BookPDF Available

Educating the Global Environmental Citizen: Understanding Ecopedagogy in Local and Global Contexts

Authors:

Abstract

Misiaszek examines the (dis)connection between critical global citizenship education models and ecopedagogy which is grounded in Paulo Freire's pedagogy. Exploring how concepts of citizenship are affected by globalization, this book argues that environmental pedagogues must teach critical environmental literacies in order for students to understand global environmental issues through the world's diverse perspectives. Misiaszek analyses the ways environmental pedagogies can use aspects of critical global citizenship education to better understand how environmental issues are contextually experienced and understood by societies locally and globally through issues of globalization, colonialism, socio-economics, gender, race, ethnicities, nationalities, indigenous issues, and spiritualties.
Educating the Global
Environmental Citizen
Misiaszek examines the (dis)connection between critical global citizenship
education models and ecopedagogy which is grounded in Paulo Freire’s
pedagogy. Exploring how concepts of citizenship are affected by
globalization, this book argues that environmental pedagogues must teach
critical environmental literacies in order for students to understand global
environmental issues through the world’s diverse perspectives. Misiaszek
analyses the ways environmental pedagogies can use aspects of critical
global citizenship education to better understand how environmental issues
are contextually experienced and understood by societies locally and globally
through issues of globalization, colonialism, socio-economics, gender, race,
ethnicities, nationalities, Indigenous issues, and spiritualties.
Greg Misiaszek is Assistant Professor of Education at Beijing Normal
University, China, and Assistant Director of the Paulo Freire Institute, UCLA.
Critical Global Citizenship Education
Edited by Carlos Alberto Torres
University of California Los Angeles, USA
1 Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Critical Global
Citizenship Education
Carlos Alberto Torres
2 Educating the Global Environmental Citizen
Understanding Ecopedagogy in Local and Global Contexts
Greg William Misiaszek
Educating the Global
Environmental Citizen
Understanding Ecopedagogy in Local
and Global Contexts
Greg William Misiaszek
First published 2018
by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
and by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa
business
© 2018 Taylor & Francis
The right of Greg William Misiaszek to be identied as author of this
work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78
of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or
reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical,
or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including
photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks
or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and
explanation without intent to infringe.
Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Names: Misiaszek, Gregery William, 1973- author.
Title: Educating the global environmental citizen : understanding
ecopedagogy in local and global contexts / by Greg William
Misiaszek.
Description: New York : Routledge, 2018. | Series: Critical global
citizenship education ; 2 | Includes bibliographical references.
Identiers: LCCN 2017041885 | ISBN 9781138700895 (hbk) |
ISBN 9781315204345 (ebk)
Subjects: LCSH: Environmental responsibility—Study and teaching. |
World citizenship—Study and teaching. | Education and
globalization.
Classication: LCC GE195.7 .M57 2018 | DDC 363.7/0071—dc23
ISBN: 978-1-138-70089-5 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-20434-5 (ebk)
Typeset in Times New Roman
by Apex CoVantage, LLC
To Lauren and our families, with concern for our
families’ future generations. This concern is extended to
friends and their families’ future generations, as well as
all humans and all that is Earth.
List of Figures viii
Preface: Series Editor Introduction ix
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction 1
1. Ecopedagogy: Teaching for Critical Environmental
Literacies 19
2. Connections Between Environmental and Citizenship
Pedagogies 53
3. Theoretical Lenses to View Socio-Environmental Issues 93
4. Whose Development? Contextualizing Sustainable
Development 146
5. Conclusion: Teaching to Save the Planet 186
Index 198
Contents
2.1 Citizenship Spheres and Their Complex Relationships 64
2.2 Gaps Between Biocentric and Anthropocentric Constructs 84
3.1 Theoretical Selection and Framework Construction:
Ecopedagogical Research Project in the Americas 96
3.2 Anthropocentric and Planetary Roles Outside of Humans of
Citizenships—Dis/connections 132
3.3 Planetary-Anthropocentric Continuum 135
Figures
Preface
Series Editor Introduction
Carlos Alberto Torres
Educating the Global Environmental Citizen is a tour de force. Rarely we nd
a book that contains such systematic level of analysis of a topic so relevant for
sustainability of the planet and the future of cosmopolitan democracies pro-
moting global citizenship education. Rarely does one nd a book with the level
of detail, both in analyses and criticism, that this book brings to the reader. This
book is a state-of-the-art analysis from a critical perspective of the connections
between ecopedagogy, sustainability, and global citizenship education.
Inspired by the work of Paulo Freire and critical pedagogy, Dr. Greg
Misiaszek provides an analysis of sustainability and its connections with
citizenship that is clearly documented and politically powerful in addressing
socio-environmental issues. In addition to his path-breaking work on ecopeda-
gogy from a Freirean perspective, the author is very well grounded in com-
parative education. This combined expertise accounts for Misiaszek’s ability
to inspect the topic through case studies, providing evidence-based research
underscoring his theses. Considering his intellectual resources, it is not sur-
prising that Misiaszek endorses a postcolonial tradition while inspecting the
workings of globalization and how it impacts on a planet deeply affected by
predatory cultures. Armed with the munition of analyses around critical race
theories, gender neoliberalism, Freire, Indigenous knowledges, and media lit-
eracy, this book offers a cornucopia of insights into one of the most complex
issues that our generation and generations to come will have to confront: how
to survive and prosper on a planet that is reaching the limits of its habitability.
Yet, it is not only the well-documented technical analysis and bibliographi-
cal review that makes this book a tour de force, but also the epistemological
principles that provides rich nutrients for our author. Like all critical theorists,
Misiaszek holds it impossible to fully dissociate the normative from the ana-
lytical in constructing scientic thought, thus the importance of the notion of
a good society to guide varied intellectual explorations. Similarly, Misiaszek
doesn’t deny the political role of education, for what Paulo Freire called the
politicity of education. Finally, Misiaszek’s book is not detached from historic-
ity of thought and policy prescriptions emerging from such theorizing, as not
all social constructions are equal in terms of logical conguration, methodo-
logical rigor, or solid empirical proof.
x Preface
The theme of ecology and sustainability, which Freireans called “ecopeda-
gogy,” was a theme Freire discovered late in life despite the fact that it was,
historically, a central theme of the utopian socialist tradition. The old master
ran out of time and was unable to formulate his analysis of planetary citi-
zenship, something that has become an indispensable theme in all discussions
about global citizenship, another surprisingly liminal concern for septuagenar-
ian Freire. It is ironic that, although his life experience, thought, and renown
were all enlarged to global proportions, Freire did not deal critically with the
theme of globalization and neoliberalism until the very end of his life. For-
tunately, one of Freire’s closest associates, and director of the Paulo Freire
Institute of São Paulo, philosopher Moacir Gadotti, and to some extent my
own work and some of my own students’ work, have initiated a new path of
reinventing Freire inspired in Gadotti’s important contribution Pedagogia da
Terra. Jointly with Gadotti, amply quoted in this book, and in the spirit of
the Vietnamese Buddhist Monk Thich Nhat Hanh, a whole generation of new
Freirean scholars like Greg Misiaszek has come along. In this spirit, this book
is, in many respects, an intelligent and well-documented reinvention of Freire
and ecopedagogy.
The implementation of the Global Education First Initiative (GEFI) in 2012
by then UN Secretary Ban-Ki Moon opened a new chapter in the global con-
versation about access and quality education, two key pillars of the GEFI. But
it is the third pillar of global citizenship—education—that emerges as a for-
midable principle of sustainability. As a central pillar in this program, global
citizenship education (GCE) is identied as a central component of social
transformation. GCE is predicated as a resource to enhance education for all,
quality of education, global peace, sustainability of the planet, and the defense
of global commons; as such, it dovetails very nicely with the principles of sus-
tainability and the defense of the planet. I am convinced, as Misiaszek argues,
that GCE as a pillar of sustainable development is one of the answers to the
challenges affecting global peace, such as growing inequality, global poverty,
neoliberal globalization, banking education, and predatory cultures destroying
the environment and our planet.
Like most critical theorists, I insist continuously on the need to criticize and
celebrate at the same time. Today I celebrate this insightful book, which opens
up so many avenues for thinking and praxis. Educating the Global Environ-
mental Citizen will guide us in the defense of the planet and in our struggle for
a better world; a world, in the words of Freire, in which it will be easier to love.
This book is rooted in the critical Freirean theorizing I learned through my
doctoral advisor, Distinguished Professor and UNESCO Chair Carlos Alberto
Torres, while at UCLA’s Graduate School of Education and Information Stud-
ies (GSEIS). Carlos, from a formal doctoral advisor ending six years ago to
now a senior colleague, has continued to be a lifelong academic mentor and a
source of academic and personal support. The critical roots of this book also
emerged from the UCLA GSEIS Social Sciences and Comparative Education
(SSCE) faculty, as well as many faculty members of the GSEIS departments
of Urban Schooling and Social Research Methodology, and UCLA’s Urban
Planning Department. This includes, but not limited to the rest of my doctoral
committee member Susanna Hecht, Douglas Kellner, and Peter McLaren.
Without the support of my primary institution, Beijing Normal University
(BNU), and my department of Institute of Educational Theories within the
Faculty of Education (FOE), this book would not have been possible. In par-
ticular, this book was, in part, funded by BNU FOE under the 2014 Funda-
mental Research Funds for the Comprehensive Construction of the Discipline
of Education.
It was also made possible with the support of the UCLA Paulo Freire Insti-
tute (PFI) and PFI São Paulo, which was indispensable in helping to shape
and coordinate access for much of the research found in this book, as well as
being part of the GCE Network of the UNESCO Chair in Global Learning and
Global Citizenship Education UCLA. It is essential that I acknowledge all of
the research participants in their willingness to give their valuable time to be
interviewed as part of this book and other work. I also want to acknowledge
the various nonprot institutions, beyond the PFIs, who gave their effort and
time to help provide participatory access. In addition, I want to acknowledge
the critical discussions, constructive critiques, endless language translations,
and unwavering support from my wife, Professor Lauren Ila Misiaszek, who
has been essential in conducting this book’s research and in the overall writing
of this book, as well as in all my academic work and accomplishments.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge some of the academic support that has
shaped and supported my academic work given in this book. First are my dis-
cussions over twenty-ve years ago with Professor Sheldon Kamieniecki, who
Acknowledgments
xii Acknowledgments
was the chair of the University of Southern California’s (USC) Environmental
Studies Program, that helped me realize my passion for environmental issues
and the realization for the need to change my undergraduate major to environ-
mental studies in my junior year. The environmental issues that I learned of so
many years ago are the bedrock of this book’s discussions of environmental-
ism. The more than twenty years of working at USC Davis School of Gerontol-
ogy have been essential in the construction of my academic work under UPS
Chair Professor Jon Pynoos and in my initial understanding of the importance
of education in transforming and empowering peoples’ lives in the work of
distance learning projects under Associate Dean Maria Henke and Emeritus
Dean Edward Schneider. It is important to note that without exibility and
overall support from Maria and Jon to be able to pursue all my graduate stud-
ies, this book and my overall scholarship would have been impossible. Lastly,
my master-level studies at the USC Rossier School of Education were indis-
pensable to complete this work, especially with my rst introduction to the
eld of comparative education, which is foundational in this book, under the
advisement of the late Professor William Rideout.
In approaching environmental issues, it is important to understand how our
(i.e., human) actions caused them and why were the actions done. The knowl-
edges and understandings of how our actions cause environmental ills is taught
in environmental pedagogies (e.g., Environmental Education (EE), Education
for Sustainable Development (ESD)); however, the deeper reasons of the
“why” and the deeper connections between social and environmental violence
are often not taught. Answering the complex but essential questions of “why
they occur” and “what are the socio-environmental connections” are at the
heart of the environmental pedagogy of ecopedagogy, or better termed in the
plural, ecopedagogies. Ecopedagogies are described throughout this book in
detail as teaching to understand the politics of human actions for environmental
harms from diverse perspectives and disciplines for critical environmental lit-
eracy. The term politics here, and throughout the book, unless otherwise noted,
describes the inuences on actions, with this book’s focus on environmentally
violent actions, whether intentional or not. This book focuses how ecopeda-
gogy with critical citizenship education models can help to lead to the envi-
ronmental actions by students and teachers that are needed to save the planet.
There are numerous roles of citizenship, as it relates to the environment, that
are contextually constructed according to the culture of the respective society
or “sphere of citizenship.” Within an increasingly globalized world, individu-
als have multiple spheres of citizenship beyond the traditional nation-state
sphere, from local to global citizenship and planetary citizenship. This plural-
ity of spheres of citizenship will be denoted with the plural term citizenships.
I argue that ecopedagogies’ focus on teaching to critically read and re-read the
politics of environmentally violent actions and socio-environmental connec-
tions as inherent responsibilities as citizens of the world and Earth1 is essential
for transformative actions by these citizens.
In beginning to discuss the politics of environmentally ill actions, the fol-
lowing statement is important to begin ecopedagogical teaching with.
When humans carry out environmentally harmful acts these acts are done
to benet some individual(s) and/or population(s).
