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Impact of industrial effluents on Alaro river in Oluyole industrial estate, Ibadan and its suitability for aquatic life

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Human activities involving urbanization, agricultural development, overuse of fertilizers, inadequate management of land use and waste disposal can affect the quality of water and making it unfit for both aquaculture and domestic purposes. Thus, overexploitation and its attendant pollution is dangerous and threatening to spoil freshwater and aquatic ecosystems. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate quality of water around an industrial area in order to assess its suitability for aquatic life and to evolve policies for use and protection of water resources. A total number of thirty (30) water samples were collected from six (6) different sites and were subjected to hydrochemical analysis using various standard methods to determine their conformity to World Health Organization (WHO) maximum allowance concentration. As against the WHO recommendation of absence of colouration for drinking water, the water samples were not all colourless but had varying colours ranging from light green to greenish brown. The mean values of Conductivity (387.27uS), pH (7.38), Total Suspended Solids [TSS] (423.87mg/L) and Total Dissolved Solids[TDS] (212.97mg/L) fall within the WHO standard, those of Salinity (0.18%), Turbidity (149.00 NTU), Biochemical Oxygen Demand[BOD] (106.80mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand[COD] (187.10mg/L) and NH4 (4.44mg/L) were higher than the WHO standard while Dissolved Oxygen[DO] (3.49mg/L) and Cl- (39.48mg/L) fall below the standard. These parameters make Alaro river unsuitable for aquatic life (fish) and therefore recommended that government and other stakeholders should take overdue steps in the development and implementation of waste water and industrial effluent receiving facilities in order to prevent discharge of untreated effluents into water bodies.
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Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
38
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
(P-ISSN 1595-093X: E-ISSN 2315-6201)
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v16i1.6
Kupoluyi et al./Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 16(1): 38 - 44.
Impact of industrial effluents on Alaro river in Oluyole industrial
estate, Ibadan and its suitability for aquatic life
AY Kupoluyi, SA Alarape* & OK Adeyemo
Fish and Wildlife Unit, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Ibadan
*Correspondence: Tel.: +2347067415086; E-mail: link2sas@yahoo.co.uk
Copyright: © 2018
Kupoluyi et al. This is an
open-access article
published under the
terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution
License which permits
unrestricted use,
distribution, and
reproduction in any
medium, provided the
original author and
source are credited.
Publication History:
Received: 13-01- 2017
Accepted: 28-07-2017
Abstract
Human activities involving urbanization, agricultural development, overuse of
fertilizers, inadequate management of land use and waste disposal can affect the
quality of water and making it unfit for both aquaculture and domestic purposes. Thus,
overexploitation and its attendant pollution is dangerous and threatening to spoil
freshwater and aquatic ecosystems. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate quality
of water around an industrial area in order to assess its suitability for aquatic life and
to evolve policies for use and protection of water resources. A total number of thirty
(30) water samples were collected from six (6) different sites and were subjected to
hydrochemical analysis using various standard methods to determine their conformity
to World Health Organization (WHO) maximum allowance concentration. As against
the WHO recommendation of absence of colouration for drinking water, the water
samples were not all colourless but had varying colours ranging from light green to
greenish brown. The mean values of Conductivity (387.27uS), pH (7.38), Total
Suspended Solids [TSS] (423.87mg/L) and Total Dissolved Solids[TDS] (212.97mg/L) fall
within the WHO standard, those of Salinity (0.18%), Turbidity (149.00 NTU),
Biochemical Oxygen Demand[BOD] (106.80mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand[COD]
(187.10mg/L) and NH4 (4.44mg/L) were higher than the WHO standard while Dissolved
Oxygen[DO] (3.49mg/L) and Cl- (39.48mg/L) fall below the standard. These parameters
make Alaro river unsuitable for aquatic life (fish) and therefore recommended that
government and other stakeholders should take overdue steps in the development
and implementation of waste water and industrial effluent receiving facilities in order
to prevent discharge of untreated effluents into water bodies.
