citizen, thus marking a new identity. If it is now known how certain media ac-
tions can affect learning and recognition of a certain context, the intelligent city
has in itself the issue of security and reliability; if we start to talk about urban
analytics, meant as the ability to translate into numbers and graphs the various
aspects related to cities and communities living there, this capability requires
spatial enablement, which is to give spatial reference to information and, in the
era of big data, of sharing, social and 3D, there is an increasing discussion on
3D cities, interactive 3D models and reliable representations of complex space.
Another phenomenon that has motivated the increase of these procedures
is the preservation of the image for heritage protection. Terrorism, earthquakes
or natural disasters, especially in Italy are sensitizing public opinion and gov-
ernments following the earthquake in L'Aquila, central Italy, in 2009, when the
historical center of an important regional capital was lost in absence of a system
of appropriate documentation that would guarantee the applicability of restora-
tion or reconstruction intervents.
In this framework, digital technologies for the protection of heritage have
also moved towards the production of three-dimensional databases: reliable de-
scriptive devices that reproduce the image and the three-dimensional size of
heritage also allowing its interaction, to a virtual level with numerous tools for
creating auxiliary descriptive apparatus.
The survey of urban space, first aimed at defining analytical frameworks
of analysis articulated by comparison of individual descriptors collected with
specific census activities, is so upset to envisage the creation of a single data-
base, in which converge both geometric and morphological information and
both of other nature. A database that originates from integrated survey through
digital technologies whose support consists of billions of oriented points in
space to which are then anchored informations.
If digital data banks on the city in recent years have changed the ways of
administering the territory and to qualify interfaces between administrations
and users, in same time cultural foundations have been prepared to predict the
development of intelligent databases capable of self-interface to promote the
management of large data streams.
By the time the transition from central server to smart objects is inevitable.
From the main frame in which data are stored, the development of sensors and
mobile devices that interact with the cloud carries the management of urban
space into a "self-management" of things, planned, that interact each other and
give response to the different knowledge needs of' users.
Internet of things, linked to the city, provides that trees, benches, street
furniture, buildings, everything can become "smart", and features a dedicated
Градостроительство
35
page that encodes the quality by transmitting information to interconnected el-
ements, so as to become archive of himself.
Fig. 1. Web SIT of the city of Florence and the city of Pavia, both administrations make use of
online databases to order the data on the regulation and on the development of urban plans
Рис. 1. Веб-сайты г. Флоренции и г. Павия, администрации обоих городов используют
онлайновые базы данных, чтобы упорядочить данные об урегулировании и развитии
городских планов
Virtual space is associated to the real one and find placement just in the
places where information must explicate themselves, with the possibility, howev-
er, to be reached from any web connection. It is a store that has no place in a spe-
cially designated area but where the information you want to know about a spe-
cific place can be get in the same place, interacting with the elements present.
Fig. 2. Internet of things is the virtual place where not only the user interacts
with physical elements of the space but where things interact each other
Рис. 2. Интернет вещейэто виртуальное пространство, в котором не только
пользователь взаимодействует с физическими элементами пространства,
но и сами вещи взаимодействуют друг с другом
If, therefore, virtual space is close to the physical one, real, at the same
time the augmented reality that is generated defines an infinitely larger space
that multiplies, virtually, in function of the users who then browse or interact
with the data or with the system.
Projects like "Pavia 3D-TAC" concern the development of data interaction
methodologies for the creation of descriptive devices on urban heritage aimed
Вестник ПНИПУ. Прикладная экология. Урбанистика. 2017. 11
36
at promoting intelligent city as a platform in which gather information about
past, present and future of the city.
The project involves the metric documentation, diagnostic investigation
and virtual reconstruction of the historic center; the goal is, through the use of
digital tools and technologies, to acquire and return a reliable multidimensional
system, capable of generating three-dimensional models with two functions:
protect the image of the historic center from seismic events or deterioration
phenomena that may compromise the image and implement the commercial and
tourism sector through the development of innovative information technologies.