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction
2 Introduction
While many environmental pedagogues might argue that beginning envi-
ronmental teaching with this statement is odd and possibly counterintuitive,
I argue it is an important point to problem-pose our actions, since without any
conceptualized benets, there would be no motive for the actions. The term
populations is an imperfect word for societal divisions between people, such
as, societies based on citizenship criteria and groupings based on gender, race,
ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, global South-North, religion/spiritu-
ality, and socio-economics. For example, why would U.S. Appalachian coal
companies partake in Mountain Top Removal (MTR) of blowing off the tops
of mountains unless it was to acquire coal for energy, if the benet was not the
result? However, answering the question of “Who benets?” is more complex
than determining the benefactors of the energy, but also poses the questions
on who benets from the MTR process specically and the use of coal as an
energy source.
The preceding statement leads to the following overall difcult, complex,
and debated question that is essential in environmental pedagogies.
Who benets, who pays, and who suffers from human action that is harm-
ful to the environment?
Before expanding the importance of this question, there are two important
items to note. First, is that Earth’s ecosystem is limitlessly complex with the
acknowledgment that we don’t know all linkages of this delicate balance.
Thus, the outcomes of human actions are often not the ones that are initially
desired and anticipated. Second, one must recognize the continuum of such
acts that the benets are frequently vast but unequal. The vastness could be
exemplied by more individualized actions of switching on a lamp or cutting
down a part of a forest to feed one’s family or community, both of which are
environmentally harmful actions. As well there are actions done by Transna-
tional Corporations (TNCs) such as MTR mining. There are various questions
of socio-environmental balance, such as, who benets the most for this type of
energy (i.e., coal) and the process of its removal (e.g., MTR), and who suffers
the most from its negative environmental impact in the MTR process and the
burning of coal for energy?
The benets/suffer question is essential in environmental pedagogies to
deepen and widen understandings by critically “reading” environmentally ill
actions. However, the question is often absent from teaching and/or super-
cially discussed and possibilities of environmental solutions are severely
limited to within current societal structures (e.g., economic and governing
structures). The term deepening understandings indicates gaining knowledge
of social and environmental injustices at more localized levels (e.g., group of
individuals, communities, populations). For example, it is better understanding
who suffers from socio-environmental injustices from TNCs at the local level.
Widening understandings signify that socio-environmental injustices must
be viewed from local to global perspectives, as well as planetary lenses to
Introduction 3
understand Earth holistically and beyond anthropocentric lenses (i.e., plan-
etary or biocentric lenses). An example of widening understandings would be
deconstructing the actions of the TNC, the impacts on nature beyond impacts
on humans’ from the TNC’s actions, and the politics emerging from the global
market. The need for both deepening and widening understandings emerges
from Davies (2006), with the call to demystify global citizenship:
not just a better understanding of the multicultural society we live in,
but the fact that this hybrid society is itself engaged in various economic
and cultural linkages outside. The now familiar slogan “act local, think
global” is an attempt to overcome some of the problems in what can be an
abstracted or far removed concept of global citizenship.
(9)
Ecopedagogues’ goal is to teach for deepened and widened students’ critical
environmental literacy within learning spaces and, more importantly, gaining
the critical tools for better understanding of environmental issues they encoun-
ter outside of non-/formal learning spaces. Such deepened and widened litera-
cies are essential for citizens’ praxis.
What Is Ecopedagogy?
Rooted in critical theories, originating from popular education models of Latin
America and reinventions of the Brazilian educational scholar Paulo Freire’s
work, ecopedagogies are transformational environmental pedagogies centered
on ending socio-environmental injustices. Ecopedagogy framed in this book
and throughout most of my work, centers on deepening and widening under-
standing oppressions from the connections between acts of environmental and
social violence (socio-environmental) for thorough and rigorous reection in
determining necessary actions to end the oppressions (i.e., praxis). Although
ecopedagogies have multiple denitions, they are all grounded in critical
thinking and transformability to construct praxis within social-environmental
justice models (Gutiérrez and Prado 2008; Gadotti and Torres 2009; Gadotti
2008c, 2000; Kahn 2010). Ecopedagogies’ overall goal is for students to criti-
cally understand how environmentally harmful acts lead to oppressions for
humans (anthropocentric aspects) and all else that makes up Earth (biocentric
aspects), the politics of the acts, and how to problematize the acts to end socio-
environmental oppressions.
As critical pedagogies, some key teaching aspects of ecopedagogies include
the following: democratic learning spaces where both students and teacher(s)
construct curricula and dialectally problem-pose environmental issues with
specic attention to incorporate diverse perspectives, disciplines, and histori-
cal analysis; teaching grounded in understanding socio-environmental oppres-
sions from those who suffer the most (bottom-up approach); and the overall
goal for students’ and teachers’ actions for socio-environmental justice. There
4 Introduction
is not a single critical approach/perspective to ecopedagogy, or a set of critical
approaches/lenses to teaching which is “good” and another is “bad,” but rather
that the critical essence of diverse ecopedagogical models must be contextual
in selction and construction, as this book will richly detail. Without a dogmatic
call for a single pedagogy or single framing of ecopedagogy, I utilize the plural
form of ecopedagogies.
There are numerous other aspects of ecopedagogy that will be discussed
throughout this book but I want to end this section by focusing on a central
argument I make, in that many environmental pedagogies fail by being non-
critical. I argue the need for an ecopedagogical paradigm shift within environ-
mental pedagogies. It is important to emphasize once again that ecopedagogy’s
goal is to both deepen and widen students’ understandings of environmental
issues to help guide their environmental actions through their reection of
these understandings. Although it is well-known that there are inseparable
connections between human acts of environmental harm and social injus-
tices (i.e., socio-environmental connections) (Stapp 1969; Gadotti 2008a),
many scholars (Gutiérrez and Prado 2008; Gadotti 2008c, 2000; Kahn 2010),
including myself, have argued that these connections are often not taught in
environmental pedagogies or not to a sufcient degree to bring about needed
socio-ecological change. Many environmental pedagogies, including many
ESD models which were constructed to connect social and environmental
issues under the banner of “sustainable development,” largely ignore socio-
environmental connections due to the inuences (or politics) from those who
benet from environmental ills, often in the name of “development.” All edu-
cation is for development, but I argue that we must teach to question who
benets, who does not benet, and what populations suffer the most for oth-
ers’ development. I argue that all environmental pedagogies, including EE and
ESD, must have the teaching goal for students to be able to critically unveil
the hidden politics of socio-environmental injustices and better understand the
injustices from local to planetary perspectives.
Deconstructing Environmental Violence
Deconstructing the unequal, unjust inequalities of environmental violence
must be central to transformative environmental pedagogies for students to
understand the differing types and degrees of oppression inicted upon them.
Ulrich Beck (1992) stated that “hunger is hierarchical, smog is democratic”
(Hannigan 2006, 23). Beck (1992) continued to argue that the factors of glo-
balization must be thoroughly analyzed to understand how environmental
harms are exported from more powerful to less powerful global regions, such
as relocations of polluting industries that benet the Global North to the Global
South, thus exporting the socio-environmental violence. The hierarchy of envi-
ronmental issues argued by Beck is mostly true, but it is important to not over-
simplify his hierarchical/democratic statement.
Introduction 5
Residing in Beijing for the past several years, I know that air pollution
affects everyone, regardless of socio-economic status. However, the degree in
which it affects Beijing residents differs. I have several privileges that greatly
decrease my exposure to the polluted air. I, along with my wife, who is also a
professor, have the nancial ability to have air puriers throughout our home
and a series of effective, well-designed but expensive air masks. As professors,
we rarely have pressures to use the masks because we can mostly work at home
unless teaching or attending meetings, which is a privilege of a high-status
profession. We also have the nancial and mobility means of leaving the city
during the months of the worst pollution and, if we deem necessary, we have
more security in our profession than a vast majority of others to leave Beijing
if necessary and the overall high mobility which accompanies having U.S.
passports.
On the other hand, many Beijing residents have long hours outside for their
employment and do not have the nancial ability to purchase air puriers or
facemasks or the ability to be mobile, lacking the ability to nd new employ-
ment, residence due to policies, travel documents, and/or skills. For example,
a migrant worker in Beijing or an undocumented worker in California will be
much more affected by environmental ills than my wife and me. As an example
of how children can be affected differently according to their parent’s socio-
economic status, Beijing has a few international elementary schools that are
fully equipped with air puriers throughout their buildings and a few have
large bubbles around their play areas for “bad air” days. Without needing to
be said, these schools are extremely exclusive and expensive, well beyond my
wife’s and my income due to large transnational corporations willing to pay
any amount to lure foreigners to move to Beijing. The way environmental ills
affect people differently is essential to critically teach, especially when envi-
ronmental ills reproduce historic social injustices based on roles placed upon
individuals, societies, and populations such as gender, race, spiritual/religious
belief (or lack of belief), sexual orientation, socio-economic status, nationality,
and global positioning.
Many socio-environmental inequalities are connected to historical oppres-
sions of populations but are not taught so they are largely unknown and thus
not addressed. To see how such lessons are not taught, ask people outside of
the environmental discipline if they have heard of terms such as ecoracism or
ecofeminism and, if they have, ask them their overall meaning. At least in my
own past experiences I often get blank facial expressions during such discus-
sions. Socio-economics is one of the largest factors of impact suffered from
environmental ills; however, with the focus of depth, ecopedagogy is to decon-
struct the complex web of the causes of socio-environmental oppressions with
the realization that it is almost never a single oppressive source. Deepened and
widened perspectives are essential to understand the politics of outside entities,
such as the effects of intensifying globalization, and how different types of
knowledges and sciences (e.g., Indigenous, Eastern, Western) help to explain
6 Introduction
socio-environmental justice issues. It is through such approaches that students
and teacher(s) construct the ecopedagogical learning spaces together.
Later in this book I provide the theoretical framework that emerged from
one of my research projects on ecopedagogical experts in Argentina, Brazil,
and Appalachia (U.S.). However, it is important to note that, outside of the
foundation of Freirean Pedagogy and scholarship which ground ecopedago-
gies, the selection of theories and the connections between theories emerges
from both students and teachers in learning spaces and the interpretation of
participant voices in research. I argue that all the theories I discuss in this book
need to be considered and signicantly understood in ecopedagogical teaching
and research, but it does not mean that it is an exhaustive list. Each should be
equally weighted in gaining understanding and constructing praxis, or the con-
nections between them will be the same. Rather what is needed is constructing
frameworks from what is determined to be needed in bottom-up methods, with
continuous questioning what is not known, what do we need to learn to know
what is missing, and what theories are needed to better understand the deter-
mined unknowns.
Citizenships: Multiple Citizenship Spheres
As traditionally focused on teaching to be a citizen of a nation-state, as well as a
tool for nation-state’s legitimization, widened governance to the global sphere,
as well as narrowing to more local spheres, has tested traditional citizenship
education in various ways (Keating, Ortloff, and Philippou 2009; Heater 2003,
2004). As previously mentioned and indicated in the title of this section, as
well as throughout this book, I will use the plural term citizenships to indicate
the multiple spheres of citizenship, with specic attention to its education and
the complicated connections with environmental pedagogies and praxis.
For supra-national citizenships, a key question is how do we understand
ourselves as common cultures, such as global regional citizens (e.g., East
Asia, Southeast Asia, Ibero-American), and/or as fellow citizens with diverse
cultures but citizenship based on being human? Fellow citizenship by being
human is Global Citizenship (GC) and its education is Global Citizenship
Education (GCE), with the combined acronym GC/E utilized in this book to
indicated both together. I will argue in this book that GCE is an essential frame-
work within all environmental pedagogies, including ecopedagogies, because
environmental violence is not conned to geopolitical borders, among other
social-constructed boundaries, but is global in its impact (Misiaszek 2015).
There are numerous examples of this, but global climate change probably is
one of the more well-known examples. There is also the important reason that
in an increasingly interconnected, globalized world, the politics of environ-
mental issues are global in reach and impact. In many ways, GC/E framings
help to widen our understanding of our complex world holistically, deepen our
understandings of the diversity of our world, and reinvent our solidarity for one
another as human beings.
Introduction 7
Teaching global citizenship is not a linear process but rather one that involves
teaching deeper and widened global understandings of the world’s diverse
cultures for global peace. The intensication of globalization inuences all
the world’s societies in both positive and negative ways, including the causes
and effects of environmental ills. GCE is essential to ecopedagogy for teach-
ing globalization’s causes and effects within the connectivity and solidarity
of citizenship, in which we, as humans, are all fellow global citizens with one
another, with one home—Earth. Ecopedagogy is essential to GCE for teach-
ing critical understandings of environmental actions’ effects on humans from
local to global (i.e., glocal) perspectives focusing on the often-hidden politics
for environmental ills and the goal of transformational actions from holistic
reection of unrestricted possibilities of transformation. These two pedagogies
together construct learning spaces within and between global and local socio-
environmental understandings. It is impossible to solve global problems, such
as social and ecological violence, without understanding the oppressions felt at
local levels because the resulting solutions are inherently awed by being con-
textually void, top-down solutions. The opposite is also awed when only local
understandings (bottom-up perspectives) of environmental issues are taught
because environmental ills are often geopolitically borderless, such as climate
change and air pollution.
