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Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí. Red List of Threatened Species of the Czech Republic. Invertebrates.

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Red List of wide spectrum of invertebrate groups in the Czech Republic according to the IUCN criteria.
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... For example, from a total of 838 known Czech species of bees sensu lato (superfamily Apoidea including nectar and pollen collecting bees and predatory digger wasps) about a quarter of species (220 species) are associated with open sandy habitats (Bogusch et al. 2007). In total, 62% of all Czech bees and wasps are red-listed; among red-listed species are a striking 91% of species specialised to inhabit aeolian sands (Hejda et al. 2017). This number is a result of processes that negatively affect open sandy sites: afforestation, application of high doses of insecticides and pesticides, increase of nitrogen content in soil, and soil degradation (Beránková and Ungermann 1996). ...
... We transferred the collected materials into 75% ethanol and the first author identified all of them to species, using the nomenclature according to Bogusch et al. (2007). We evaluated the proportions of red-listed species (according to Hejda et al. (2017) and sand specialists according to Bogusch et al. (2020)). To compare species richness of the analysed datasets, we calculated the number of shared species, the Sørensen, Bray-Curtis and the combined Chao's Sørensen indices in EstimateS 9.1.0 ...
... Not surprisingly, nearly all recent localities of B. rostrata in the Czech Republic are situated in former military training areas and sandpits, as is the case with B. tarsata. After the disappearance from the whole of the Czech Republic around the year 1950 (last record is from Hradec Králové in 1953; Hejda et al. (2017)), this species returned and was first recorded at lignite spoil heaps in north-west of the country. At lignite spoil heaps, it forms strong populations in bare sand, and is sparsely recorded in nearby localities of natural character (Srba and Tyrner 2003;Srba and Heneberg 2012). ...
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Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is a conspicuous digger wasp, which is one of the most threatened species of bees and wasps in central Europe. Its distribution is restricted to sites with grey dunes or similar habitats, which B. rostrata needs for nesting. In the years 2012–2014, we have studied the ecological factors influencing the presence of this species in two localities in the Czech Republic, where this species is still relatively abundant. We found that B. rostrata needs continuity in the characteristics of the locality in time because B. rostrata avoids settling in newly emerging localities with the appropriate substrate. The decline in localities of B. rostrata in the Czech Republic correlated with habitat loss due to afforestation, incorrect conservational management, and isolation of the localities. The newly formed anthropogenic sites with fine-grained loose substrates, such as sandpits or fly ash deposits, were not colonised by B. rostrata. This is in sharp contrast with another species of the genus, Bembix tarsata, which is also endangered, but successfully settled in many bare sand patches on former lignite spoil heaps in the north-west of the country. We found that both species hunt Diptera as a prey for their larvae; both are generalists with a preference for species of the family Syrphidae. Unexpectedly, we found workers of the honeybee Apis mellifera captured as a prey for larvae of B. rostrata. Implications for insect conservation Newly applied management tools, such as army vehicles use, manual sand scraping, or plant cover removal, have a positive effect on populations of B. rostrata, as well as on other species with similar ecological requirements.
... Kromě těchto cílů je důležitý i aspekt ochrany. V Červeném seznamu České republiky jsou jako zranitelné či ohrožené druhy uvedeny pouze čtyři druhy různonohých korýšů podzemních vod [31], pátý druh nelze z důvodu nedostatku informací vyhodnotit. Je možné, že podrobnější výzkumy přinesou nové nálezy, a vyhodnocení, že se druh vyskytuje často a není tak třeba zvláštní ochrany. ...
... Každý další odběr vzorků tak může zvýšit počet zjištěných druhů a může dojít ke změně pohledu na četnosti výskytu druhů a tím i zařazení do stupně ochrany, např. v Červeném seznamu ohrožených druhů [31]. ...
Article
Groundwater organisms have so far only been studied sporadically in Bohemia. Groundwater fauna feeds on microbes which provide the ecosystem service of cleaning the groundwater from organics. Grazing by fauna may increase such degradation. This ecosystem service is the basis for drinking water production. However, there is lack of knowledge on how this service is threatened by global changes. Therefore, we have started an investigation in wells of national groundwater observation network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in South Bohemia and near Sokolov on existing invertebrates’ groundwater communities and present here first results which will also be the basis for choosing groundwater ecological monitoring sites. We characterized the fauna communities on a coarse level. Even on this coarse level, however, relationships become apparent. Dissolved oxygen did not limit groundwater fauna, but organic carbon did. The abundance of invertebrates was highest where organic carbon reached highest levels. Relationships with nutrients may indicate further, which type of exchange occurred with the surface. The coming research will focus on performing repeated sampling from the same localities, on the basis we will be able to evaluate the variability of the fauna occurrence in groundwater.
... The problems commented on by Gepp and Bregant (1986) and Gepp (1995Gepp ( , 2003, who proposed that the presence of S. curvatum is harmful to the native S. destillatorium, may then not be as important as was presented by the authors and certainly does not concern nesting sites. Additionally, Lukáš et al. (2006) and Hejda et al. (2017) confirmed recent spreading of S. destillatorium in the Czech Republic and Slovakia although both S. caementarium and S. curvatum occur in these countries, too. ...