Keywords: Fresh water, Hydrochemical, Pollution, Standard, Urbanization
Introduction
The importance of water to human beings and other
natural systems cannot be overemphasized and
there are numerous economic and scientific facts
that shortage of water as well as pollution can cause
rigorous decline in productivity and die-off of entire
ecosystems (Garba et al., 2008; Garba et al., 2010).
Pollution of the aquatic environment has been
defined by UNESCO/WHO/UNEP as the introduction
by man directly or indirectly of substances or energy
into the marine environment which results in such
deleterious effects as harm to the living resources
(Schwarzenbach et al., 2010; Novotny, 2003;
Harrington et al., 1985). Effluents generated from
domestic and industrial activities constitute major
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
39
sources of natural environmental pollution. This is a
great burden in terms of wastewater management
and can therefore lead to a point-source pollution
problem, which considerably increases treatment
cost as well as introduction of a wide range of both
chemical pollutants and microbial contaminants to
water sources (EPA, 1993, 1996; Eikelboom &
Draaijer, 1999; Amir et al., 2004). Presently,
industrial waste is the most common source of water
pollution due to the fact that industries are
increasing as a result of global industrialization
(Osibanio et al., 2011), while most industrial areas
are located near water sources due to large
quantities of water usage for its overall processing
(Osibanjo et al., 2011). According to Olaniyi et al.
,2012, there has been increasing consciousness on
effective treatment of industrial effluents before
their eventual discharge into water bodies but in
most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive,
enforcement of effluent quality standards backed by
legislation are occasionally easily flouted (Okereke,
2007).
Industrial waste discarded into natural water bodies
constitutes a serious source of environmental
pollution in Nigerian rivers, which has been shown to
strongly affect the water quality, as well as the
microbial and aquatic flora (Kanu & Achi, 2001).
Eutrophication of water bodies may also generate
environmental circumstances that enhance toxin-
producing cyanobacteria growth causing
gastroenteritis, liver damage, nervous system
impairment, skin irritation and liver cancer in
animals (EPA, 2000; Eynard et al., 2000) as well as
dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis, cholera, etc in humans
(Galadima et al., 2011).Due to large quantity of
effluents discharged into the receiving water bodies,
the decreased processes of pathogen reduction
might contribute to the spread of diseases.
Consequences of low dissolved oxygen levels include
reduced survival of fish by increasing their
susceptibility to diseases, retardation in growth,
hampered swimming ability, alteration in feeding
and migration, and, when extreme, lead to rapid
death. Long-term reductions in dissolved oxygen
concentrations can result in changes in species
composition (Welch, 1992; Chambers & Mills, 1996;
Environmental Canada, 1997). Temperature is
another factor affecting aquatic ecosystems. An
increase in the average temperature of a water body
can have ecological impacts. Because municipal
wastewater effluents are warmer than receiving
water bodies, they are sources of thermal
enhancement (Welch, 1992; Horner et al., 1994).
Also, industrial wastes altering water pH and
providing excessive bacterial nutrients frequently
compromise the ability of natural processes to
inactivate and destroy pathogenic organisms
(Gerardi & Zimmarman, 2005). In addition,
suspended solids affect aquatic ecosystems in terms
of reduced photosynthesis, physical harm to fish,
and toxic effects of contaminants attached to
suspended particles (Horner et al., 1994).
Aquatic organisms, including fish, amass pollutants
directly from contaminated water and indirectly
through the food chain (Hammer, 2004;
Mohammed, 2009). According to Galadima et al.,
2011, water pollutants are commonly pathogens, silt
and suspended solid particles such as waste foods,
soils, sewage waste materials, cosmetics, automobile
emissions, construction rubble and eroded rivers
and waterways banks. The degree of discharge of
industrial and domestic effluents is such that rivers
receiving untreated effluents cannot provide the
dilution required for fish survival as good quality
water sources. This study was therefore aimed at
revealing the adverse effects of untreated industrial
effluents on several parameters of water quality in
Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Oyo state.