The complexities of Earth, the planet, within each of and between the mul-
tiple framings of citizenships, including the commonalities and differences,
both coincide and conict with one another. These points of coincidence and
conict will be unpacked throughout this book, but here I want to introduce an
even wider sphere of citizenship—Planetary Citizenship (PC) and its teaching
as Planetary Citizenship Education (PCE, PC/E together). Planetary citizen-
ship is a reconstruction of how we view ourselves with all else that makes up
the planet, including the atmosphere, as a single being, as Earth as a citizen
(Gadotti and Torres 2009; Gadotti 2011, 2008b).2 Explained in detail through-
out this book, this citizenship sphere allows for biocentric lenses of viewing
environmental ills, that is beyond anthropocentric perspectives that center
humans’ interests, whether they coincide with socio-environmental justice or
not. In short, the planetary citizenship sphere provides for the widest perspec-
tive of what is environmental justice with solidarity of all that is Earth, includ-
ing ourselves as part of Earth, but without singularly centralizing humans’
socio-environmental justice. Within frameworks of ecopedagogy, the ques-
tion of “who” is not anthropocentric but is inclusive of animals (in addition to
humans) and other organic entities (e.g., trees, plants), as well as the inorganic
environment (e.g., mountain ranges, seascapes, desert landscapes). This book
focuses on global citizenship, but will compare and contrast various aspects of
planetary citizenship and PCE, in both GC/E’s framings and as a separate type
of citizenship.
Within and between multiple citizenships of an individual, there is the ques-
tion of “who” is included as their “fellow citizens”? In this question of who is
included in this solidarity between citizens, socio-environmental justice is both
8 Introduction
a right bestowed upon fellow citizens, and as citizens of one another, they have
the responsibility to act to ensure such justice for their fellow citizens. Within
global citizenship these rights and responsibilities are for all humans, and
for planetary citizenship they are for all of Earth, holistically. Although there
are various limitations of solidarity actions, which we can see as oppressions
between nation-state citizens who are from the same nationality. So ecopeda-
gogy’s role with citizenship education is beyond applying widened constructs
of citizenships, but also to strengthen the citizenship to include the element of
environmental rights and responsibilities, as well as ecopedagogy as an ele-
ment of citizenship education (Misiaszek 2014, 2011). This will be further
exemplied within the concept of NIMBY.
When we discuss the unequal distribution of socio-environmental oppressions,
there is the overall fact that no one wants environmental devastation within their
own neighborhood, coinciding with the famous acronym NIMBY—Not In My
Backyard. With no one wanting environmental devastation where they live, sites
of environmental devastation are frequently structured to occur in areas of least
resistance—communities/populations that have the least amount of resources to
resist, which coincides with historic, structural oppressions of colonialization
and discrimination based on such factors as gender, nationality, ethnicity, class,
religious beliefs (or lack of), global positioning, and sexual orientation.
An additional very signicant factor of this aspect of NIMBY on a larger
scale is whom do we consider and teach as our fellow citizens to be within
our “B” (i.e., Backyard) for the resistance to environmentally ill sites. Another
way to put this question: from what citizenship sphere, from our self-dened
local community(ies) to our nation (i.e., national citizenship) to our world (i.e.,
global citizenship) to our Earth with “our” as all that makes up the planet (i.e.,
planetary citizenship), do we view environmental issues as “our” own? With
the widest spheres of global and planetary citizenships, environmental ills
become no longer “our” and “their” problems but rather all of our problems
as humans or being part of Earth as inclusionary factors of citizens. Teaching
these widened perspectives of citizenship, with the deepened understandings
of socio-environmental issues within more localized spheres, is the essence of
teaching to become a global environmental citizen. It is widening, deepening,
and strengthening citizenships.
In this book, I argue the need for socio-environmental justice for all that
makes up Earth, including, but also beyond, human beings. Reinventing tra-
ditional citizenship most often framed nationally, I argue that for environmen-
tal pedagogies to be successful, citizenship must be framed interconnectively
within and between sub- and supra-national levels, as well as beyond humans
to include all of Earth (i.e., beyond anthropocentric citizenship framings).
On sub-national levels, the environmental effects upon more local popula-
tions must be problematized with bottom-up approaches of understandings
and problem-solving (i.e., praxis). For example, when we teach the effects of
socio-environmental ills from corporations, whether they be regional, national,
or transnational, the essential question is how do they affect people locally—
citizens making up communities, nations, the world, and Earth.
Introduction 9
Why Anthropocentric Focus on Socio-Environmental
Justice in Ecopedagogy?
To this point of the Introduction, I have argued that if we are to halt Earth’s
destruction from our actions towards balance, which can be equated to sustain-
ability, we must teach through planetary perspectives and through all citizen-
ships, including planetary citizenship. Some might ask why then do we focus
on the politics of socio-environmental ills in ecopedagogy, which is inherently
anthropocentric. It is because we, as humans, are the only beings/“things” that
have reection on our actions and these reections are the cause of Earth’s
imbalance (i.e., unsustainability), but also this reection, collectively, can con-
struct actions towards balance/sustainability.
In my ecopedagogical work including this book, I have chosen to dene
ecopedagogies to focus on humans within socio-environmental connections
since we are reective and historical subjects, as opposed to other living beings
whose “activity [is] inseparable from themselves: animals can neither set objec-
tives nor infuse their transformation of nature with any signicance beyond
itself” (Freire 2000, 97). It is with hope, dreams, and unnishness that is the
essense of all humans in which Freire (2000) has written upon, in which all
ecopedagogues teach for transformational actions by students (and teachers) to
end socio-environmental oppressions. This book examines how constructs of
citizenship within environmental pedagogies can lead to achieving this goal.
Education for d/Development and Sustainable
d/Development
Actions for “development” are the root of environmental ills caused by human
actions, with the essential question from the previous section—Who benets?
Development, and other similar terms such as progress, is positive but this
does not mean that how “development” is framed and/or the actions in the
name of it are benecial to those who are “taught” that the actions will help
them or others, such as fellow citizens. Answering who benets as it relates
to development and sustainability is complex and difcult because those who
most benet from environmental ills often systematically hide the negative
outcomes to minimize resistance for their actions to continue. Essential ques-
tions on development, which coincide closely with the key problem-posing
ones for ecopedagogies, are the following: Who is the development for?; What
is taught as the benets and who will benet?; and, What are the politics of
this education? Utilizing the terminology described in the previous section,
it is questioning if the education on the environment is ecopedagogical, with
“development” for socio-environmental justice. As will be discussed through-
out the book, ecopedagogical aims are to also deepen and widen understand-
ings of development and sustainable development.
Teaching benecial development is essential within world-planetary bal-
ance, but education often does the opposite. Education is inherently infused
with optimism that teaching will help society(ies) progress into becoming
10 Introduction
a better society(ies) under the term of “development.” However, there are
many oppressive mechanisms in which people do not progress under what is
“taught” as “development.” An example of this would be intensifying neolib-
eral globalization education for the singular goal of successful world economic
competition without concerns for economic justice (Olmos and Torres 2009;
Torres 2009). The wording of “development” will be problematized in this
book; here I will simplify this concept of progress to the word development
and education for development. The central question of actions towards devel-
opment is who benets and who does not benet. For education of develop-
ment, central questions are how is “development” taught, whose perspectives
of progress are taught and not taught, and what are the politics of the rst two
questions. If education’s goal is for development of our societies by having a
more knowledgeable and critical thinking society to make better decisions and
increase innovation and creativity for progress, the understanding of the goal
itself, development, is important. In this book, I argue that for any education
to be successful, the critical determination of what is the framing of “develop-
ment,” through local to planetary deconstruction of benets and oppressions, is
an essential goal throughout the curricula, throughout all the subjects.
Throughout this book, I capitalize the rst letter of some key words need-
ing to be problematized in ecopedagogies to signify their hegemony within
societies, along with the capitalized letter in italics and underlined.3 Without
this text formatting of the rst letter, the word does not indicate hegemony
or, alternatively, empowerment with a lower-case letter. Dening and describ-
ing the effects of hegemony will be detailed more later in the book, but here
it can be thought of as the dominant of an ideology that is falsely portrayed
as positivistic, static, and unquestionable.4 In the example of “development,”
Development would signify a single framing that it is told, authoritatively, to
the subaltern in a top-down, non-democratic fashion, as compared to develop-
ment which is dened locally, in a bottom-up fashion, with the recognition
of context as essential in its construction. It is important to note that socio-
environmental movements for ecopedagogical integration inherently counters
hegemony of the Global North, advocating a pedagogical paradigm shift from
the Global South to the Global North, with ecopedagogies as Freirean reinven-
tions from Latin America. Analyzed throughout my ecopedagogical work is
the argument that many environmental pedagogies in the Global North would
benet from contextually borrowing these ecopedagogies within more criti-
cal, contextual comparative education methods largely from the Global South
(Misiaszek 2014).
Sustainability is the root of ecopedagogy within constructs of d/Development,
with teaching needing to include problem-posing of who is included in deter-
mining sustainability and the actions in the name of it, with the recognition of
“who” as beyond humans. What is important is the widening of inclusion and
deepening “sustainability” to those at the local level, with particular attention
to those who have been historically voiceless and tangibly voiceless (i.e., out-
side of humans). This calls for the need to “reorient education starting with the
Introduction 11
principle of sustainability, that is, to redress education in its totality” (Gadotti
and Torres 2009, 1264). Sustainability of all-inclusive socio-environmental
justice is not an addition to education but must be a common thread throughout
all of education, with the call for our own survival, Earth’s survival as we know
it,5 as not a hyperbola or being “over-dramatic” but the reality. Understanding
sustainability for students, along with teachers, for actions that counter norma-
tive ideologies prohibiting socio-environmental justice transformation, must
be throughout curricula and within all types of education. Without such eco-
pedagogical learning, environmental actions will only be constructed within
ideologies and structures that prevent effective socio-environmental transfor-
mation to reproduce oppressions and, overall, destroy Earth as we know it.6
Similar to d/Development, sustainability is also a term which can either
be sustainability or Sustainability and environmental or anti-environmental.
Utilizing my own ecopedagogical research in Appalachia (Misiaszek, 2011),
MTR activities are often falsely taught as necessary to sustain employment in
a single-industry area that is already economically disenfranchised. However,
what was not being taught is that there is a relatively small number of workers
in the coal industry, as compared to the past. In more current news, it is the
speeches by President Trump that he will “get back” the coal industry jobs to
Appalachia, with him fully knowing that past job opportunities no longer exist
and will never “come back” due largely to new technologies.7 It is important
to note that when we discuss education it is not only teaching that is being
done in formal classrooms, but it is how someone knows anything, including
non-formal learning spaces and informal education such as from the media
(i.e., public pedagogy). Within ecopedagogical learning spaces, teachers and
students need to critically read together the politics of education of the envi-
ronment to better understand how it leads to environmental truths or falsities,
teaching for socio-environmental justice or injustices. Ecopedagogical models
are inherently education of the environment (as an environmental pedagogy)
that centers socio-environmental justice as the goal.
Throughout this book, I utilize the phrase “education of the environment”
to signify pedagogies about the environment either with or without the goal
of environmentalism, as opposed to environmental pedagogies which have
the expressed goal of environmentalism. Education of the environment is an
umbrella term that includes environmental pedagogies. The overall goal of the
education is an essential rst goal, which can also be stated as deconstructing
the politics of the education given in both learning spaces and in research. Eco-
pedagogues must problematize all education of the environment, including the
taught inverse relationship between environmental well-being and livelihoods
discussed earlier, such as within statements from U.S. President Donald Trump
that environmental regulations are losing jobs in Appalachia, U.S.A..
In relation to the previous statements that ecopedagogy is not a single peda-
gogy or even a new pedagogy, the labeling as “ecopedagogical” is not important
but rather the importance lies in having the pedagogical elements and essence
of ecopedagogy, including EE and ESD models (Misiaszek 2011, 2015). For
12 Introduction
ESD, the key ecopedagogical question is problem-posing d/Development,
which we are trying to sustain, as well as the critical question is what are the
im/possibilities of true sustainability from local to global perspectives, as well
as planetary. As with the often pleasant and apoliticized phrases of “sustain-
able development,” “improved livelihood,” and “ecological balance,” what is
most important is determining who are dening these terms, determining goals
for their success, and the inclusion of their “benecial” goals. Constructing
ecopedagogical groundings of environmental pedagogies such as EE and ESD
problem-poses their very essence of stated, or missing, socio-environmental
tenets.
Deepened and widened understanding of d/Development is essential for
transformational praxis. Ecopedagogical teaching for praxis requires rigorous
analysis and theorizing to deconstruct ideologies of and actions for “develop-
ment” as “good” or “bad.” The words “good” and “bad” are with quotation
marks to indicate the inherent problematic nature of binary language that indi-
cates divisions that are falsely taught as universal truths. However, develop-
ment is political and contextual, and must be taught as such, re-emphasizing
the need for rigorous analysis and theorizing. In the aspect of critical theo-
ries of education, the word “praxis” is deep reective thought through under-
standing diverse perspectives to determine actions. In this book, I will discuss
the concept of and teaching practices for praxis in environmental pedagogies
through various aspects, including Freirean pedagogies, critical pedagogies,
utopic teaching, and citizenships education.
To briey introduce praxis within the concepts of Freirean Pedagogy,
Michael Apple and Wayne Au (2009) describe the Freirean essence of praxis
as follows:
Freire’s critical pedagogy revolves around the central idea of “praxis,” the
unication of critical reection and critical action. It seeks to be a peda-
gogy that enables students and teachers to be “Subjects of their own his-
tory.” They become actors (and it is a constant process of becoming) who
can look at reality, critically reect upon that reality, and take transforma-
tive action to change that reality, thereby deepening their consciousness
and working toward a more just world.