The historic center of Pavia, modeled virtually, will allow to configure new
scenarios and a different approach to the urban fabric: the community will interact
with the model of the city, visiting and implementing its content with information
from commercial and cultural character. The innovative method of diagnostic sur-
vey will also allow to monitor the status of buildings evaluating deformations to
draft plans for protection and intervention programs, both at the large scale punctu-
al, for the protection of heritage even in the prevention of seismic phenomena.
2. From survey to the interactive model
The campaign of investigation in the context of Pavia, from the earliest
stages of its programming, has highlighted the potential permitted by the meth-
odology of acquisition Range Based of urban spaces in accordance with project
objectives and the structuring of the database, designed as an interactive infor-
mation system for users engaged in operational intervention on the territory, pro-
fessionals and citizens. Corresponding methodological problems, related to the
morphology of complexes and blocks of the historic center, have been controlled
and managed to conduct digital metric acquisition through innovative measure-
ment technologies with laser scanner instrumentation and structure from motion
acquisitions, adopting a format of output, the three-dimensional model, suitable
to digital fruition of built heritage as a privileged method of documentation for
developable data from the architectural scale to the urban one.
The historic center of Pavia presents a series of morphological features
common to Italian historic towns, linked to the original Roman layout resumed
during medieval times, whose current form was affected by urban renewal in-
terventions conducted over the past two centuries, with profound changes in the
image of city, especially with the demolition of the city walls system. The read-
ing of urban fronts expresses the historical evolution suffered, highlighting the
combination of aristocratic and residential buildings to historic medieval tow-
ers, later destroyed and adapted to private environments.
The first phase of the project was a campaign of experimental survey con-
ducted on a sample of urban blocks chosen in the historical center, in the area
Градостроительство
37
of Corso Garibaldi (the original Roman decumanus) and Basilica of San
Michele Maggiore, for a total extension of about 40,000 square meters. The
area has been selected in a fabric collecting all the main characters found in the
perimeter of the historic center and set out above, in particular choosing it in
the oldest urban center where there is a greater presence of historical and ex-
pressive languages of various analysis and reading.
The survey was conducted with laser scanner measurements, with 116
scanning stations of three-dimensional metric data collected to generate point
clouds in virtual space. The process, chosen because expeditious and with im-
plementable data, resulted in specific critical due to the complex morphology of
the context: the distribution of urban fronts on paths with road sections less
than one quarter of their height (approximately 4 meters wide for fronts up to
18 meters) often compromises the data with the progressive increase of vertical
dimension, compromising the reading of architectural elements. Scan manage-
ment and their union in a global model, thanks to the overlapping of common
portions of data, has enabled the totally completion of shadow cones and
glimpses of missing data, and guaranteed the full coverage of surfaces.
The careful planning of laser stations could not however overcome some
problems due to survey from the level of road pavement, in particularly in the
measurement of buildings roof coverings. The integration with structure from mo-
tion acquisition methods showed similar problems, providing support to the inves-
tigation of urban documentation with the acquisition of photographic material col-
orimetric data but always highlighting critical issues in the three-dimensional re-
construction of the upper portions of fronts and roofs, for which supplementary
campaigns with aerial scans and investigations by drone are hoped.
The three-dimensional model obtained is a virtual space of representation of ur-
ban real complexity, documented both to the large scale as in the architectural partic-
ularity of about 512 million coordinate points in space. The digitization of detected
data has automated the processes of reconstruction: compared to classical representa-
tive discipline, which from a three-dimensional environment imposes a reading with
two-dimensional planes that refers back to a spatial knowledge, the methodology
adopted develops a management of data protocol that maintains the three-
dimensional data from the real system to the output one, where architectural elements
maintain their spatial identity without losing information in the transition from the
real to the virtual and from the urban scale to that of detail, and lend themselves to
simplified, immediate and implementable methods of analysis and understanding.
The potential of the digital model obtained lies in its interactivity: three
dimensional display obtained not only possesses representative purposes but
moves between content and cognitive interface, between documentary source
and archiving tool, serving both as scientific material itself. This happens
Вестник ПНИПУ. Прикладная экология. Урбанистика. 2017. 11
38
thanks to its measuring accuracy for architectural analysis and diagnostics, di-
versifying information according to possible query and interrogation variables.