Materials and Methods
Study site
The location of the five (5) selected sites (Paper Mill,
Industrial Light Packaging Cartons [Interpak], Steel
Mill, Block Molding Industry and Poultry Farm) was
Alaro River along Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ring
Road, Ibadan, Oyo state (North-east of Ibadan in the
South-western part of Nigeria)
Description
The sample sites were considered to reflect different
activities in the catchment area (upstream and
downstream) which may affect the water quality
situation of the river. Six points of sample selection
were considered for each of the five (5) sites along
Alaro river. The description of the sample collection
points is shown in Table 1-5 as follows; P
(PaperMills), I (Interpak (Industrial Light Packaging
Cartons)), SM (SteelMill), B (Block Molding Industry),
Z (Poultry Farm), T (Top Layer), B (Bottom Layer)
while confluence is the point at which the effluent
enters Alaro river.
The physico-chemical parameters considered include
pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended
Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD),
Salinity, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO),
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate,
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
40
Chloride, Phosphate, Ammonium,
Conductivity and colour. The
parameters were determined using
Hach® water quality test kits, water
quality meters and
spectrophotometer.
Water samples were collected and
analyzed within 24 hours using
Hach® water quality test kits and
spectrophotometer. Dissolved
oxygen and total dissolved solids
were measured on site.
Data obtained from the water
sample was computed and
presented as Means ± Standard
Deviation using GraphPad Prism
6.0.
Results
The physico-chemical parameters of
Alaro river vary depending on the
nature of activities and quality of
effluent discharged into it from the
industrial estate. Due to inadequate
public water supply to the people
living in the area traversed by Alaro
river, people within this area use
the water for drinking, bathing and
other domestic affairs. The colour
of the water sample as shown in
Table 6 where both Interpak and
Steel mill empty their effluents
were colourless, which is in
conformity with WHO standard.
Paper mill and Block Molding
(289.34mg/L), DO (2.45mg/L) and
Cl- (54.98mg/L) are lower than the
WHO maximum recommended
industries were light green and
poultry farm appeared greenish-
brown indicating their non-
conformity with WHO standard.
The pH at different point of
sampling ranged between 6.78-7.72
(Table 7) and was thus within the
recommended range (6.50-8.00) for
both drinking purpose and aquatic
animals. Conductivity around the
Poultry Farm effluent point was the
highest (610.50uS), however all the
sampling points were within the
Table 1: Description of Paper mill water sample collection points
Sample
Code Description
P1T
Top layer of confluence between paper mill and Alaro river
P2B
Bottom layer of confluence
P2T
About 20m downstream of P1T
P2B
Bottom layer of P2T
P3T
About 25m downstream of P2T
P3B
About 25m downstream of P2T
Table 2: Code description of Interpak (Industrial Light Packaging Cartons)
water sample collection points
Sample
Code Description
I1T
Top layer of confluence between Interpak and Alaro river
I1B
Bottom layer of confluence of I1T
I2T
About 30m downstream of I1T
I2B
Bottom layer of confluence of I2T
I3T
About 20m downstream of I2T
I3B
Bottom layer of I2T
Table 3: Code description of Steelmill water sample collection points
Sample
Code Description
SM1T
Top layer of confluence between steel mill and Alaro river
SM1B
Bottom layer of confluence of SM1