(991)
The scholars emphasized that Freirean teaching, which has the goal of
increased social justice, which they stressed as should all education, must lead
to thorough and rigorous reections in determining actions to transform the
world towards this goal. The passage also emphasizes the need for education
to be utopic for students to be “subjects of their own history,” being able to
transform their society to “a more just world.” I would argue for the socio-
environmental, planetarian aspects of changing the wording to “a more just
world and Earth.” Effective environmental pedagogies must be centered on
praxis toward socio-environmental justice, for true development.
Introduction 13
It is not enough that students learn about the injustices but that education
leads to action towards ending them, through problem-posing education by
learning about oppressions in depth from various perspectives, with spe-
cic focus on centering perspectives on those who struggle the most from
socio-environmental oppressions (Gadotti 1996). In short, many environ-
mental pedagogies discuss environmental issues but they fail to focus upon
critical thinking for determining developmental actions that help to end socio-
environmental oppressions. The argument introduced in this section is two-
fold on ineffective environmental pedagogies, which will be elaborated upon
in this book, as the following: (1) the depth of socio-environmental oppres-
sions is supercial and perspectives are non-contextual and not all-inclusive
(world-Earth) and (2) dialogue of possible solutions is not focused upon or that
changes do not take into account transforming normalized structures of society
(e.g., social, political, economic).
Emergent from Research
The work presented in this book is from empirical research mainly from two
research projects that I have conducted, independently and as a principle inves-
tigator, on ecopedagogy, globalizations, and citizenships. Writings in this book
will not provide detailed data from these two research projects, but both were
essential in guiding the overall themes. In addition to this research, the book is
guided by several years lecturing on ecopedagogy in classrooms, conferences,
meetings, and various non-formal learning spaces internationally, in which
I was honored to have rich discussions with people at various levels of entities
teaching and ghting for socio-environmental justice. This includes scholars,
with the framing of the inclusion of all public intellectuals dened by Antonio
Gramsci (Gramsci and Buttigieg 1992): academic scholars, students, teachers,
Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) leaders and members, Indigenous
leaders, UNESCO representatives and scholars, socio-environmental move-
ment leaders and members, religious leaders, and many more which are too
numerous to list.
Some of the specics of the research projects will be very briey described
next. In this book, unless I otherwise noted with the specic project’s names
I have provided indicated next, I will not give a specic source, but rather will
write with the combined empirical analysis from the two research projects.
The rst research study was a qualitative, comparative/international study on
ecopedagogical models in Argentina, Brazil, and the Appalachian region of
the United States (Misiaszek 2012, 2011). For ease of reading, I will use the
following name in referencing this research: ecopedagogical research project
in the Americas. Thirty-one expert ecopedagogues from these three regions
chosen through a snowball selection method8 were interviewed using a loose
semi-structured method. The research centered on ecopedagogues’ perspec-
tives on how successful ecopedagogy can be dened within the contexts in
which they teach and conduct research. Research participants discussed not
14 Introduction
only their own pedagogical practices and theories, but also elaborated upon
other ecopedagogy models and tools outside of their own practices. Although
the term successful can often be problematic, these ecopedagogues were asked
to dene what it means to have “success” in ecopedagogy and to dene the
pedagogical tools for the self-referenced “successful” ecopedagogy to emerge.
The second study analyzed how expert scholars of citizenship and/or envi-
ronmental pedagogies regard the ways in which citizenship intersects with
environmental issues and the pedagogies of both, within an increasingly glo-
balized world (Misiaszek 2016, Misiaszek and Misiaszek 2016, Misiaszek
2015). The name for this research will be the following: international environ-
mental and citizenship pedagogical research project. The research, in which
the author was the principal investigator, compared and contrasted responses
from a diverse pool of international experts working in both elds on six conti-
nents to further understand con- and divergences among the participants’ self-
dened goals in their respective eld(s). The data were also compared with the
canons (of research/publications) of GCE and critical environmental pedago-
gies (e.g., ecopedagogy). Eighteen research participants were selected through
a snowball sample utilizing the structures and events of various international
educational societies/associations such as the United Nations Educational, Sci-
entic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The criteria of selection were
international scholarship in globalization and renowned expertise in citizen-
ship and/or environmental pedagogies. The participants were asked eight
open-ended questions focused on the following four topics: the framing of
citizenship/education, essential aspects of environmental pedagogies, connec-
tions between citizenship and environmental pedagogies and how processes
of globalization affect these connections and disconnections, and their percep-
tions of the most-needed pedagogical changes in both elds.
Overview of the Book
There is no perfect structure for a book that attempts to discuss the foundations
of critical pedagogies that are intended to be all-inclusive of teaching about
Earth holistically, with the huge goal of leading to social-environmental justice
action through its practice, research, and teaching. There are two warnings
I would like to give to you, as readers, that I view as inadequacies in this book
for which I could not nd a perfect solution within the word-count limits or the
natural linear progression of this book, or any book for that matter.
My rst warning is that all of the book’s issues are extremely complex, with
many topics having numerous books, dissertations, journal articles, book chap-
ters, and other forms of writing on them. Taking for example Freirean Pedagogy,
globalization, critical race theory, feminism, or any of the theories I utilize in
the book, these all have hundreds of thousands of pages written on them in the
world’s diverse contexts and languages, within the eld of environmental peda-
gogies, education overall, or almost practically any aspect of societies world-
wide. The limited number of pages you’re holding do not provide signicant
Introduction 15
amount of information to fully understand the complexities of critically teaching
socio-environmental issues once you have nished reading this book, in that no
other reading is needed. However, I think this would be the case if you were also
holding a library’s holdings on a particular discipline, which you might be doing
if you’re reading it electronically with an online connection. Rather, this book is
to introduce the tenets of ecopedagogy as it relates to our “environmental” role as
citizens for socio-environmental justice, with the recognition of incompleteness
of the limitless diverse contextual aspects, connections between contexts, and
the limitless complexity of Earth’s ecosystems.
Various theories will be discussed to provide lenses to aid in viewing these
and other limitless complexities, but these theories will not provide all the
contextual aspects throughout Earth and this book’s description will only pro-
vide introductions to theories. In reading this book, I hope that readers will
help recognize the incompleteness of current environmental pedagogies and
ecopedagogical descriptions in this book, to further, in Paulo Freire’s termi-
nology (Freire 2000), reinvent the book’s topics of ecopedagogy, sustainable
development, ESD, EE, GC/E, and all other citizenships. The book is meant to
help critically read ecopedagogical needs of teaching, rather than be a guide on
what to do, in teaching to deepen and widen ecopedagogical literacies of both
students and teachers for socio-environmental just actions.
The second warning coincides with my rst warning. In writing this book
I have gained appreciation of how great scholars, such as the following, have
structured their books with the vast complexity and non-linear interconnectiv-
ity of their topics: Dewey’s Democracy and Education (1963), Freire’s Peda-
gogy of the Oppressed (2000), Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth (1963), Said’s
Orientalism (1979), and Apple’s Curriculum and Ideology (2004). The inter-
connectivity within subject topics, between social and environmental issues, is
limitlessly multifarious, which makes the linear format of a book with num-
bered chapters not entirely efcient. In writing this book, I have tried to guide
readers by referencing various sections and, at some points, briey repeating
some key aspects to make certain readers understand, especially if some read-
ers choose to read the book non-linearly rather than in its entirety.
Brief Chapter Descriptions
Chapter 1 is an introduction of what is ecopedagogy, reinvented from various
critical-based, Freirean pedagogies and research models, with the emphasis on
providing the reader its tenets and dening differences from other environmen-
tal pedagogies. Included in this chapter are arguments on why many environ-
mental pedagogies often fail, with some introductory problematizing of ESD.
There is a large focus on the goal of ecopedagogies for helping students to
develop critical ecopedagogical literacies to help students “read and re-read”
environmental violence and then reect upon actions needed (i.e., praxis) to
save the planet from diverse perspectives, with specic attention to the per-
spectives of those who struggle the most.
16 Introduction
The second chapter discusses the needed connections between critical
citizenships education and ecopedagogy, with citizenships plural to indicate
the various spheres of citizenship, from local to national to global to plan-
etary spheres. This chapter explores who we view as our fellow citizens, and
what is meant by this within multiple framings of citizenship. Problem-posed
throughout this chapter, as essential questions for ecopedagogical teaching and
research, is whether citizenship is limited to anthropocentric connections or are
there possibilities of biocentric constructions, such as within planetary citizen-
ship models.
Chapter 3 focuses on the use of theories within ecopedagogical teaching and
research. I introduce various essential critical theories to discuss how theoreti-
cal frameworks (constructed from multiple theories) emerge from class dia-
logue and voices of research participants, guiding how theories can teach and
analyze environmental issues more inclusively—locally and globally, as well
as planetary-wise. Allowing for deeper understanding of diverse voices inside
and outside learning spaces, discussions include how theories help to widen
and localize socio-environmental understandings, as well as challenge and
problem-post societies’ ideological norms. This chapter briey describes some
of the local-global-planetary, anthropocentric-biocentric theoretical framings
that can be utilized to understand socio-environmental issues connecting with
citizenship; however, this is not an all-inclusive list.
Through the various critical topics of the rst three chapters, in Chapter 4 the
topics of development and sustainability are discussed. This chapter explores
how we teach, research, and “read” the following: (1) what is “development,”
(2) what we should environmentally and socially “sustain,” (3) how we under-
stand “sustainable development,” and (4) how these three concepts coincide
and conict within different environmental pedagogies. The last chapter,
Chapter 5, briey summarizes some of the book’s key arguments and offers
some key needs in reinventing environmental pedagogies to become ecopeda-
gogical, for teaching students to become global environmental citizens.
Notes
1 The “the” is taken out of the common phrase of “the Earth” to emphasize that Earth
should not be objectied within a planetarian citizenship framework.
2 It is important to note that the term “itself” is linguistically problematic because it
objecties nature and Earth; however, it is used here and in other places within the
book because a potential substitution could not be found. This notation is not only
for this specic wording here but also for all cases of objectied wording of Earth
and nature.
3 For example, Development does signify hegemony but Development does not at
the beginning of a sentence. The format of D/development indicates that its framing
could be either.
4 The term ideology (e.g., ideological terms) here refers to normative knowledge that
critical pedagogues, including ecopedagogues, teach to question and, if needed, to
transform “the underlying epistemological and ideological assumptions that are made
about what counts as ‘ofcial’ or legitimate knowledge and who holds it” (Apple and
Au 2009, 991; Apple 2004, 2000).
Introduction 17
5 The phrase “as we know it” is used to indicate that Earth will likely continue with
or without humans to restore balance, but will likely be very much different as Earth
is currently.
6 The phrase “as we know it” and similar phrases indicate that Earth will continue,
with or without the world (i.e., with or without humans).
7 The phrase “with him fully knowing” is used with giving Donald Trump credit that
he is not ignorant but rather deceptive; however, I cannot 100% guarantee the accu-
racy to this.
8 Snowball selection or snowball sampling is a purpose-oriented method of nding
participants for a study by asking the rst few directly contacted persons to suggest a
few more whom they know to be suitable.
References
Apple, Michael W. 2000. Ofcial knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative
age. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W., and Wayne Au. 2009. “Politics, theory, and reality in critical peda-
gogy.” In International handbook of comparative education, edited by Robert Cowen
and Andreas M. Kazamias, 991–1007. The Netherlands: Springer.
Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity, theory, culture & society.
London: Sage.
Davies, Lynn. 2006. “Global citizenship: abstraction or framework for action?” Educa-
tional Review 58 (1): 5–25. doi:10.1080/00131910500352523.
Dewey, John. 1963. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of
education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fanon, Frantz. 1963. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
Freire, Paulo. 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Gadotti, Moacir. 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education,
SUNY series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of
New York Press.
Gadotti, Moacir. 2000. Pedagogia da terra, Brasil cidadão. Educação. São Paulo: Edi-
tora Fundação Peirópolis.
Gadotti, Moacir. 2008a. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn
to save the planet. São Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir. 2008b. Education for sustainablity: A critical contribution to the
decade of education for sustainable development. Vol. 4. São Paulo: Paulo Freire
Institute.
Gadotti, Moacir. 2008c. “What we need to learn to save the planet.” Journal of Educa-
tion for Sustainable Development 2 (1): 21–30.
Gadotti, Moacir. 2011. “Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context
and the ecopedagogic perspective.” International Review of Education 57 (1): 9–25.
doi:10.1007/s11159-011-9205-0.
Gadotti, Moacir, and Carlos Alberto Torres. 2009. “Paulo Freire: Education for devel-
opment.” Development and Change 40 (6): 1255–1267. doi:10.1111/j.1467–7660.
2009.01606.x.
Gramsci, Antonio, and Joseph A. Buttigieg. 1992. Prison notebooks, European per-
spectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gutiérrez, Francisco, and Cruz Prado. 2008. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetária. San
Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
18 Introduction
Hannigan, John A. 2006. Environmental sociology. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Heater, Derek Benjamin. 2003. A history of education for citizenship. London:
Routledge.
Heater, Derek Benjamin. 2004. Citizenship: The civic ideal in world history, politics,
and education. 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kahn, Richard. 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The eco-
pedagogy movement, edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg. Vol. 359,
Counterpoints: Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter
Lang.
Keating, Avril, Debora Hinderliter Ortloff, and Stavroula Philippou. 2009. “Citi-
zenship education curricula: The changes and challenges presented by global
and European integration.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (2): 145–158.
doi:10.1080/00220270802485063.
Misiaszek, Greg William. 2011. “Ecopedagogy in the age of globalization: Educators’
perspectives of environmental education programs in the Americas which incorpo-
rate social justice models.” Ph.D., Graduate School of Education and Information
Studies, University of California, Los Angeles (Publication No. AAT 3483199).