The model – cloud combines both 3D graphical interface as the structuring of
an expandable database not only in respect of architectural and engineering dis-
ciplines, but towards contents of larger and heterogeneous nature, from territo-
rial government practices to environmental safeguard protocols, from urban
census to the augmented use of services by users and citizens.
Fig. 3. Urban front, detail of the point cloud from a single scanning
and from the recording of scans
Рис. 3. Городской фасад, фрагмент облака точек из одного
сканирования и из записи нескольких сканирований
Fig. 4. Urban fronts, model structure from motion and detail of integration
reliability with point cloud from lasers in the lower band
Рис. 4. Городские фасады, определение структуры модели
по отображению движения и фрагмент интегральной надежности
с облаком точек от лазеров в нижней зоне
The interactivity of database through the model obtained is intended to
provide a navigable documentation system, breaking down the reality measured
by the urban scale to the microscopic level. Its interface is aimed at profession-
als and technicians involved in architectural recovery and requalification, and is
a support tool for administrations involved in intervention of planning and ur-
ban regeneration, which may have provided a dynamic instrument for the man-
agement of territory and services, and development of more aware intervention
policies towards citizens thanks to the capacity of coordination of general
knowledge in the area with selected thematic analysis.
Градостроительство
39
Fig. 5. Overall view of the old town portion of the city of Pavia detected during
the first documentation campaign. In the urban landscape it can be seen the civic towers
in via Porta on the left and the Basilica of San Michele Maggiore on the right
Рис. 5. Общий вид старого города Павии, полученный в ходе первой кампании по
документированию. В городском пейзаже слева можно увидеть городские башни на
улице Порта, справабазилику Сан-Микеле Маджоре
Fig. 6. Detail of the three-dimensional model
of point cloud obtained, view from via Porta
Рис. 6. Фрагмент трехмерной модели
полученного облака точек,
вид с улицы Порта
Fig. 7. Point cloud of the facade of Basilica
of San Michele Maggiore
Рис. 7. Облако точек фасада базилики
Сан-Микеле Маджоре
3. The definition of homogeneous descriptors for urban analysis.
The database, product of first survey operations, is at this point a docu-
mentation archive of the city of Pavia with endless possible readings, but which
must necessarily be subjected to interpretative processes that can extract
themed information from specific urban representative system of the old town.
The schematizing of the themes and objectives of study according to descrip-
tive keys directed the survey campaign from the first phase of analysis, facili-
tating both the collection of data that their interpretative reading through census
and cataloging procedures. The cognitive action, result of survey project, now
provides a three-dimensional model created by the decomposition in thematic
and easily manageable systems, available separately and in coordination in rela-
tion to required information fields, which can be inserted in G.I.S. and BIM
storage and consultation. systems.
The structuring of contexts analyzed is designed by establishing uniform
descriptors, specific information content fields that order and structure the cha-
Вестник ПНИПУ. Прикладная экология. Урбанистика. 2017. 11
40
otic urban reality in architectural, technological and cultural sectors of elements
and services. The heterogeneity of urban objects, visible both as architectural
buildings that technological and commercial containers, is reflected in the vast-
ness of fillable fields, aimed at structuring a cognitive and synthetic survey
readily understood by the different academic fields involved. The research pro-
ject aims to create an interactive archival system capable to insert and provide
information for operational action on the planning of the city covering widely
the areas of investigation and intervention, from structural monitoring to the
service portal for citizen.
From the decomposition and identification of building units of the historic
center of Pavia, according to the general characteristics of building with de-
scriptors of units, placement, hierarchical development levels, historical infor-
mation, relevance, the aim is to theme the research in functional, architectural,
commercial and services survey categories, to which correspond specific char-
acteristic descriptors of the different disciplines. Information about function are
closely linked to architectural analysis, in particular in the study of lower levels
in direct contact with the road, place of commercial activities, integrating the
reading of the building from the history to the constructive and technological
elements and components in fronts.
Descriptors such as structural elements, fixtures, closures, street furniture,
technological systems and their conservation status and integration, together
with information on commercial spaces such as exhibition space, signs, waste
production, can provide to give an overall orderly and structured picture for the
reading of urban fronts and for planning and control operations.