SM2T
About 20m downstream of SM1
SM2B
Bottom layer of confluence of SM2
SM3T
About 35m downstream of SM2
SM3B
Bottom layer of confluence of SM3
Table 4: Code description of block making industry water sample collection
points
Sample
Code Description
B1T
Top layer of confluence between Block Molding industries and
Alaro river
B1B
Bottom layer of confluence of B1T
B2T
About 35m away from B1T
B2B
Bottom layer of confluence of B2T
B3T
About 20m away from B2T
B3B
Bottom layer of confluence of B3T
Table 5: Code description of poultry farm water sample collection points
Sample
Code Description
Z1T
Top layer of confluence between Poultry Farmand Alaro river
Z1B
Bottom layer of Z1T
Z2T
About 20m away from Z1T
Z2B
Bottom layer of confluence of Z2T
Z3T
About 25m away from Z2T
Z3B
Bottom layer of Z3T
Table 6: Different water colouration of sample sites observed at Alaro river
Sample Sites
Colour Observation
Paper Mill
Light green
Interpak
Colourless
Steel Mill
Colourless
Block Molding Industries
Light green
Poultry Farm
Greenish
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
41
Table 7: Mean physico-chemical parameters of sample sites (Alaro river) and standards
Industries
Discharging
Effluents at
Sample Site
pH
Conduc-
tivity (uS)
TSS
(mg/L)
Sali-
nity
(%)
Turbi-
dity
(NTU)
TDS
(mg/L)
DO
(mg/L)
BOD
(mg/L)
COD
(mg/L)
NH4
(mg/L)
Cl-
(mg/L)
Paper Mill
7.20
±
0.16
319.00 ±
67.88
220.33
± 71.66
0.14
± 0.05
50.83
± 27.11
164.17 ±
9.67
3.35
± 0.68
61.50
± 57.28
112.34
± 94.28
3.57
± 1.64
37.50
± 17.69
Interpak
7.55
±
0.00
315.50 ± 4.00
447.00
± 56.57
0.15
± 0.03
192.17
± 5.89
161.00 ±
2.83
3.94
± 0.19
25.67
± 0.47
53.50
± 0.71
4.10
± 0.37
37.45
± 20.03
Steel Mill
7.63
±
0.14
348.34 ±
20.74
503.84
± 56.34
0.15
± 0.03
200.17
± 55.39
289.34 ±
12.25
4.13
± 0.28
68.83
± 65.76
127.00
±
103.70
4.98
± 1.09
42.47
± 27.08
Block Molding
industries
7.72
±
0.14
343.00 ± 4.71
280.00
± 9.43
0.17
± 0.00
84.67
± 1.41
161.00 ±
2.83
3.57
± 0.47
20.67
± 16.97
45.17
± 27.58
3.25
± 1.31
25.00
± 4.70
Poultry Farm
6.78
±
0.09
610.50 ±
28.99
668.17
±
286.85
0.30
± 0.00
217.17
± 155.33
289.34 ±
12.25
2.45
± 0.21
357.33
± 79.20
597.50
±
129.87
6.28 ±
1.65
54.98
± 2.35
Overall Mean
7.38
3387.27
423.87
0.18
149.00
212.97
3.49
106.80
187.10
4.44
39.48
WHO Standard for
Drinking Water
6.50-
8.50
500
5
500
6
10
0.03
200
Standard for
Aquatic Animals
(Bhatnagar & Devi,
2013)
6.50-
8
300-1500
150
0.05-0.1
5
10-500
>5
3-6
< 0.03
60
WHO standard (300-1500uS). It should be noted that
Poultry Farm effluent’s Conductivity (610uS), TDS
values while TSS (668.17mg/L), Salinity (0.3%),
Turbidity (217.17 NTU),BOD (357.33mg/L), COD
(597.50mg/L) and NH4 (6.28mg/L) were higher than
the recommended values. The Overall mean
physico-chemical properties of the Alaro river (Table
1) revealed that pH (7.38), Conductivity (387.27uS),
TSS (423.87mg/L), T (mg/L)DS (212.97mg/L) and Cl-
(39.48mg/L) were within the recommended range
(Figure 1). Salinity (0.18%), BOD (106.80mg/L),
Turbidity (149 NTU) andNH4 (4.44mg/L) were higher
than the recommended range values while DO
(3.49mg/L) was lower (Figure 2).
Discussion
All aquatic organisms have endurable limits of
physico-chemical properties of water within which
they perform optimally. Exceeding these limits can
have unfavorable effects on their body
performances (Davenport, 1993; Kiran, 2010). In this
study, mean values of conductivity (387.27uS), pH
(7.38), TSS (423.87mg/L) and TDS (212.97mg/L) were
within the WHO standard, those of Salinity (0.18%),
Turbidity (149.00 NTU), BOD (106.80mg/L), COD
(187.10mg/L) and NH4 (4.44mg/L) were higher than
the WHO standard, while DO (3.49mg/L) and Cl-
(39.48mg/L) were below the standard.