Misiaszek, Greg William. 2012. “Transformative environmental education within
social justice models: Lessons from comparing adult ecopedagogy within North and
South America.” In Second international handbook of lifelong learning, edited by
David N. Aspin, Judith Chapman, Karen Evans, and Richard Bagnall, 423–440. Lon-
don: Springer.
Misiaszek, Greg William. 2014. “Learning from Southern environmental education
models: Borrowing ecopedagogy through processes of globalization from below.”
Éducation Comparée 10: 209–241.
Misiaszek, Greg William. 2015. “Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisa-
tion: Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the
planet.” European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280–292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William. 2016. “Ecopedagogy as an element of citizenship educa-
tion: The dialectic of global/local spheres of citizenship and critical environmen-
tal pedagogies.” International Review of Education 62 (5): 587–607. doi:10.1007/
s11159-016-9587-0.
Misiaszek, Greg William, and Lauren Ila Misiaszek. 2016. “Global citizenship educa-
tion and ecopedagogy at the intersections: Asian Perspectives in comparison.” Asian
Journal of Education (Journal of Seoul National University School of Education) 17
(Special Issue): 11–37.
Olmos, Liliana, and Carlos Alberto Torres. 2009. “Theories of the state, educational
expansion, development, and globalizations: Marxian and critical approaches.” In
International handbook of comparative education, 73–86. Dordrecht: Springer.
Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books.
Stapp, William B. 1969. “The concept of environmental education.” Environmental
Education 1 (1): 30–31.
Torres, Carlos Alberto. 2009. Globalizations and education: Collected essays on class,
race, gender, and the state. New York: Teachers College Press.
Introduction
Apple, Michael W. 2000. Official knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative age.
2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , and Wayne Au . 2009. Politics, theory, and reality in critical pedagogy. In
International handbook of comparative education, edited by Robert Cowen and Andreas M.
Kazamias , 9911007. The Netherlands: Springer.
Beck, Ulrich . 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity, theory, culture & society.
London: Sage.
Davies, Lynn . 2006. Global citizenship: abstraction or framework for action? Educational
Review 58 (1): 525. doi:10.1080/00131910500352523.
Dewey, John . 1963. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of
education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fanon, Frantz . 1963. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2000. Pedagogia da terra, Brasil cidado. Educao. So Paulo: Editora Fundao
Peirpolis.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008a. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008b. Education for sustainablity: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Vol. 4. So Paulo: Paulo Freire Institute.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008c. What we need to learn to save the planet. Journal of Education for
Sustainable Development 2 (1): 2130.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2011. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the
ecopedagogic perspective. International Review of Education 57 (1): 925.
doi:10.1007/s11159-011-9205-0.
Gadotti, Moacir , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Paulo Freire: Education for development.
Development and Change 40 (6): 12551267. doi:10.1111/j.14677660.2009.01606.x.
Gramsci, Antonio , and Joseph A. Buttigieg . 1992. Prison notebooks, European
perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 2008. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria. San Paulo:
Instituto Paulo Freire.
18 Hannigan, John A. 2006. Environmental sociology. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Heater, Derek Benjamin . 2003. A history of education for citizenship. London: Routledge.
Heater, Derek Benjamin . 2004. Citizenship: The civic ideal in world history, politics, and
education. 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kahn, Richard . 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The ecopedagogy
movement, edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg . Vol. 359, Counterpoints:
Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter Lang.
Keating, Avril , Debora Hinderliter Ortloff , and Stavroula Philippou . 2009. Citizenship
education curricula: The changes and challenges presented by global and European
integration. Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (2): 145158. doi:10.1080/00220270802485063.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2011. Ecopedagogy in the age of globalization: Educators
perspectives of environmental education programs in the Americas which incorporate social
justice models. Ph.D., Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of
California, Los Angeles (Publication No. AAT 3483199).
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2012. Transformative environmental education within social justice
models: Lessons from comparing adult ecopedagogy within North and South America. In
Second international handbook of lifelong learning, edited by David N. Aspin , Judith
Chapman , Karen Evans , and Richard Bagnall , 423440. London: Springer.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2014. Learning from Southern environmental education models:
Borrowing ecopedagogy through processes of globalization from below. ducation Compare
10: 209241.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2015. Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisation:
Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the planet.
European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2016. Ecopedagogy as an element of citizenship education: The
dialectic of global/local spheres of citizenship and critical environmental pedagogies.
International Review of Education 62 (5): 587607. doi:10.1007/s11159-016-9587-0.
Misiaszek, Greg William , and Lauren Ila Misiaszek . 2016. Global citizenship education and
ecopedagogy at the intersections: Asian Perspectives in comparison. Asian Journal of
Education (Journal of Seoul National University School of Education) 17 (Special Issue):
1137.
Olmos, Liliana , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Theories of the state, educational
expansion, development, and globalizations: Marxian and critical approaches. In International
handbook of comparative education, 7386. Dordrecht: Springer.
Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books.
Stapp, William B. 1969. The concept of environmental education. Environmental Education 1
(1): 3031.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2009. Globalizations and education: Collected essays on class, race,
gender, and the state. New York: Teachers College Press.
Ecopedagogy
Adams, Frank , and Myles Horton . 1975. Unearthing seeds of fire: The idea of Highlander.
Winston-Salem: J. F. Blair.
Apple, Michael W. 1999. Between neoliberalism and neoconservatism: Education and
conservatism in a global context. In Globalization and education: Critical perspectives, edited
by Nicholas C. Burbules and Carlos Alberto Torres , 5778. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , and Wayne Au . 2009. Politics, theory, and reality in critical pedagogy. In
International handbook of comparative education, edited by Robert Cowen and Andreas M.
Kazamias , 9911007. The Netherlands: Springer.
Apple, Michael W. , Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin . 2009. Mapping critical education.
In The Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple ,
Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 320. New York: Routledge.
Assi-Lumumba, NDri Thrse . 2017. The Ubuntu Paradigm and comparative and international
education: epistemological challenges and opportunities in our field. Comparative Education
Review 61 (1): 121. doi:10.1086/689922.
Au, Wayne W. , and Michael W. Apple . 2007. Reviewing policy: Freire, critical education,
and the environmental crisis. Educational Policy 21 (3): 457470.
Bartlett, Lesley . 2007. Human capital or human connections? The cultural meanings of
education in Brazil. Teachers College Record 109 (7): 16131636.
Bell, Derek R. 2004. Creating green citizens? Political liberalism and environmental
education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 38 (1): 3754.
Bowers, Chet A. 2002. Toward an eco-justice pedagogy. Environmental Education Research
8 (1): 2134. doi:10.1080/13504620120109628.
Bowers, Chet A. 2006. Silences and double binds: Why the theories of John Dewey and
Paulo Freire cannot contribute to revitalizing the commons. Capitalism, Nature, and Socialism
17 (3): 7187.
Bowers, Chet A. , and Frdrique Apffel-Marglin . 2005. Rethinking Freire: Globalization and the
environmental crisis, Sociocultural, political, and historical studies in education. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum.
Capra, Fritjof . 1982. The turning point: Science, society, and the rising culture. New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Carson, Rachel . 1962. Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Chang, Kyung-Sup , and Bryan S. Turner . 2012. Introduction: East Asia and citizenship. In
Contested citizenship in East Asia: Developmental politics, national unity, and globalization,
edited by Kyung-Sup Chang and Bryan S. Turner , 113. Milton Park, Abingdon: Routledge.
Chomsky, Noam . 1999. Profit over people: Neoliberalism and global order. Seven Stories
Press 1st ed. New York: Seven Stories Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. 2002. The environment, our natural resources, and modern
technology. Iowa City: Iowa State Press.
49 Dewey, John . 1963. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of
education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dirlik, Arif . 2012. Colonialism, revolution, development: A historical perspective on
citizenship in political struggles in eastern Asia. In Contested citizenship in East Asia:
Developmental politics, national unity, and globalization, edited by Kyung-Sup Chang and
Bryan S. Turner , 4361. New York: Routledge.
Freire, Paulo . 1970. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.
Freire, Paulo . 1992. Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum.
Freire, Paulo . 1997. Pedagogy of the heart. New York: Continuum.
Freire, Paulo . 1998. Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage, critical
perspectives series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Freire, Paulo . 2004. Pedagogy of indignation. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008a. Education for sustainability: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Green Theory and Praxis: The Journal of
Ecopedagogy 4 (1): 50.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008b. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008c. Education for sustainablity: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Vol. 4. So Paulo: Paulo Freire Institute.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008d. What we need to learn to save the planet. Journal of Education for
Sustainable Development 2 (1): 2130.
Gadotti, Moacir , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Paulo Freire: Education for development.
Development and Change 40 (6): 12551267. doi:10.1111/j.1467 7660.2009.01606.x.
Giroux, Henry A. 1999. Rethinking cultural politics and radical pedagogy in the work of
Antonio Gramsci. Educational Theory 49 (1): 119. doi:10.1111/j.1741 5446.1999.00001.x.
Giroux, Henry A. 2001. Theory and resistance in education: Towards a pedagogy for the
opposition. Rev. and expanded ed, Critical studies in education and culture series. Westport,
CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Gore, Al . 2006. An inconvenient truth: A global warning, edited by Al Gore . Hollywood, CA:
Paramount.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 1989. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria.
(Ecopedagogy and planetarian citizenship). So Paulo: Cortez.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 2008. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria. San Paulo:
Instituto Paulo Freire.
Hannigan, John A. 2006. Environmental sociology. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Haraway, Donna . 1992. The promise of monsters. In Cultural studies, edited by Lawrence
Grossberg , Cary Nelson , and Paula A. Treichler , 295337. New York: Routledge.
Harris, Ian M. , and Mary Lee Morrison . 2003. Peace education. 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC:
McFarland.
Held, David . 1980. Introduction to critical theory: Horkheimer to Habermas. In Introduction to
critical theory, edited by David Held , 1326. Berkeley, CA: University of Southern California
Press.
50 Horton, Myles , Paulo Freire , Brenda Bell , John Gaventa , and John Marshall Peters .
1990. We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Horton, Myles , Judith Kohl , and Herbert R. Kohl . 1998. The long haul: An autobiography.
New York: Teachers College Press.
Illich, Ivan . 1983. Deschooling society. 1st Harper Colophon ed. New York: Harper
Colophon.
Jickling, Bob , and Arjen E. J. Wals . 2008. Globalization and environmental education:
Looking beyond sustainable development. Journal of Curriculum Studies 40 (1): 121.
doi:10.1080/00220270701684667.
Kahn, Richard . 2005. Rethinking Freire: Globalization and the environmental crisis. Teachers
College Record 108 (1): 6686.
Kahn, Richard . 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The ecopedagogy
movement, edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg . Vol. 359, Counterpoints:
Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter Lang.
Klees, Steven J. 2008. Reflections on theory, method, and practice in comparative and
international education. Comparative Education Review 52 (3): 301328.
doi:doi:10.1086/589978.
Kopnina, Helen . 2011. Revisiting education for sustainable development (ESD): Examining
anthropocentric bias through the transition of environmental education to ESD. Sustainable
Development 22 (2): 7383. doi:10.1002/sd.529.
Lidskog, Rolf , and Ingemar Elander . 2010. Addressing climate change democratically: Multi-
level governance, transnational networks and governmental structures. Sustainable
Development 18 (1): 3241.
Luke, Allan , and Carmen Luke . 2000. A situated perspective on cultural globalization. In
Globalization and education: Critical perspectives, edited by Nicholas C. Burbules and Carlos
Alberto Torres , 275298. New York: Routledge.
Max-Neef, Manfred A. 2005. Foundations of transdisciplinarity. Ecological Economics 53 (1):
516.
McLaren, Peter . 2007a. Conservation, class struggle, or both: A response to C.A. Bowers.
Capitalism, Nature, and Socialism 18 (1): 99108.
McLaren, Peter . 2007b. Peter McLaren responds. Capitalism, Nature, and Socialism 18 (1):
119120.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2009. Review: Why care for nature? In search of an ethical
framework for environmental responsibility and education by Dirk Willem Postma.
InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies 5 (1).
http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/52p0j7p5.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2011. Ecopedagogy in the age of globalization: Educators
perspectives of environmental education programs in the Americas which incorporate social
justice models. Ph.D., Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of
California, Los Angeles (Publication No. AAT 3483199).
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2012. Transformative environmental education within social justice
models: Lessons from comparing adult ecopedagogy within North and South America. In
Second international handbook of lifelong learning, edited by David N. Aspin , Judith
Chapman , Karen Evans , and Richard Bagnall , 423440. London: Springer.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2014a. Environmental education through global and local lenses:
Ecopedagogy and globalizations in Appalachia, Argentina, and Brazil. In 51 Neoliberal
educational reforms: A critical analysis, edited by David A. Turner and Hseyin Yolcu ,
184203. New York: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2014b. Learning from Southern environmental education models:
Borrowing ecopedagogy through processes of globalization from below. ducation Compare
10: 209241.
Misiaszek, Greg Willam . 2015. Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisation:
Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the planet.
European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William , and Carlos Alberto Torres . Forthcoming (2018). Chapter five: The
missing chapter of Pedagogy of the Oppressed. In Wiley handbook of Paulo Freire, edited by
C. Torres . NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Murithi, Tim . 2007. A local response to the global human rights standard: The ubuntu
perspective on human dignity. Globalisation, Societies and Education 5 (3): 277286.
doi:10.1080/14767720701661966.