Starting from the analysis of masonry materials present, through the detail
of surfaces, the database can also highlight degradation and lesions present as a
symptom of more complex diseases and structural mechanisms, whose monitor-
ing is essential for the implementation of conscious practices of preservation and
consolidation to be implemented in plan decisions by competent authorities.
4. Structure: databases and topological reading of urban form
The large amount of data collected and available to the computerized
visualization, is not necessarily accompanied by an equally high level of
management skills for the development of functional systems to the dissemi-
nation over the Web. The proper management of acquired information, but
not yet organized because coming from three-dimensional models and from
different sources that are tied to them, destined to users with different purpos-
es, takes place through a "reasoned synthesis" of data to be effected through a
discretization process by the operator of those components (such as the edges,
Градостроительство
41
the singular points, discontinuities, the apparent contour lines) essential for
the perception and the correct understanding of the object detected. The
knowledge of model information, at this point, can be explicit through a
"drawing", archetype of such complexity, whose structure is quite clear to the
correct hierarchical reading of elements in which the general model has been
broken down.
To the process of decomposition of the numerical three-dimensional mod-
el, it follows the next semantic modeling phase, which is the classification of its
constituent parts: this occurs through the splitting from the homogeneous sys-
tem of the polygonal mesh and through the placement of individual entities
within the system classification adopted, going to determine the schematic
structure to logenetico tree.
Fig. 8. Splitting by architectural elements of the front of the church of SS. Giacomo
and Filippo in the historic center of Pavia, from structure from motion survey
Рис. 8. Разделение на отдельные архитектурные элементы фасада церкви
Святых Джакомо и Филиппо в историческом центре Павии, полученное
при исследовании структуры по отображению движения
Вестник ПНИПУ. Прикладная экология. Урбанистика. 2017. 11
42
In this perspective, the urban area analyzed, of which there is a complete
three-dimensional model highly detailed, becomes the starting point for struc-
turing a hierarchical reading of space from general to specific.
The urban space of the historic center of Pavia was analyzed and structured pre-
liminarily dividing the entire complex according to building and urban components,
ie according to the types of residential buildings, those with special and monumental
characteristics (such as the facades of churches or buildings of historical interest),
and those characterized by visual emergencies (ie tower, bell, or the same urban
fronts with peculiar and emerging characteristics compared to the homogeneity of the
fabric). A second decomposition involved the classification of the system of paths,
identified by main and secondary roads, which also includes systems of interaction
between the various roads that join in with widenings, squares, nodes. From these
two main structures, the buildings and the road network, more detailed classifications
branch out concerning the decomposition of urban fronts (doors, windows, roofs etc
...) and the structure of the road (driveway area, pedestrian area, platforms, etc. ..).
The ramifications of each of these issues helps to define, in detail, the impact at the
urban level of each architectural or constructive element. The structure "cascade" is
able to organize the multiple information acquired with laser scanners and photo-
graphic equipment according to a functional scheme to users, who can question each
item up to go into the details of recurring motifs that characterize the landscape, as
filtered by a subdivision by homogeneous categories, but also evaluate mutual rela-
tions present at the macro-scale of the three-dimensional model. The realization of
the informative-cognitive system, able to contain generated three-dimensional mod-
els and information related to them, is a implementable organization model, open to
new types of information and changes that the architectural and landscape object
may suffer in history, such as to also be available in distance of time.
Fig. 9. Process of discretization from continuous system to discontinuous one
Рис. 9. Процесс дискретизации от непрерывной системы к прерывистой
Градостроительство
43
The system of the database is composed of a series of discontinuous type
information, because they consist of differently distant points in space, from
laser scanner, photogrammetric or topographic survey. Objective is to structure
a methodological approach that leads the system from being discontinuous to
become continuous, dividing and reassembling it according to a new logic of
functional aggregation to its informatics consulting. The decomposition in three
dimensions using a careful selection of surfaces generated by data acquisition
process has allowed to facilitate the semantic classification process of elements,
discretized and univocally defined, select them and draw on information, geo-
metric or textural, relevant to each area.