The high mean turbidity (149.00 NTU) make Alaro
river inappropriate for aquatic life, because of
interference with sunlight penetration which hinder
photosynthesis and eventual reduction of oxygen
production for fish and aquatic life. High turbidity
also creates large amounts of suspended matter
which clog the gills of fish and shellfish, eventually
causing death.
High mean BOD (106.80mg/L) and COD
(187.10mg/L) denote high degree pollution of the
river with organic matter due to untreated discharge
of municipal and domestic waste. This makes the
water body unsuitable for aquaculture. According to
Bhatnagar et al. (2004), the BOD level between 3.0-
6.0mg/L is optimum for normal activities of fish, 6.0-
12.0mg/L is sublethal to fish and above 12.0mg/L
can usually cause death to fish due to suffocation.
The mean value of Ammonia found in this study was
markedly high (4.44mg/L) as compared to the
recommended range (0.0-0.03mg/L). Ammonia is
toxic to fish and aquatic organisms, even in very low
concentrations. According to Santhosh & Singh
(2007), Ammonia concentrations greater than
0.1mg/L cause gill damage, destroy mucous
producing membranes, produce “sub- lethal” effects
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
42
like poor feed conversion, reduced
growth and disease resistance, and
at concentrations lower than lethal
concentrations can cause osmo-
regulatory imbalance and kidney
failure. When ammonia levels
reach 0.06 mg/L, fish can suffer gill
damage. At 0.2 mg/L, sensitive fish
like trout and salmon may die,
while ammonia-tolerant fish like
carp may tolerate concentrations
below 2.0 mg/L. Ammonia levels
above approximately 0.1mg/L
usually indicate polluted water
and/or water source. Maximum
tolerance of ammonia
concentration for aquatic
organisms is 0.1 mg L -1 (Meade,
1985).
The mean DO value of Alaro river
(3.49mg/L) is less than
recommended value (>5mg/L),
though, Santhosh & Singh (2007)
opined that catfish and other air
breathing fishes can survive in low
oxygen concentration of 4.0mg/L.
This however does not apply to
non-air-breathing fish species.
Minimum concentration of 1.0mg/L
DO is important to sustain fish for
long period and 5.0mg/L is
adequate in fishponds (Ekubo &
Abowei, 2011).
In conclusion, the biological,
chemical and physical aspects of
water quality are interwoven and
must be considered together. For
instance, higher water temperature
reduces the solubility of Dissolved
Oxygen (DO), and may cause
shortage of DO that kills more
sensitive fish species. The rotting
fish carcasses may subsequently
Figure 1: Distribution of overall mean physico-chemical parameters of
water samples that fall within WHO and aquatic standard parameters
Figure 2: Distribution of overall mean physico-chemical parameters of
water samples that fall outside WHO and aquatic standard parameters
contribute to bacterial growth which might promote
the spread of disease e.g. in human swimmers or
boaters (Barnes et al., 1998). This study shows
significant deviation of Alaro river from WHO
recommended standard values for aquatic life, thus
there is high need for government and other
stakeholders like Environmental Health Officers,
Veterinary Public Officers and regulatory agencies to
take a bold step in the development and
implementation of waste water and industrial
effluent receiving facilities before they are channel
to the water bodies.
We demonstrate the pressing need of strict
regulations in disposal of solid wastes, waste oil and
biological waste including fish offal. There should be
proper monitoring programmes to identify water
pollution sources which discharge pollution into the
water bodies directly or indirectly. Furthermore,
education efforts should be made to sensitize the
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 16 (Number 1). March, 2018
43
local population regarding the adverse effect of river
pollution on both human and animal life.
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Second edition. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Pp 45.
... O avanço e o desenvolvimento urbano têm causado prejuízos aos ambientes aquáticos provocando mudanças na qualidade da água que podem refletir na saúde da biota. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que o tratamento inadequado de efluentes domésticos e industriais e de resíduos agrícolas pode afetar negativamente esses sistemas (STEFFENS et al., 2015;KUPOLUYI et al., 2018;SANTANA et al., 2018;BIERSCHENK et al., 2019;MAURYA et al., 2019), promovendo a degradação do habitat, a redução da cobertura vegetal e a eutrofização dos ambientes (WAITE et al., 2019), caracterizando-se como uma grande ameaça à biodiversidade local (BATISTA et al., 2016). ...