Neal, Philip , and Joy Palmer . 2003. The handbook of environmental education. London:
Routledge.
OCadiz, Maria Pilar , Pia Wong , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 1998. Education and
democracy: Paulo Freire, social movements, and educational reform in So Paulo. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press.
Olmos, Liliana , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Theories of the state, educational
expansion, development, and globalizations: Marxian and critical approaches. In International
handbook of comparative education, 7386. Dordrecht: Springer.
Orwell, George . 1970. 1984. Roma: Litostampa nomentana.
Perez, Francisco Gutirrez . 1995. A pedagogy for sustainable development. San Juan, Costa
Rica: Earth Council International Community Education AssociatioLatin America (lCEA-LA),
Latin American Institute for the Pedagogy of Communication (ILPEC).
Postma, Dirk Willem . 2006. Why care for nature? In search of an ethical framework for
environmental responsibility and education. New York: Springer.
Sandlin, Jennifer A. , and Peter McLaren . 2010. Critical pedagogies of consumption: Living
and learning in the shadow of the shopocalypse, Sociocultural, political, and historical studies
in education. New York: Routledge.
Sauv, Lucie . 2005. Currents in environmental education: Mapping a complex and evolving.
Canadian Journal of Environmental Education (CJEE) 10 (1): 1137.
Saylan, Charles , and Daniel T. Blumstein . 2011. The failure of environmental education
(and how we can fix it). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shultz, Lynette . 2007. Educating for global citizenship: Conflicting agendas and
understandings. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research 53 (3): 248258.
Shultz, Lynette , and Shelane Jorgenson . 2009. Global citizenship education in post-
secondary institutions: A review of the literature. Edmonton: University of Alberta 10: 2014.
Teodoro, Antnio , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2007. Introduction: Critique and utopia in the
sociology of education. In Critique and utopia: New developments in the sociology of
education in the twenty-first century, edited by Carlos Alberto Torres and Antnio Teodoro ,
110. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2002. Globalization, education, and citizenship: Solidarity versus
markets? American Educational Research Journal 39 (2): 363378.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2007. Transformative social justice learning: The legacy of Paulo
Freire. In Utopian pedagogy: Radical experiments against neoliberal 52globalization, edited
by Richard J. F. Day , Greig De Peuter , and Mark Cote , vii, 357. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2008. Education and neoliberal globalization: Essays of opposition.
New York: Routledge.
Tujan, Antonio . 2004. Governance: Reclaiming the concept from a human rights perspective,
The reality of Aid 2004: An independent review of poverty reduction and development
assistance. London: Zed Books.
Walter, Pierre . 2009. Philosophies of adult environmental education. Adult Education
Quarterly 60 (1): 325. doi:10.1177/0741713609336109.
Connections Between Environmental and Citizenship Pedagogies
Abdi, Ali A. 2008. De-subjecting subject populations: Historico-actual problems and
educational possibilities. In Educating for human rights and global citizenship, edited by Ali A.
Abdi and Lynette Shultz , 6580. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Abdi, Ali A. , and Lynette Shultz . 2008. Educating for human rights and global citizenship: An
introduction. In Educating for human rights and global citizenship, edited by Ali A. Abdi and
Lynette Shultz , 110. Albany: State University of New York Press.
87 Abdi, Ali A. , Lynette Shultz , and Thashika Pillay , eds. 2015. Decolonizing global
citizenship education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Andreotti, Vanessa de Oliveira , and Karen Pashby . 2013. Digital democracy and global
citizenship education: Mutually compatible or mutually complicit? The Educational Forum 77
(4): 422437. doi:10.1080/00131725.2013.822043.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin . 2009. Mapping critical education.
In The Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple ,
Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 320. New York: Routledge.
Arnove, Robert F. 1980. Comparative education and world-systems analysis. Comparative
Education Review 24 (1): 4862.
Arnove, Robert F. 2007. Introduction: Reframing comparative education: The dialectic of the
global and the local. In Comparative education: The dialectic of the global and the local,
edited by Robert F. Arnove and Carlos Alberto Torres , 120. Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
Assi-Lumumba, NDri Thrse . 2017. The Ubuntu paradigm and comparative and international
education: Epistemological challenges and opportunities in our field. Comparative Education
Review 61 (1): 121. doi:10.1086/689922.
Balarin, Maria . 2011. Global citizenship and marginalisation: Contributions towards a political
economy of global citizenship. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (34): 355366.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605321.
Banks, James A. 2001. Citizenship education and diversity. Journal of Teacher Education 52
(1): 516. doi:10.1177/0022487101052001002.
Banks, James A. 2007. Educating citizens in a multicultural society. 2nd ed, Multicultural
education series. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, James A. 2008. Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age.
Educational Researcher 37 (3): 129139. doi:10.3102/0013189X08317501.
Banks, James A. 2009. Human rights, diversity, and citizenship education. The Educational
Forum 73 (2): 100110. doi:10.1080/00131720902739478.
Barber, Benjamin R. 1984. Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley,
CA: University of California Press.
Bell, Derek R. 2004. Creating green citizens? Political liberalism and environmental
education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 38 (1): 3754.
Benton, Ted . 1999. Sustainable development and accumulation of capitalism: Reconciling
the irreconcilable? In Fairness and futurity: Essays on environmental sustainability and social
justice, edited by Andrew Dobson , 199229. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brownlie, Ali . 2001. Citizenship education: The global dimension, guidance for key Stages 3
and 4. London: Development Education Association.
Byram, Michael . 2006. Developing a concept of intercultural citizenship. In Education for
intercultural citizenship: Concepts and comparisons, edited by Geof Alred , Michael Byram ,
and Michael Fleming , 109129. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Capella, Juan-Ramon . 2000. Globalization, a fading citizenship. In Globalization and
education: Critical perspectives, edited by Nicholas C. Burbules and Carlos Alberto Torres ,
227252. New York: Routledge.
Chang, Kyung-Sup , and Bryan S. Turner . 2012. Introduction: East Asia and citizenship. In
Contested citizenship in East Asia: Developmental politics, national unity, 88and
globalization, edited by Kyung-Sup Chang and Bryan S. Turner , 113. Milton Park, Abingdon:
Routledge.
Chen, Sicong . 2017. The meaning of citizenship in contemporary Chinese society: An
empirical study through a Western lens, governance and citizenship in Asia. Singapore:
Springer.
Christoff, Peter . 1996. Ecological citizens and ecologically guided democracy. In Democracy
and green political thought: Sustainability, rights, and citizenship, edited by Brian Doherty and
Marius de Geus . London: Routledge.
Dale, Roger , and Susan L. Robertson . 2002. The varying effects of regional organizations
as subjects of globalization of education. Comparative Education Review 46 (1): 1037.
Davies, Lynn . 2006. Global citizenship: Abstraction or framework for action? Educational
Review 58 (1): 525. doi:10.1080/00131910500352523.
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa . 2011. (Towards) decoloniality and diversality in global
citizenship education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 381397.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605323.
Dewey, John . 1963. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of
education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Freire, Paulo . 1997. Pedagogy of the heart. New York: Continuum.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008a. Education for sustainability: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Green Theory and Praxis: The Journal of
Ecopedagogy 4 (1): 50.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008b. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008c. Education for sustainablity: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Vol. 4. So Paulo: Paulo Freire Institute.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008d. What we need to learn to save the planet. Journal of Education for
Sustainable Development 2 (1): 2130.
Gadotti, Moacir , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Paulo Freire: Education for development.
Development and Change 40 (6): 12551267. doi:10.1111/j.14677660.2009.01606.x.
Gellner, Ernest , and John Breuilly . 2008. Nations and nationalism. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press.
Giroux, Henry A. 1989. Schooling for democracy: Critical pedagogy in the modern age.
London: Routledge.
Gitlin, Todd . 1995. The twilight of common dreams: Why America is wracked by culture
wars. 1st ed. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Green, Andy . 1997. Education, globalization, and the nation state. New York: St. Martins
Press.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 1989. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria
(Ecopedagogy and planetarian citizenship). So Paulo: Cortez.
Harris, Ian M. , and Mary Lee Morrison . 2003. Peace education. 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC:
McFarland.
89 Harvey, David . 2000. Spaces of hope, California studies in critical human geography.
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hawthorne, Maria , and Tony Alabaster . 1999. Citizen 2000: Development of a model of
environmental citizenship. Global Environmental Change 9 (1): 2543.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(98)00022-3.
Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1987. The age of empire, 18751914, History of civilization. New York:
Pantheon Books.
Horkheimer, Max . 1968. Kritische Theorie. Vol. 1. Frankfurt: S. Fischer Verlag.
Illich, Ivan . 1983. Deschooling society. 1st Harper Colophon ed. New York: Harper
Colophon.
Joshee, Reva . 2009. Multicultural education policy in Canada: Competing ideologies,
interconnected discourses. In The Routledge international companion to multicultural
education, edited by James A. Banks , 96109. New York: Routledge.
Kahn, Richard . 2008. From education for sustainable development to ecopedagogy:
Sustaining capitalism or sustaining life. Green Theory & Praxis: The Journal of Ecopedagogy
4 (1).
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard_Kahn3/publication/250279283_From_Educatio
n_for_Sustainable_Development_to_Ecopedagogy_Sustaining_Capitalism_or_Sustaining_Lif
e/links/00b7d51e76f351aae9000000.pdf.
Kahn, Richard . 2009. Producing crisis: Green consumerism as an ecopedagogical issue. In
Critical pedagogies of consumption: Living and learning beyond the shopocalypse, edited by
J. Sandlin and Peter McLaren . New York, NY: Routledge.
Keating, Avril , Debora Hinderliter Ortloff , and Stavroula Philippou . 2009. Citizenship
education curricula: The changes and challenges presented by global and European
integration. Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (2): 145158. doi:10.1080/00220270802485063.
Kellner, Douglas . 2002. Theorizing globalization. Sociological Theory 20 (3): 285305.
Kennedy, Kerry J. 2004. Searching for citizenship values in an uncertain global environment.
In Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and issues, edited by Wing On Lee
, David L. Grossman , Kerry J. Kennedy and Gregory P. Fairbrother . Hong Kong: Kluwer
Academic.
Kuhn, Thomas S. 1970. The structure of scientific revolutions. 2d ed. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Lee, Wing On . 2003. Conceptualizing citizenship and citizenship education in Asia. Pacific-
Asian Education Journal 15 (2): 826.
Lee, Wing On . 2008. The development of citizenship education curriculum in hong kong after
1997: Tensions between national identity and global citizenship. In Citizenship curriculum in
Asia and the Pacific, edited by David L. Grossman , WingOn Lee , and Kerry J Kennedy ,
2942. The Netherlands: Springer.
Letseka, Moeketsi . 2000. African philosophy and educational discourse. In African voices in
education, edited by Philip Higgs , Ntombizolile Vakalisa , Tukumbi Lumumba-Kasongo and
NDri T. Assi-Lumumba . Kenwyn: Juta.
Liang, Shuming . 1930. Zhong Xi Wenhua Ji Qi Shehui [The cultures of the East and the
West and their philosophies]. Hong Kong: Longman Press.
Marshall, Harriet . 2011. Instrumentalism, ideals and imaginaries: Theorising the contested
space of global citizenship education in schools. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9
(93): 411426. doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605325.
90 Marshall, Thomas Humphrey . 1947. Sociology at the crossroads: An inaugural lecture
delivered on the 21st Feb., 1946, at the London School of Economics and Political Science,
University of London, London School of Economics and Political Science Publications.
London: Longmans.
Marshall, Thomas Humphrey . 1973. Class, citizenship, and social development: Essays.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Maslow, Abraham H. 1970. Motivation and personality. 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row.
McGrew, Anthony . 2000. Sustainable globalization? The global politics of development and
exclusion in the new world order. In Poverty and development into the 21st century, edited by
Tim Allen and Alan Thomas , 345364. Oxford: Open University in association with Oxford
University Press.
Memmi, Albert . 1991. The colonizer and the colonized. Expanded ed. Boston: Beacon Press.
Mignolo, Walter . 2011. The darker side of Western modernity: Global futures, decolonial
options, Latin America otherwise: Languages, empires, nations. Durham: Duke University
Press.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2015. Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisation:
Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the planet.
European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William , and Lauren Ila Misiaszek . 2016. Global citizenship education and
ecopedagogy at the intersections: Asian Perspectives in comparison. Asian Journal of
Education (Journal of Seoul National University School of Education 17 (Special Issue):
1137.
Misiaszek, Lauren Ila . Forthcoming (2019). Exploring the complexities in global citizenship
education: Hard spaces, methodologies, and ethics. edited by C. A. Torres , Critical global
citizenship education: Globalization and the politics of equity and inclusion. New York:
Routledge.
Mouffe, Chantal . 2005. On the political, Thinking in action. London: Routledge.
Moumouni, Abdou . 1968. Education in Africa. New York: F. A. Praeger.
Murithi, Tim . 2007. A local response to the global human rights standard: The ubuntu
perspective on human dignity. Globalisation, Societies and Education 5 (3): 277286.
doi:10.1080/14767720701661966.
Perez, Francisco Gutirrez . 1995. A pedagogy for sustainable development. San Juan, Costa
Rica: Earth Council International Community Education AssociatioLatin America (lCEA-LA),
Latin American Institute for the Pedagogy of Communication (ILPEC).