The system acquires a multiple purpose preparatory to conservative or
purposeful activities, with more aware considerations on the management of
urban space and the intelligent city, being able to be accessed by users with dif-
ferent cultural knowledge, goals and computer skills, ensuring the accessibility
of data to a plurality of users. The key element of the digitization and process of
consumption of the virtual element acquired by digital instrumentation of laser
scanner and structure from motion processes, able to generate complex and un-
differentiated surfaces on the nature of the object, is to analyze these parts and
reassemble them through a drawing, far from being automatic, able to define
effective representative languages; and test technology systems that support
these languages, where each sign takes on a specific meaning.
The first paragraph “City must be digital and smart!” is written by Sandro
Parrinello; paragraphs 2 and 3 “From survey to the interactive model” and “The defini-
tion of homogeneous descriptors for urban analysis” are written by Raffaella De Marco;
the paragraph 4 “Structure: databases and topological reading of urban form” is written
by Francesca Picchio.
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Получено 26.01.2017
С. Парринелло, Ф. Пиккио, Р. Де Марко
ТРЕХМЕРНАЯ ПАВИЯ: ЧТЕНИЕ И ДЕКОМПОЗИЦИЯ ГОРОДА
ДЛЯ ПОСТРОЕНИЯ ДИНАМИЧЕСКИХ БАЗ ДАННЫХ
ПО АРХИТЕКТУРНОМУ НАСЛЕДИЮ
Городская морфология и ее изучение для охраны образа городского центраэто тема,
вызывающая повышенный научный интерес с точки зрения представления культурных и пер-
цептивных ценностей городского пейзажа, в особенности в таких контекстах, как итальянский,
где богатое архитектурное наследие требует использования инновационных технологий мони-
торинга для более осознанного вмешательства в городскую среду. Город Павия, первая столи-
ца региона Ломбардия, основанный во времена Римской империи, благодаря своей двойствен-
ной природе университетского города с историческим центром стал объектом исследования,
сочетающего задачи охраны архитектурного наследия и развития умного города. Этого уда-
лось достичь путем детального документирования с целью виртуального моделирования, ко-
торое на практике служит для восстановления знаковых ценностей и идентичности города,
сейсмического мониторинга и городского планирования. Последнее, в свою очередь, эволю-
ционирует от первых этапов метрического анализа городских строительных конструкций и их
фасадов к последующим кампаниям по детектированию и обработке данных облаков точек,
полученных при лазерном сканировании. Полученная в результате исследовательских и ин-
спекционных мероприятий цифровая база данных может служить лучшим репрезентативным
инструментом для преобразования зданий в мультимедийные информационные объекты. Та-
кие объекты помогут посетителям познакомиться с информацией о регионе и городе, а также
послужат техническим планировщикам при управлении и преобразовании зданий, генерируя
новые границы взаимодействия с виртуальным пространством, в котором пользователи могут
выступать в роли действующих субъектов и строителей видимой и «невидимой» реальности
вокруг них, создавая основы для проекта Города будущего.
Ключевые слова: трехмерная база данных, охрана культурного наследия, защита исто-
рических городов, большие массивы данных, цифровая регистрация, облако точек, управление
городскими службами, умные города.
Градостроительство
45
Sandro Parrinello (Pavia, Italy) – Associate Professor, European Ph.D. in Architecture, visiting
Professor at PNRPU, University of Pavia, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICAr)
(27100, Pavia, via Ferrata, 1, e-mail: sandro.parrinello@unipv.it).
Francesca Picchio (Pavia, Italy) – Research Fellow, European Ph.D. in Architecture, University
of Pavia, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICAr) (27100, Pavia, via Ferrata, 1,
e-mail: francesca.picchio@unipv.it).
Raffaella De Marco (Pavia, Italy) – Ph.D. Student, MSc degree in Building Engineering and
Architecture, University of Pavia, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICAr) (27100,
Pavia, via Ferrata, 1, e-mail: raffaella.demarco@unipv.it).
Сандро Парринелло (Павия, Италия) – доцент, европейский кандидат архитектуры, при-
глашенный профессор ПНИПУ, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и ар-
хитектуры (DICAr) (27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: sandro.parrinello@ unipv.it).
Франческа Пиккио (Павия, Италия) – научный сотрудник, европейский кандидат архи-
тектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr)
(27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: francesca.picchio@unipv.it).