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Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do uso e cobertura do solo e da qualidade da água em córregos da bacia do Alto rio Paraná sobre o potencial genotóxico em duas espécies de peixes nativas – Pimelodella avanhandavae e Hypostomus ancistroides. O uso e cobertura do solo nos córregos analisados está primariamente associado a atividades antropogênicas, sobretudo agrícolas. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água se enquadraram aos limites estabelecidos pela resolução ambiental brasileira, com exceção da condutividade elétrica, que superou os valores máximos permitidos. Não encontramos diferenças significativas (p>0,05) entre os locais com relação à frequência de micronúcleos em ambas as espécies. Para outras anormalidades, no entanto, foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os locais comparados para P. avanhandavae, com maior frequência de invaginação do citoplasma no córrego Curral de Arame, que apresentou maior condutividade e menor concentração de oxigênio dissolvido que o córrego Laranja Doce. Para H. ancistroides, tanto núcleo lobulado quanto invaginação nuclear apresentaram maior frequência no córrego Curral de Arame, caracterizado por maior ocupação agrícola que o córrego Água Boa, que está localizado em uma área urbana. Nesse sentido, as frequências das anormalidades citadas indicam que, possivelmente, o impacto da agricultura esteja sendo mais prejudicial às espécies que os impactos decorrentes da ocupação urbana.
... The usefulness of physico-chemical variables as indicators of urban and industrial pollution has been addressed before (e.g., Kupoluyi et al., 2018;Cortelezzi et al., 2019). Several authors registered high concentrations of organic matter, nutrient enrichment, and a decrease in dissolved oxygen water in many sites of the catchment regardless of land use (Magdaleno et al., 2001;Malpartida, 2010;Cattaneo and Sardi, 2013;Alonso, 2019;Paredes del Puerto et al., 2021). ...
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Urbanization and industrialization produce substantial changes in biodiversity and in the functionality of ecosystems. However, little is known about how anthropic pressures might drive these changes and about their functional consequences. We aimed to determine the responses of macroinvertebrate biological traits to urban and industrial pollution and assess the impacts of these disturbances on the functional diversity of these assemblages. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates in 27 sites of four basins with different urban disturbance gradients (rural, peri-urban, and urban-industrial), among them the Matanza-Riachuelo River, one of the most polluted basins in the world. We classified macroinvertebrates into 11 traits and 56 categories. Then, we performed an RLQ analysis and computed functional richness, evenness, divergence and Rao diversity indexes for each site and community weighted means for each trait category. The urban and industrial sites (mainly low and middle Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin) showed high concentrations of ammonium, SRP, conductivity, COD, BOD, and organic matter, as well as the lowest values of DO. The functional richness and Rao index of these sites were significantly lower than that of the other sites. Macroinvertebrate traits associated with urban and industrial sites were aerial respiration (spiracles), forms of resistance (eggs or statoblast), cylindrical body shape, oviparity, feeding on microinvertebrates, and full water swimmers. These traits potentially enabled tolerant species persistence at polluted sites while gills, grazers, and crawlers were sensitive to these disturbances. Urban and industrial activities influence biological traits, producing the disappearance or dominance of certain traits in macroinvertebrate assemblages. As a consequence, extreme pollution caused predictable trait-based community changes resulting in reduced functional diversity, and potentially altered the ecosystem function.
... In a similar field study on water quality parameters of one of the major rivers traversing an industrial estate in Ibadan to determine its suitability for aquatic life. It was revealed that the physico-chemical properties of the river were not within the World Health Organization standard and thus rendered unsuitable for aquatic life (Kupoluyi et al., 2018). Furthermore, the pollution status of other aquatic ecosystems in Nigeria such as the coastal waters of the Niger Delta, the Lagos lagoon, Lekki lagoon, among others have demonstrated the impact of anthropogenic pressures due to infrastructure development, exploitation of aquatic resources, shipping and other forms of water transportation, oil prospecting and extraction, sand mining and so on (Nwaichi and All responses to external stressors, including toxicants, have been linked to changes in normal patterns of gene expression (Ellwood and Foster, 2004, Grifiitt et al, 2012, Thomas and Meyer, 2012. ...