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Sceliphron caementarium and Sceliphron curvatum are non-native species in Europe with former distributions in North America and Asia, respectively. Both species create nests of mud that are usually located inside, on the surface of, or near buildings. Though both species have been studied many times, knowledge on their nesting biology is based on a few studies with small numbers of non-analysed observational data. By collecting information on 123 S. caementarium nests, 341 S. curvatum nests, and 75 nests of the most widespread native species, Sceliphron destillatorium, the nesting place preferences of the wasps were evaluated. The three species do not differ in their nest placements within settlements, in the sizes of the settlements where they nest, or in their nesting locations, and they differ only slightly in the heights of their nests above the ground. The main difference is that S. curvatum nests are usually hidden inside buildings, while the other two species mostly create nests on the surfaces of buildings. Thus, S. curvatum could negatively affect its native relatives due to its high population density and competition for prey, but not due to the competition for nesting sites. Neither non-native species represents any threat to crops or landscapes; the species have only limited negative effects, such as building nests in or on peoples’ houses, carrying mud and spiders to these locations, and annoying people with their loud buzzing during nest building and provisioning. They are both regarded to represent minor threat according to SEICAT classification. Implications for insect conservation Both two non-native species are only very little harmful for the native species and probably also for other species of bees and wasps with similar nesting biology. Their harmfulness is much lower than that of other well known invasive insects (Harmonia axyridis and Vespa velutina for example).
... This may mean that in Poland the northern range limit passes through the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. Rugilus mixtus is included in the Red List of the Czech Republic's beetles with the status EN (endangered) (Farkač et al. 2005). Buchholz & Melke (2018) suggest that this species can be classified as an indicator species for determining forest naturalness. ...
Article
Rugilus mixtus (Lohse, 1956) is a rare species of Staphylinidae, found to exist only in a few European countries. In Poland, it was known from only three sites. Having analysed museum collections, we report 9 new locations. On the basis of the available literature and our observations of this species, we present its detailed ecological requirements, which, to date, are not fully recognized. The species is very likely to occur in humid biotopes, where the dead, rotting trees or stumps are essential elements and the vast majority of known sites are located in naturally important areas. Therefore, we suggest that Rugilus mixtus may be used as an indicator species in studies aimed to evaluate the naturalness of forest. In order to facilitate the correct identification of this species, we have used illustrations and photographs of their aedeagi to create a key for four similar species of the genus Rugilus occurring in central Europe.
... Representative specimens are available in the collections of Petr Bogusch (University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic). We identified the status of threatened bee and wasp species according to the most recent edition of the Red List provided by Hejda et al. (2017) with the correction for the missing sheet on cuckoo wasps. The findings of bees and wasps obtained from this set of reed galls were already represented in the analysis of general requirements of reed-associated bees and wasps published by Bogusch et al. (2020) and in the descriptions of larvae and nests of these species (Bogusch et al. 2015;Astapenková et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Anthropogenic habitats that are contaminated by toxic elements were recently shown to host abundant and diverse assemblages of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), including numerous threatened species. However, toxic elements adversely affect insect fitness. We address the effects of toxic elements on aculeate inquilines that occupy Lipara lucens-induced galls on the common reed, Phragmites australis. We hypothesized that contamination of potential nesting and feeding habitats is associated with adverse changes in bee and wasp populations that are attracted in these environments. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed the contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and S in site-matched samples of soil, reed galls, and crabronid wasp bodies and correlated them with abundance and species richness of aculeate hymenopterans in reed galls and with the number of larvae in nests of the eudominant hymenopteran, Pemphredon fabricii. The common reed was present at all the examined sites, and L. lucens-induced galls were present at all but one sampling site; the single exception was the sampling site with the highest contents of four of the seven analyzed elements. The alpha diversity of gall-associated aculeate inquilines, abundance of P. fabricii, and number of prepupae per nest of P. fabricii were not correlated with the contents of any of the seven analyzed toxic elements. We found P. fabricii to be abundantly present in habitats with extreme concentrations of toxic elements. Exposed P. fabricii accumulated Cd, Cu, and Pb, while they eliminated Fe and Zn. The obtained data did not support the hypothesis that heavy metal contamination of anthropogenic sites affects P. fabricii and other reed gall-associated aculeates.
... However, within the Czech Republic, the wider surroundings of Šardice still represent an attractive area from a conservation point of view. Above all, this is due to the geographical location in the warm and dry Pannonian Region, favouring the presence of many rare and threatened species of plants and animals (Hejda et al., 2017). These species are usually associated with the remnants of seminatural, mainly xerothermic grassland, still preserved as enclaves embedded in the intensively cultivated matrix. ...