Раффаэлла Де Марко (Павия, Италия) – аспирант, магистр инженерного строительства
и архитектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr)
(27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: raffaella.demarco@unipv.it).
... [7,8]. Foreign experience in the field of 3D modelling contains a number of virtual reconstructions examples of various architectural monuments, historical buildings and historical landscapes [9]. These examples include a computer reconstruction of the 10th century Abbey of Cluny, carried out by the Saone-et-Loire department in France as part of the ClunyIII project [10], and a project for the reconstruction of Rome [11]. ...
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The possibilities and role of a three-dimensional spatial model are considered on the example of the historical and architectural Usolye Stroganovsky museum-reserve strategic master plan (Perm region). In the context of heritage preservation, the master plan was shown not only as a strategic document, but also as a communication tool between various branches of government in order to integrate heritage protection policy into the system of general urban planning policy. The methodological approach is based on use of a digital three-dimensional model obtained by laser scanning and photogrammetry. A portable and ground-based laser scanning to create the point cloud is presented. The architectural and urban planning solutions of the strategic master plan are based on the dynamic 3D model and static visualizations of individual elements. The results of virtual reconstruction are shown. The level of detail of 3D models is LOD 200. Virtual reconstruction and visualization have shown themselves not only as a reliable communication tool for the decision-making management, but also as a way to quickly obtain a complex of urban planning and design documentation suitable for reconstruction and restoration of historical and architectural heritage.
... Movement from a regional scale to the scale of each building is usual for the realistic description of the historical environment survey [10]. In this way important to consider heritage objects as in the structure of the region and at the level of a separate quarter as well. ...
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The article address the issue of three-dimentional and spatial data integration applied to architectural heritage. Integrated approach of BIM and GIS models allow BIM models not to be limited in the description of buildings but also describe interactions of the object and surrounded environment, contributing to the management of the urban environment in an interoperable way. In this paper proposed the approach of division investigating objects on several scales. Movement from regional scaled data till building scaled data allows considering architectural monuments on every stage of the persistence. This approach described at the case study of surveying Upper Kama region. For this territory were identified several types of the environment. Within every of this types the morphology of architecture is described. All obtained data was divided considering scales and usage of BIM or GIS, or integrated models. Creation of certain model depends on analytical tasks. Such ways of the heritage digitization is a basis for future work on physical or virtual restoration.
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La piana pavese, per la storica ricchezza del suo sistema di canalizzazioni, si presta quale ambiente emblematico al racconto di trasformazioni e modifiche del territorio legate alla tematica dell’acqua. Questi mutamenti, nel tempo, hanno definito il carattere identitario di insediamenti rurali, borghi e città, segnando profondamente lo sviluppo del territorio. I percorsi dell’acqua, comprensivi delle tratte un tempo navigabili di collegamento tra le realtà urbane della piana, hanno permeato i diversi ambienti costruiti. Opere di cui sono esempi alzaie, ponti, chiuse e scali sono qui disseminate, dando luogo a una complessa morfologia caratterizzata da lievi pendenze, dislivelli e una struttura che dipende da una rete di episodi ingegneristici. Tale rete è costituita da una moltitudine di elementi: un patrimonio idraulico che oggi ha perduto parte delle sue funzioni mantenendo però una presenza dalla valenza storica ed economica, che esplicita un elevato potenziale in termini di patrimonio culturale. Al fine di conoscere, gestire e valorizzare questo patrimonio è stata avviata una ricerca per definire le più opportune strategie di documentazione e di rappresentazione mediante tecnologie digitali. Le attività condotte intendono perseguire obiettivi di tipo: documentale, il recupero dei segni di quegli elementi identitari legati al sistema idrico; di sensibilizzazione, la comunicazione attraverso la rappresentazione; e gestionale, la traduzione di questi segni in strumenti veloci e affidabili di conoscenza del patrimonio idraulico e della sua collocazione sul territorio, di utilità per la pubblica amministrazione e per le associazioni che gestiscono i corsi d’acqua. Il