Postma, Dirk Willem . 2006. Why care for nature? In search of an ethical framework for
environmental responsibility and education. New York: Springer.
Rhoads, Robert A. , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2006. The university, state, and market the
political economy of globalization in the Americas. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Richardson, George . 2008. Caught between imaginaries: Global citizenship and the
persistence of the nation. In Educating for human rights and global citizenship, edited by Ali
A. Abdi and Lynette Shultz , 5564. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Roth, Klas . 2007. Cosmopolitan learning. In Changing notions of citizenship education in
contemporary nation-states. In Educational futures: Rethinking theory and practice, edited by
K. Roth and N. Burbules . Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
91 Sassen, Saskia . 2002. The repositioning of citizenship: Emergent subjects and spaces for
politics. Berkeley Journal of Sociology 46: 426.
Scherr, Albert . 2005. Social subjectivity and mutual recognition as basic terms of a critical
theory of education. In Critical theories, radical pedagogies, and global conflicts, edited by
Gustavo Fischman , Peter McLaren , Heinz Sunker , and Colin Lankshear , 145153. Lanham,
MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Shen, M . 2008. Attitudes towards citizenship in China: Data report of a national survey 2008.
Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press.
Shultz, Lynette . 2007. Educating for global citizenship: Conflicting agendas and
understandings. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research 53 (3): 248258.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu . 1994. Limits of citizenship: Migrants and postnational
membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu . 2005. Rethinking nation-state identities in the new Europe: A
cross-national study of school curricula and textbooks. Swindon, UK: Economic and Social
Research Council (ESRC).
Stapp, William B. 1969. The concept of environmental education. Environmental Education 1
(1): 3031.
Steiner-Khamsi, Gita . 2002. Reterritorializing educational import: Explorations into the
politics of educational borrowing. In Fabricating Europe: The formation of an education
space, edited by Antnio Nvoa and Martin Lawn, 6986. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Stromquist, Nelly P. 2002. Education in a globalized world: The connectivity of economic
power, technology, and knowledge. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J. 2008. Beyond liberal democracy in schools: The power of
pluralism, Advances in contemporary educational thought series. New York: Teachers
College Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 1998. Democracy, education, and multiculturalism: Dilemmas of
citizenship in a global world. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2002. Globalization, education, and citizenship: Solidarity versus
markets? American Educational Research Journal 39 (2): 363378.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2009. Globalizations and education: Collected essays on class, race,
gender, and the state. New York: Teachers College Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2013. Afterword: Another Globalization is Possible. In Comparative
education: The dialectic of the global and the local, edited by Robert F. Arnove , Carlos
Alberto Torres , and Stephen Franz . Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2015a. Global citizenship and global universities: The age of global
interdependence and cosmopolitanism. European Journal of Education 50 (3): 262279.
doi:10.1111/ejed.12129.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2015b. Global citizenship education: A new educational, pedagogical
and political narrative in the world system? Blue Dot (UNESCO and Mahatma Gandhi
Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development), accessed June 29.
http://mgiep.unesco.org/bluedot/global-citizenship-education-a-new-educational-pedagogical-
and-political-narrative-in-the-world-system/.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2016. Education for global citizenship. In Oxford Research
Encyclopedia of Education. USA: Oxford University Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2017. Theoretical and empirical foundations of critical global
citizenship education, edited by Carlos Alberto Torres , Global citizenship education,
globalization and the politics of equity and inclusion. New York: Routledge.
92 Veugelers, Wiel . 2011. The moral and the political in global citizenship: Appreciating
differences in education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 473485.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605329.
Waghid, Yusef . 2013. African philosophy of education reconsidered: On being human. New
York: Routledge.
Walter, Pierre . 2009. Philosophies of adult environmental education. Adult Education
Quarterly 60 (1): 325. doi:10.1177/0741713609336109.
Westheimer, Joel , and Joseph Kahne . 2004. What kind of citizen? The politics of educating
for democracy. American Educational Research Journal 41 (2): 237269.
doi:10.3102/00028312041002237.
Williams, Marc . 1996. International political economy and global environmental change. In
The environment and international relations, edited by John Vogler and Mark Imber , 51-58.
London: Routledge.
Wright, Handel Kashope , and Ali A. Abdi . 2012. The dialectics of African education and
Western discourses: Counter-hegemonic perspectives, Black studies & critical thinking. New
York: Peter Lang.
Theoretical Lenses to View Socio-Environmental Issues
Abdi, Ali A. 2008. De-subjecting subject populations: Historico-actual problems and
educational possibilities. In Educating for human rights and global citizenship, 139edited by
Ali A. Abdi and Lynette Shultz , 6580. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Ahmed, Sara . 2015. The cultural politics of emotion. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Alaimo, Stacy . 2008. Ecofeminism without nature? Questioning the relation between
feminism and environmentalism. International Feminist Journal of Politics 10 (3): 299304.
Allen, Paula Gunn . 1990. The woman I love is a planet, the planet I love is a tree. In
Reweaving the world: The emergence of ecofeminism, edited by Irene Diamond and Gloria
Feman Orenstein , 5257. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2006. Educating the right way: Markets, standards, God, and inequality.
2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , and Wayne Au . 2009. Politics, theory, and reality in critical pedagogy. In
International handbook of comparative education, edited by Robert Cowen and Andreas M.
Kazamias , 9911007. The Netherlands: Springer.
Apple, Michael W. , Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin . 2009. Mapping critical education.
In The Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple ,
Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 320. New York: Routledge.
Arnove, Robert F. 2007. Introduction: Reframing comparative education: The dialectic of the
global and the local. In Comparative education: The dialectic of the global and the local,
edited by Robert F. Arnove and Carlos Alberto Torres , 120. Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
Assi-Lumumba, NDri Thrse . 2008. Higher knowledge and global good: Reconceptualizing
and envisioning higher education in Africa for shared and enhanced humanity. General
Assembly of The World Academy of Art and Science, Hyderabad, India.
Assi-Lumumba, NDri Thrse . 2017. The Ubuntu paradigm and comparative and international
education: Epistemological challenges and opportunities in our field. Comparative Education
Review 61 (1): 121. doi:10.1086/689922.
Au, Wayne W. , and Michael W. Apple . 2007. Reviewing policy: Freire, critical education,
and the environmental crisis. Educational Policy 21 (3): 457470.
Beck, Ulrich . 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity, Theory, culture & society.
London: Sage.
Boden, Rebecca , and Debbie Epstein . 2006. Managing the research imagination?
Globalisation and research in higher education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 4 (2):
223236. doi:10.1080/14767720600752619.
Bowers, Chet A. 2000. Let them eat data: How computers affect education, cultural diversity,
and the prospects of ecological sustainability. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Capella, Juan-Ramon . 2000. Globalization, a fading citizenship. In Globalization and
education: Critical perspectives, edited by Nicholas C. Burbules and Carlos Alberto Torres ,
227252. New York: Routledge.
Carruthers, Jane . 1995. The Kruger National Park: A social and political history: University of
Natal Press.
Carson, Rachel . 1962. Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Chomsky, Noam . 1999. Profit over people: Neoliberalism and global order. Seven Stories
Press 1st ed. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Clover, Darlene E. 1995. Gender transformative learning and environmental action. Gender
and Education 7 (3): 243258. doi:10.1080/09540259550038988.
140 Cobern, William W. , and Cathleen C. Loving . 2001. Defining science in a multicultural
world: Implications for science education. Science Education 85 (1): 5067.
Corsiglia, John , and Gloria Snively . 2001. Rejoinder: Infusing Indigenous science into
western modern science for a sustainable future. Science Education 85 (1): 8286.
Dale, Roger . 1997. The state and the governance of education: An analysis of the
restructuring of the stateeducation relationship. In Education: Culture, economy, and society,
edited by A. H. Halsey , Matt Lauder , Phillip Brown and Amy Stuart Wells . 273282. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Dale, Roger . 2005. Globalisation, knowledge economy and comparative education.
Comparative Education 41 (2): 117149.
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa . 2011. (Towards) decoloniality and diversality in global
citizenship education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 381397.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605323.
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa , Lynn Souza , and Mario T. de Menezes . 2012. Postcolonial
perspectives on global citizenship education, Routledge research in education. New York:
Routledge.
DeGregori, Thomas R. 2002. The environment, our natural resources, and modern
technology. Iowa City: Iowa State Press.
Dei, George J. Sefa . 2000. African development: The relevance and implications of
Indigenousness. In Indigenous knowledges in global contexts: Multiple readings of our world,
edited by George J. Sefa Dei , Budd L. Hall , and Dorothy Goldin Rosenberg , 7086. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press.
Dewey, John . 1963. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of
education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dispensa, Jaclyn Marisa , and Robert J. Brulle . 2003. Medias social construction of
environmental issues: Focus on global warminga comparative study. International Journal of
Sociology and Social Policy 23 (10): 74105.
Dorfman, Ariel , and Armand Mattelart . 2006. Introduction: Instructions on how to become a
general in the Disneyland Club. In Media and cultural studies: Keyworks, edited by
Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner , 122129. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Dussel, Enrique D. 1998. Beyond eurocentrism: The world-system and the limits of
modernity. In The cultures of globalization, edited by Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi ,
331. Durham: Duke University Press.
Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi . 1998. Colonialism and the colonized: Violence and vounter-
violence. In African philosophy: An anthology, edited by Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze , 234254.
Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Fanon, Frantz . 1963. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
Fanon, Frantz . 1967. Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.
Figueroa, Robert , and Sandra G. Harding . 2003. Science and other cultures: Issues in
philosophies of science and technology. New York: Routledge.
Freire, Paulo . 1970. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.
Freire, Paulo . 1976. Education, the practice of freedom. London: Writers and Readers
Publishing Cooperative.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Fuchs, Christian . 2009. Information and communication technologies and society: A
contribution to the critique of the political economy of the internet. European Journal of
Communication 24 (1): 6987. doi:10.1177/0267323108098947.
Gaard, Greta . 1997. Toward a Queer Ecofeminism. Hypatia 12 (1): 114137.
doi:10.1111/j.15272001.1997.tb00174.x.
141 Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008a. Education for sustainability: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Green Theory and Praxis: The Journal of
Ecopedagogy 4 (1): 50.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008b. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008c. What we need to learn to save the planet. Journal of Education for
Sustainable Development 2 (1): 2130.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2011. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the
ecopedagogic perspective. International Review of Education 57 (1): 925.
doi:10.1007/s11159-011-9205-0.
Gadotti, Moacir , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Paulo Freire: Education for development.
Development and Change 40 (6): 12551267. doi:10.1111/j.14677660.2009.01606.x.
Garlen, Julie C. , and Jennifer A. Sandlin . 2016. Teaching with Disney, Counterpoints:
Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter Lang.
Giroux, Henry A. , and Grace Pollock . 2010. The mouse that roared: Disney and the end of
innocence. Updated and expanded ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Gottlieb, Robert . 2005. Forcing the spring: The transformation of the American
environmental movement. Rev. and updated ed. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Gramsci, Antonio , and Joseph A. Buttigieg . 1992. Prison notebooks, European
perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
Grande, Sandy . 2004. Red Pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. Lanham,
MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Grande, Sandy . 2009. Red Pedagogy: Indigenous theories of redistribution (a.k.a
sovereignty). In The Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael
W. Apple , Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 190203. New York: Routledge.
Green, Andy . 1997. Education, globalization, and the nation state. New York: St. Martins
Press.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 1989. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria.
(Ecopedagogy and planetarian citizenship). So Paulo: Cortez.
Hall, Stuart . 1996. When was the post-colonial? Thinking at the limit. In The post-colonial
question: Common skies, divided horizons, edited by Iain Chamber and Lidia Curtis . London:
Routledge.
Hanchett, Thomas W. 1998. Sorting out the New South city: Race, class, and urban
development in Charlotte, 18751975. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Harding, Sandra G. 1991. Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from womens lives.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Harding, Sandra G. 1998. Is science multicultural? Postcolonialisms, feminisms, and
epistemologies, Race, gender, and science. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Harding, Sandra G. 2006. Science and social inequality: Feminist and postcolonial issues,
Race and gender in science studies. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Hayhoe, Ruth , Julia Pan , and Comparative Education Research Centre. 2001. Knowledge
across cultures: A contribution to dialogue among civilizations, CERC studies 142in
comparative education. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of
Hong Kong.
Heinonen, Sirkka , Pekka Jokinen , and Jari Kaivo-oja . 2001. The ecological transparency of
the information society. Futures 33 (3): 319337.
Held, David . 1980. Introduction to critical theory: Horkheimer to Habermas. In Introduction to
critical theory, edited by David Held , 1326. Berkeley, CA: University of Southern California
Press.
Held, David . 1999. Global transformations: Politics, economics and culture. Palo Alto:
Stanford University Press.
Hill, Robert J. 2003. Environmental justice: Environmental adult education at the confluence
of oppressions. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 99: 2738.
doi:10.1002/ace.107.
hooks, bell . 2010. Teaching critical thinking: Practical wisdom. New York: Routledge.
Horton, Myles , Paulo Freire , Brenda Bell , John Gaventa , and John Marshall Peters . 1990.
We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change. Philadelphia,
PA: Temple University Press.
Horton, Myles , Judith Kohl , and Herbert R. Kohl . 1998. The long haul: An autobiography.
New York: Teachers College Press.
Hyland, Ken . 2009. Academic discourse English in a global context. In Continuum discourse
series. London: Continuum.
https://libproxy.usc.edu/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uscisd/Doc?id=10427118.