Article
Urban areas have increased greatly in recent decades, which has resulted in habitat loss. However, the promotion of urban green spaces could have a profound effect on biodiversity. Traditional fruit orchards are an important land-use type with the potential to host myriad organisms. Our goal was to determine the most important factors that influence orchard biodiversity in the million city of Prague (the capital of the Czech Republic). We used a multitaxon approach to evaluate the effect of orchard restoration in a landscape context. Restoration had a positive impact on species diversity, specifically, the diversity of orthopterans and butterflies. Moreover, landscape context determined the biodiversity of orthopterans, butterflies, and birds but not that of lichens. Our study underlines the importance of both the internal and external structures of traditional fruit orchards for species richness and composition. The results of our study support the restoration of traditional fruit orchards as a suitable management practice for promoting city biodiversity. Furthermore, orchard restoration can improve the attractiveness of suburban areas. Such areas often lack sufficient urban greening. Thus, restoration in these areas can also increase future recreational value.
Article
Invasive, alien trees threaten native biodiversity, but detailed information about the patterns and mechanisms of diversity loss remain unknown. We explored the impact of an invasive tree on vascular plants and saproxylic beetles. We compared their species richness, community composition, and selected biological characteristics between stands of invasive black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), a nitrogen-fixing clonal tree, and native oak-dominated, broadleaf forests in the SE Czech Republic and W Slovakia. Compared to native forests, R. pseudoacia stands were characterised by low canopy cover, high light and soil nutrient availability, and similar deadwood volumes. R. pseudoacacia had species-poor, dense understorey vegetation composed of tall, nitrophilous herbs. Saproxylic beetles, on the other hand, were similarly diverse and abundant in both R. pseudoacacia stands and native forests. Their communities were mainly shaped by forest structure, as overall beetle diversity and guilds exploiting more decayed wood benefited from the open canopies and high deadwood volumes. Richness and abundance of threatened plants and beetles requiring fresh wood, together with total richness of threatened beetles were, however, substantially lower in R. pseudoacacia stands. The adverse impacts of R. pseudoacacia on plants partly contrasted with its much less pronounced effects on saproxylic beetles. In intensively exploited landscapes, R. pseudoacacia stands can offer refuge to saproxylic beetles. However their lower diversity and lower incidence of threatened species show that R. pseudoacacia contributes to homogenization and impoverishment of plant and insect assemblages. Robinia stands thus should be eliminated from protected areas and minimalised wherever biodiversity conservation is of concern.
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Reliable information for the conservation of many insects is lacking due to a poor knowledge of their ecology. Here, we review the biological knowledge about the European stag beetle (Lucanus cervus), in which recent advances are improving the basis for successful conservation. A review of the biological and ecological literature about this species identified an exponential increase in both total and peer‐reviewed articles after Natura 2000 regulations. Recent progress in the last two decades has been made in solving taxonomic problems, as well as in habitat description through radiotelemetry and habitat models. Dependence on large old‐growth forest has given place to a more complex picture of habitat use along the distribution range of this species. Monitoring protocols have been developed that will allow to assess conservation status and actual decline. Stag beetle conservation would benefit from a better understanding of larval demography, quantification of microhabitat requirements, landscape genetics and quantification of historical and current threats. Lessons learned include the need to solve taxonomic problems and to target methodological bottlenecks. The stag beetle is one of the few European saproxylic organisms that can engage the broad public through outreach activities and therefore its role as an umbrella species should be promoted.
Article
Most European temperate woodlands are managed as high forests by clear-cutting or selective cutting. Such forests are shady environments, providing limited opportunities for light-demanding woodland associated organisms. Coppicing has been identified as a suitable tool for biodiversity conservation, because it leads to a spatially and temporally dynamic mosaic of open and closed-canopy successional stages. However, the number of studies on insects is still limited in this respect, and cross-taxon comparisons are needed. We analysed the effect of the successional stage of coppice (time since last felling of coppice layer) on butterflies, moths, and saproxylic beetles, in floodplain coppice-with-standards woods dominated by oak (Quercus robur) and ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) in Lower Austria. We compared species richness, community composition, and life-history traits of the target groups among four stages of coppice: (i) Freshly cut: stands in the first season after felling; (ii) Young coppice: stands 3–7 years after felling; (iii) Mid-aged: advanced stage in 10–15 years after felling with dense undergrowth and high canopy closure; and (iv) Mature: latest stage of coppice, 30–40 years old. We found differences in species richness of butterflies and moths among the stages. Butterfly richness peaked in young coppice and was lowest in dense mid-aged stage. Moth richness was higher in late stages (mid-aged and mature) than in early ones (freshly cut and young). There was no effect on richness of saproxylic beetles. Species compositions of moths and beetles, however, differed among the stages, with the most pronounced difference between early and late stages. The successional stage affected composition of life-history traits of all study groups, showing that the particular stages are exploited by species with different functional/ecological associations to their habitat or by different trophic guilds. The results show that the diversity of all three target groups profited from coppicing. The small-scale mosaic of successional stages created by coppicing supports the existence of diversified communities of insects with both light-demanding and shade-tolerant species. Conservation managers may set variable rotation lengths in order to support threatened species associated with particular stages. In order to further support diversity of saproxylic beetles, conservation management should prioritize maintaining coppice-with-standards woods over simple coppices, some of the standards should be retained to become potential veteran trees in the future, coppice stools should be kept relatively high, and some of the felled trees or larger branches may be left in place on the ground for decay.
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