presente contributo propone una sperimentazione sulle attività di acquisizione ed elaborazione dati, ponendo a confronto diverse metodologie di ricerca applicata tese a validare forme di rappresentazione impiegando modelli e mappe tridimensionali dei sistemi e delle reti idrauliche. Da una prima fase di indagine cartografica e di analisi delle fonti, riscontrando le specificità dei luoghi attraverso sopralluoghi sul campo, è stata individuata un’area campione sulla quale condurre le sperimentazioni. In questa sono visibili i due navigli, il vecchio e il nuovo; la chiusa di Borgarello, l’ultima conca geograficamente collocata all’interno del territorio comunale di Pavia; il piccolo centro urbano della frazione del Cassinino e numerosi canali irrigui che si dipartono da entrambi i navigli. L’area è di interesse per una serie di manufatti idraulici storici di pregio, alcuni dei quali rimasti visibili solamente in questa conca. Per ottenere una corretta documentazione di argini, elementi architettonici idraulici e reti distributive, dando loro configurazione all’interno di un database metricamente e geometricamente affidabile, sono state condotte campagne di acquisizione con strumentazione digitale. Immaginando che queste procedure potessero poi essere replicate su un territorio più ampio, è stata valutata la modalità di rilevamento con strumentazione di tipo fast survey. La totalità dei dati raccolti ha permesso di costruire un modello tridimensionale discretizzato a scala territoriale e modelli tridimensionali di dettaglio degli elementi del patrimonio idraulico. I prodotti digitali ottenuti aprono la strada a diverse applicazioni possibili, tra cui quelle inerenti alla facilitazione della gestione del patrimonio da parte di pubbliche amministrazioni o associazioni attive sul territorio, tramite l’inserimento di modelli 3D su piattaforma GIS per la definizione di mappe tridimensionali.
Chapter
The article shows the results of digital modeling of the historical and cultural heritage objects that are located in Perm Region. This article summarizes the experience of the cultural heritage objects virtual reconstruction based on data obtained using digital tools. The brief retrospective analysis of the three-dimensional model development in Russia is carried out. Changes in the obtaining source data approaches and the specifics of working process with point clouds and processing discrete models are tracked. The 3D models were developed based on laser scanning, photogrammetry and perceptual data. The features of programs designed for processing point clouds are considered. List of information modeling tools is shown. The features of the processes of the laser scanning and photogrammetry, the advantages and disadvantages of the obtained 3D models of buildings are considered. The minimum requirements for computer hardware demands to work with point clouds and create 3D models are specified. Examples of 3D models of buildings obtained from discrete models (point cloud) are shown.
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The complex structure of landscape has motivated recent research into representative systems capable of expressing the complex relationships present within an urban place. Updating the ways of its reading, research has attempted to identify more or less complex urban scenarios, profoundly different from each other both from a formal, cultural and perceptive point of view. The contribution presents examples of methods of analysis, digital acquisition and processing of documentation systems of these landscapes, in order to analyse not only formal differences, but also to structure a documentation and representation methodology for problems of management and planning of the city and territory. The virtual space configures itself through a systematic and structured drawing, demonstrating how interactive reality-based digital models can constitute valid systems of representation of the real landscape. The virtual space maintains relationships and exchanges data with its user, simulating reality and becoming a place where project and experimentation are set in a simplified form to explain critical readings useful for identifying key values that will guide the project. 3D models, together with databases, configure landscapes that outline the future of research through the study of systems of interaction between man, drawing and virtual space. In particular, the contribution deals with the three-dimensional representation of the historical center of the city of Pavia and the territorial relationship with its province, analysing documentation systems that, through digital drawing, contribute to the enhancement and awareness of values of urban landscape heritage. 3D models, used as planning tools, become elements of cohesion between space and time, bringing to light the Roman and Longobard city, till its current configuration, laying the foundations for the project of the city of the future. Each formal choice will be oriented on values of conservation, restoration and interpretation of the historical and cultural dimension of the city.