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Biomonitoring offers an appealing tool for the assessment of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Biological processes, species, or communities of bioindicators are used to assess the quality of the environment and how it changes over time. Bioindicators include algae, macrophytes, zooplanktons, insects, bivalves, molluscs, gastropods, fish, amphibians, and others. Changes in aquatic ecosystems are often attributed to anthropogenic disturbances, including pollution. Major contributors to aquatic pollution include wastewater, metals and metalloids, industrial effluents, contaminated sediments, nutrients, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs, emerging contaminants (such as microplastics and engineered nanoparticles), pesticides, herbicides, and endocrine disruptors. In this review, we discuss categories of aquatic pollutants, status and trends of aquatic biomonitoring and approaches, from genomics to populations. We conclude by offering recommendations for research and regulatory testing.
... Moreover, increased discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers or directly into seas is a significant threat to the quality of water and public health (Chonova et al. 2018;Kupoluyi et al. 2018;Ward et al. 2018). Discharging of nitrogen and phosphorus into water resources causes the spread of diseases such as thyroid cancer and also methemoglobin in Responsible editor: Ta Yeong Wu children. ...
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Treatment of wastewater by using of microalgae is a cost-effective system. Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 and Chlorella vulgaris were studied in this research. Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 was isolated from the dairy wastewater. In this study, treated wastewaters in preliminary and secondary treatment units of dairy wastewater treatment plant were used as medium. Maximum growth of two species of microalgae was examined in these two mediums, and also, nutrient removal was studied. The performance of two species of microalgae was studied on laboratory scale at different temperatures and light intensities. The best observed temperatures for Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 were 25 and 28 °C, respectively, and the best observed performance for them was obtained at 7500 lx. The values of specific growth rate and biomass productivity in effluent of preliminary treatment unit for Chlorella vulgaris were 0.331 day⁻¹ and 0.214 g L−l day⁻¹, respectively, and for Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 were 0.375 day⁻¹ and 0.233 g L−l day⁻¹, respectively. Also, these parameters for Chlorella vulgaris in effluent of secondary treatment unit were determined 0.359 day⁻¹ and 0.166 g L-l day⁻¹, respectively, and for Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 were obtained 0.422 day⁻¹ and 0.185 g L−l day⁻¹, respectively. The removal efficiency of nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand for Chlorella sorokiniana pa.91 and Chlorella vulgaris in both of effluents was more than 80%. Based on the results, effluent of treatment plants can be a suitable microalgae growth medium, and the microalgae can be used as effective post treatment system.
... This problem has been documented in cities with deficient treatment of industrial effluents, e.g. Osibanjo et al., 2011;Walakira and Okot-Okumu, 2011;Islam and Huda, 2016;Kupoluyi et al., 2018. In relation to the post-urban sector, the impact of sewage treatment plant discharge (STPD) and the existence of failing or illegally connected sewer pipes upstream may cause the elevated nutrient concentrations reported for urban rivers (Potter et al., 2014). ...
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Ponds are known to have greater biodiversity of species. They are the habitats of many aquatic animals and plants. The purpose of the study is to compare the water quality of the Temple Pond to give a reference for conservation management for this aquatic species and help improve water quality and aquatic biodiversity. Temple Pond is located opposite Bara Talab near Main Road of Lohardaga town of Jharkhand. It is a habitat of fishes – mostly carp. For the study of physicochemical parameters of the pond, water samples were collected for three periods of the year, i.e. pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (August), and post-monsoon (November) for two consecutive years (2015–2016). Samples were stored according to the preservation procedure followed by AS/NZS 5667.1:1998, and analysis was done using standard procedure. Major water parameters such as pH (7.20–7.40), Total Hardness (35.60–61.20), Nitrate (mg/L) (1.10–2.40), Chloride (mg/L) (22.00–33.00), Fluoride (mg/L) (0.02–0.04) were recorded low value; however, Dissolved oxygen (D.O) (mg/L) (4.10–6.90) and Biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D) (mg/L) (2.50–4.20) were little higher than Standard Tolerance limit per classified use of water class depending on various uses of water (ISI-IS: 2296–1982), revealed that the pond is suitable for outdoor bathing (Class-B) and D – Fish culture and aquatic life propagation.