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The complex structure of landscape has motivated recent research into representative systems capable of expressing the complex relationships present within an urban place. Updating the ways of its reading, research has attempted to identify more or less complex urban scenarios, profoundly different from each other both from a formal, cultural and perceptive point of view. The contribution presents examples of methods of analysis, digital acquisition and processing of documentation systems of these landscapes, in order to analyse not only formal differences, but also to structure a documentation and representation methodology for problems of management and planning of the city and territory. The virtual space configures itself through a systematic and structured drawing, demonstrating how interactive reality-based digital models can constitute valid systems of representation of the real landscape. The virtual space maintains relationships and exchanges data with its user, simulating reality and becoming a place where project and experimentation are set in a simplified form to explain critical readings useful for identifying key values that will guide the project. 3D models, together with databases, configure landscapes that outline the future of research through the study of systems of interaction between man, drawing and virtual space. In particular, the contribution deals with the three-dimensional representation of the historical center of the city of Pavia and the territorial relationship with its province, analysing documentation systems that, through digital drawing, contribute to the enhancement and awareness of values of urban landscape heritage. 3D models, used as planning tools, become elements of cohesion between space and time, bringing to light the Roman and Longobard city, till its current configuration, laying the foundations for the project of the city of the future. Each formal choice will be oriented on values of conservation, restoration and interpretation of the historical and cultural dimension of the city.
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This article presents a set of theoretical reflections and technical demonstrations that constitute a new methodological base for the architectural surveying and representation using computer graphics techniques. The problem we treated relates to three distinct concerns: the surveying of architectural objects, the construction and the semantic enrichment of their geometrical models, and their handling for the extraction of dimensional information. A hybrid approach to 3D reconstruction is described. This new approach combines range-based modeling and image-based modeling techniques; it integrates the concept of architectural feature-based modeling. To develop this concept set up a first process of extraction and formalization of architectural knowledge based on the analysis of architectural treaties is carried on. Then, the identified features are used to produce a template shape library. Finally the problem of the overall model structure and organization is addressed.
Metodiche per il rilievo dei dati ambientali e rappresentazione del paesaggio_ La costa romagnola. VII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze. 1995. 2. Bateson G
  • M Balzani
Balzani M. Metodiche per il rilievo dei dati ambientali e rappresentazione del paesaggio_ La costa romagnola. VII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze. 1995. 2. Bateson G. Mente e Natura, Adelphi, Milano, 1984.
Manuale di rilevamento architettonico ed urbano
  • S Bertocci
  • M Bini
Bertocci S., Bini M. Manuale di rilevamento architettonico ed urbano, CittàStudi, Novara, 2012.
Associate Professor, European Ph.D. in Architecture, visiting Professor at PNRPU
  • Sandro Parrinello
Sandro Parrinello (Pavia, Italy) -Associate Professor, European Ph.D. in Architecture, visiting Professor at PNRPU, University of Pavia, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICAr) (27100, Pavia, via Ferrata, 1, e-mail: sandro.parrinello@unipv.it).
Италия)-доцент, европейский кандидат архитектуры, приглашенный профессор ПНИПУ, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100
  • Сандро Парринелло
Сандро Парринелло (Павия, Италия)-доцент, европейский кандидат архитектуры, приглашенный профессор ПНИПУ, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: sandro.parrinello@ unipv.it).
Италия)-научный сотрудник, европейский кандидат архитектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100
  • Франческа Пиккио
Франческа Пиккио (Павия, Италия)-научный сотрудник, европейский кандидат архитектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: francesca.picchio@unipv.it).
Италия)-аспирант, магистр инженерного строительства и архитектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: raffaella.demarco@unipv.it)
  • Марко Раффаэлла Де
Раффаэлла Де Марко (Павия, Италия)-аспирант, магистр инженерного строительства и архитектуры, Университет Павии, кафедра гражданского строительства и архитектуры (DICAr) (27100, г. Павия, ул. Феррата, 1, e-mail: raffaella.demarco@unipv.it).
Rilievo e Piano di Gestione per il Centro storico di
  • Bertocci Stefano
  • Parrinello Sandro
Bertocci Stefano, Parrinello Sandro, (2007), Rilievo e Piano di Gestione per il Centro storico di
a cura di) atti del convegno EARCOM 07 Sistemi Informativi per l'Architettura, Alinea editore
  • In P Montepulciano
  • N Clini
  • R Lancioni
  • Quattrini
Montepulciano, in P.Clini, N.Lancioni, R. Quattrini, (a cura di) atti del convegno EARCOM 07 Sistemi Informativi per l'Architettura, Alinea editore, Firenze, 2007 p.p. 108-113.