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The paper focuses primarily on the causes, consequences and ways of mitigating the ongoing fresh water pollution problems among Nigerian communities. Adequate supply of safe and sanitised fresh water is an inevitable factor for human and economic development. Although the recent global attention focuses on how the current and foreseeable water crisis and associated consequences would be addressed, lack of education, low budgetary funding, inefficient government policies, corruption, drought and other anthropogenic factors are increasingly contributing to the pollution of domestic water in Nigeria. The homes, local markets, abattoirs, oil and agricultural activities are consistently severing the limited fresh water sources through disposal of harmful wastes. This led to the emergence of several diseases and heavy metals poisoning across the country. The only ways forward are the proper sanitary, awareness and waste management education, adequate funding of water resources and health sectors, effective implementation of judicial measures and adoption of lessons from key developed countries like United Kingdom. A "collective" approach is required for successful implementations.
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Industrial wastewaters entering a water body represent a heavy source of environmental pollution in Nigerian rivers. It affects both the water quality as well as the microbial and aquatic flora. With competing demands on limited water resources, awareness of the issues involved in water pollution, has led to considerable public debate about the environmental effects of industrial effluents discharged into aquatic environments. Industrial effluents are characterized by their abnormal turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total hardness. Industrial wastes containing high concentration of microbial nutrients would obviously promote an after-growth of significantly high coliform types and other microbial forms. Organic pollution is always evident and the pollution is made worse by land-based sources such as the occasional discharge of raw sewage through storm water outlets, and industrial effluents from refineries, oil terminals, and petrochemical plants. Waste effluents rich in decomposable organic matter, is the primary cause of organic pollution. Waste waters from textile, brewery, food and beverages, paper, pulp and palm oil industries, the cases chosen, are believed to give a broad outline of industrial wastes as well as disposal problems.
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Twenty samples of fresh water from different sources in Karaye Local Government Area, Kano State were randomly collected and subjected to Arsenic speciation and pH determination using standard Laboratory methods. Average pH values for all the sampling units indicated no deviation from allowed limits and ranged from 6.89-7.48 with an overall mean of 7.34. The mean arsenic concentrations varies from 0.10 to 0.60mg/L and a mean of 0.34mg/L, which is above the World Health Organization drinking water guideline (0.0lmg/L). Therefore, the sources of drinking water were found to be contaminated with abnormal concentration of arsenic species and consumers are vulnerable to severe health hazards. The high arsenic concentrations could be attributed to both natural and anthropogenic processes such, as erosion, undersurface weathering, toxic chemicals, improper waste and sewage disposal, wastes from industries, agricultural activities and vehicular emissions.
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By recognising the behavioural similarities between point and non-point dischargers and using estimation methods such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation, many methods for more efficient, effective control are possible. The serious water pollution problem in the USA can be solved by a number of economic measures but the most promising policy is the one which includes subsidies and a trading policy in which many landusers together benefit by tax incentives and fees.-after AuthorsQuality of the Env Div, Resources for the Future, 1755 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
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The present study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics of the waters in two fish ponds , located near Bhadra project region , Karnataka, which is the main water source for fish seed rearing and culture of brood fishes in this area. The present investigation was carried out during December 2006 to May 2007. The water quality parameters studied for the current study were water temperature, pH, acidity, total alkalinity, free CO 2 ,dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness. The values obtained were compared with values recommended in water quality standards by WHO, BIS and USPHS. The high phosphate and nitrate concentrations were attributed to water leached surface soil runoff, as well as the addition of organic manure (cowdung and poultry manure) to the ponds . It will be necessary to delimit cattle and poultry manure access points to the ponds to reduce this type of organic pollution in the water bodies. Based on the results of present study it is concluded that the fish ponds are moderately hard to hard category.
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