Illich, Ivan . 1983. Deschooling society. 1st Harper Colophon ed. New York: Harper
Colophon.
Jordan, Charles , and Donald Snow . 1992. Diversification, minorities, and the mainstream
environmental movement. In Voices from the environmental movement: Perspectives for a
new era, edited by Donald Snow and Conservation Fund (Arlington Va.), 7578. Washington,
DC: Island Press.
Kahn, Richard . 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The ecopedagogy
movement, edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg . Vol. 359, Counterpoints:
Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter Lang.
Keating, Avril , Debora Hinderliter Ortloff , and Stavroula Philippou . 2009. Citizenship
education curricula: The changes and challenges presented by global and European
integration. Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (2): 145158. doi:10.1080/00220270802485063.
Kellner, Douglas . 2002. Theorizing globalization. Sociological Theory 20 (3): 285305.
Kellner, Douglas , and Meenakshi Gigi Durham . 2006. Adventures in media and cultural
studies: Introducing the keyworks. In Media and cultural studies: Keyworks, edited by
Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner , xixxxviii. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Kellner, Douglas , and Jeff Share . 2007. Critical media literacy is not an option. Learning
Inquiry 1 (1): 5969. doi:10.1007/s11519-007-0004-2.
Kempf, Arlo . 2006a. Anti-colonial historiography: Interrogating colonial education. In Anti-
colonialism and education: The politics of resistance, edited by George J. Sefa Dei and Arlo
Kempf , 313. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Kempf, Arlo . 2006b. Anti-colonial historiography: Interrogating colonial education. In Anti-
colonialism and education: The politics of resistance, edited by George J. Sefa Dei and Arlo
Kempf , 129158. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
143 Klees, Steven J. 2008. Reflections on theory, method, and practice in comparative and
international education. Comparative Education Review 52 (3): 301328. doi:10.1086/589978.
Kretovics, Joseph , and Edward J. Nussel . 1994. Transforming urban education. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Ladson-Billings, Gloria . 1998. Just what is critical race theory and whats it doing in a nice
field like education? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 11 (1): 724.
Ladson-Billings, Gloria . 2009. Race still matters: Critical race theory in education. In The
Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple , Wayne
Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 110122. New York: Routledge.
Lahar, Stephanie . 1991. Ecofeminist theory and grassroots politics. Hypatia 6 (1): 2845.
Leach, Melissa , and Robin Mearns . 1996. The lie of the land: Challenging received wisdom
on the African environment, African issues. Oxford: International African Institute.
Li, Huey-Li . 2003. Bioregionalism and global education: A reexamination. Educational
Theory 53 (1): 5573.
Lorde, Audre . 2016. Age, race, class, and sex: Women redefining difference. In Race, class,
and gender: an anthology, edited by Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins , 15-21.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
MacKenzie, John M. 1987. Chivalry, social Darwinism and ritualized killing: The hunting ethos
in central Africa up to 1914. In Conservation in Africa: People, policies, and practice, edited
by David Anderson and Richard Grove , 4162. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maldonado-Torres, Nelson . 2004. The topology of being and the geopolitics of knowledge.
City 8 (1): 2956. doi:10.1080/1360481042000199787.
Marable, Manning . 1992. Black America: Multicultural democracy in the age of Clarence
Thomas and David Duke, Open magazine pamphlet series. Westfield, NJ: Open Media.
Marshall, Harriet . 2007. The global education terminology debate: Exploring some of the
issues in the UK. In The Sage handbook of research in international education, edited by
Mary Hayden , Jeff Thompson , and Jack Levy , 3850. London: Sage.
Marshall, Harriet . 2011. Instrumentalism, ideals and imaginaries: Theorising the contested
space of global citizenship education in schools. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9
(93): 411426. doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605325.
Matias, Cheryl E. 2016. Feeling white: Whiteness, emotionality, and education. Rotterdam:
Springer.
Melosi, Martin V. 1995. Equity, eco-racism and environmental history. Environmental History
Review 19 (3): 116. doi:10.2307/3984909.
Memmi, Albert . 1991. The colonizer and the colonized. Expanded ed. Boston: Beacon Press.
Merchant, Carolyn . 1989. The death of nature: Women, ecology, and the scientific
revolution. New York: Harper & Row.
Merchant, Carolyn . 2003. Shades of darkness: Race and environmental history.
Environmental History 8 (3): 380394. doi:10.2307/3986200.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2011. Ecopedagogy in the age of globalization: Educators
perspectives of environmental education programs in the Americas which incorporate social
justice models. Ph.D., Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of
California, Los Angeles (Publication No. AAT 3483199).
144 Misiaszek, Greg William . 2012. Transformative environmental education within social
justice models: Lessons from comparing adult ecopedagogy within North and South America.
In Second international handbook of lifelong learning, edited by David N. Aspin , Judith
Chapman , Karen Evans , and Richard Bagnall , 423440. London: Springer.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2015. Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisation:
Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the planet.
European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2016. Ecopedagogy as an element of citizenship education: The
dialectic of global/local spheres of citizenship and critical environmental pedagogies.
International Review of Education 62 (5): 587607. doi:10.1007/s11159-016-9587-0.
Neumann, Roderick P. 1998. Imposing wilderness: Struggles over livelihood and nature
preservation in Africa, California studies in critical human geography. Berkeley: University of
California Press.
Ortner, Sherry . 1974. Is female to male as nature is to culture. In Woman, culture, and
society, edited by Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo , Louise Lamphere , and Joan Bamberger ,
6788. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Park, Lisa Sun-Hee , and David N. Pellow . 2004. Racial formation, environmental racism,
and the emergence of Silicon Valley. Ethnicities 4 (3): 403424.
Persell, Caroline Hodges . 1979. Education and inequality: The roots and results of
stratification in Americas schools, Free Press paperback. New York: Free Press.
Phillips, David , and Michele Schweisfurth . 2007. Comparative and international education:
An introduction to theory, method and practice. London: Continuum.
Plumwood, Val . 1986. Ecofeminism: An overview and discussion of positions and
arguments. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (Sup 1): 120138.
Postma, Dirk Willem . 2006. Why care for nature? In search of an ethical framework for
environmental responsibility and education. New York: Springer.
Ress, Mary Judith . 2006. Ecofeminism in Latin America. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books.
Shultz, Lynette . 2014. Sweet dreams of social democracy and environmental integrity:
Response to Carlos Torres and the emerging global citizenship education agenda.
Newsletter of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) 2: 1, 10.
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai . 1999. Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous
peoples. London: Zed Books.
Snively, Gloria , and John Corsiglia . 2001. Discovering Indigenous science: Implications for
science education. Science Education 85 (1): 634.
Solrzano, Daniel G. , and Tara J. Yosso . 2002. Critical race methodology: Counter-
storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry 8 (1): 2344.
doi:10.1177/107780040200800103.
Sontag, Susan . 1977. On photography. New York: Dell Publishing Co.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu . 2005. Rethinking nation-state identities in the new Europe: A
cross-national study of school curricula and textbooks. Swindon, UK: Economic and Social
Research Council (ESRC).
Spretnak, Charlene . 1989. Toward an ecofeminist spirituality. In Healing the wounds: The
promise of ecofeminism, edited by Judith Plant. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
Stromquist, Nelly P . 2002a. Education in a globalized world: The connectivity of economic
power, technology, and knowledge, edited by Nelly P. Stromquist . Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
145 Stromquist, Nelly P . 2002b. Education in a globalized world: The connectivity of
economic power, technology, and knowledge. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Surez-Orozco, Marcelo . 2001. Globalization, immigration, and education: The research
Agenda. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3): 345366.
Tarkington, Booth . 1915. The turmoil, a novel. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.
Taylor, Dorcetta . 1992. Can the environmental movement attract and maintain the support of
minorities? In Race and the incidence of environmental hazards: A time for discourse, edited
by Bunyan I. Bryant and Paul Mohai , 2854. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tikly, Leon . 2001. Globalisation and education in the postcolonial world: Towards a
conceptual framework. Comparative Education 37 (2): 151171.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2002. Globalization, education, and citizenship: Solidarity versus
markets? American Educational Research Journal 39 (2): 363378.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2009. Globalizations and education: Collected essays on class, race,
gender, and the state. New York: Teachers College Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2015. Global citizenship and global universities: The age of global
interdependence and cosmopolitanism. European Journal of Education 50 (3): 262279.
doi:10.1111/ejed.12129.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2017a. The state of the art in comparative education and WCCES at
a crossroads in the 21st Century. Global Comparative Education: Journal of the World
Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) 1 (1): 2032.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2017b. Theoretical and empirical foundations of critical global
citizenship education, edited by Carlos Alberto Torres , Global citizenship education,
globalization and the politics of equity and inclusion. New York: Routledge.
Torres, Carlos Alberto , and Pedro Noguera . 2008. Social justice education: Paulo Freire and
the possible dream. Amsterdam: Sense Publishers.
Twine, Richard T. 2001. Ecofeminisms in process. Ecofeminism e-Journal, accessed August
8, 2017. http://richardtwine.com/ecofem/ecofem2001.pdf.
Walter, Pierre . 2009. Philosophies of adult environmental education. Adult Education
Quarterly 60 (1): 325. doi:10.1177/0741713609336109.
Warren, Karen J. 1994. Environmental stewardship: An ecofeminist philosophical
perspective. Environmental stewardship: History, theory and practice workshop proceedings,
March 1112, 1994.
Warren, Karen J. 2000. Ecofeminist philosophy: A Western perspective on what it is and why
it matters, Studies in social, political, and legal philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
Warren, Karen J. , and Jim Cheney . 1991. Ecological feminism and ecosystem ecology.
Hypatia 6 (1): 179197.
White, Hayden V. 1976. The noble savage theme as fetish. In First images of America: The
impact of the new world on the old, edited by Fredi Chiappelli , Michael J. B. Allen , and
Robert Louis Benson , 121135. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Woods, Robert Archey . 1898. The city wilderness: A settlement study. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin.
Zehle, Soenke . 2002. Notes on cross-border environmental justice education. In The
environmental justice reader: Politics, poetics, & pedagogy, edited by Joni Adamson , Mei
Mei Evans , and Rachel Stein , 331349. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Zembylas, Michalinos . 2012. Transnationalism, migration and emotions: Implications for
education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 10 (2): 163179. doi:10.1080/
14767724.2012.647403.
Whose Development?
Apple, Michael W. 2000. Official knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative age.
2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. 2006. Educating the right way: Markets, standards, God, and inequality.
2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , and Wayne Au . 2009. Politics, theory, and reality in critical pedagogy. In
International handbook of comparative education, edited by Robert Cowen and Andreas M.
Kazamias , 9911007. The Netherlands: Springer.
Arnot, Madeleine . 2009. A global conscience collective? Incorporating gender injustices into
global citizenship education. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 4 (2): 117132.
doi:10.1177/1746197909103932.
Arnove, Robert F. 1980. Comparative education and World-Systems analysis. Comparative
Education Review 24 (1): 4862.
Arnove, Robert F. 2007. Introduction: Reframing comparative education: The dialectic of the
global and the local. In Comparative education: The dialectic of the global and the local,
edited by Robert F. Arnove and Carlos Alberto Torres , 120. Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
180 Arnove, Robert F. , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2007. Comparative education: The
dialectic of the global and the local. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Au, Wayne W. , and Michael W. Apple . 2007. Reviewing policy: Freire, critical education,
and the environmental crisis. Educational Policy 21 (3): 457470.
Banks, James A. 2001. Citizenship education and diversity. Journal of Teacher Education 52
(1): 516. doi:10.1177/0022487101052001002.
Bauman, Zygmunt . 1998. Globalization: The human consequences, European perspectives.
Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Bierstedt, Robert . 1981. American sociological theory: A critical history. New York: Academic
Press.
Blackshaw, Tony . 2005. Zygmunt Bauman, Key sociologists. London: Routledge.
Boff, Leonardo . 2004. El cuidado esencial: tica de lo humano, compasin por la tierra. Madrid:
Trotta.
Bonnett, Michael . 2003. Retriving nature: Education for a post-humanist age. Journal of
Philosophy of Education 37 (4): 551730.
Bourdieu, Pierre . 1998. LEssence du neoliberalisme. Le Monde Diplomatique.
Brown, Phillip , and Hugh Lauder . 2006. Globalisation, knowledge and the myth of the
magnet economy. Globalisation, Societies and Education 4 (1): 2557.
doi:10.1080/14767720600555046.
Bund, Misereor . 1996. Zukunftsfhiges Deutschland: Ein Beitrag zu einer global nachhaltigen
Entwicklung. Boston: Energie.
Buttel, Frederick H. 2003. Environmental sociology and the explanation of environmental
reform. Organization & Environment 16 (3): 306344. doi:doi:10.1177/1086026603256279.
Cairncross, Frances . 1992. Costing the earth: The challenge for governments, the
opportunities for business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Camicia, Steven P. , and Barry M. Franklin . 2011. What type of global community and
citizenship? Tangled discourses of neoliberalism and critical democracy in curriculum and its
reform. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 311322.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605303.
Capella, Juan-Ramon . 2000. Globalization, a fading citizenship. In Globalization and
education: Critical perspectives, edited by Nicholas C. Burbules and Carlos Alberto Torres ,
227252. New York: Routledge.
Catton, William R. , and Riley E. Dunlap . 1978. Environmental sociology: A new paradigm.
The American Sociologist 13 (1): 4149.
Chomsky, Noam . 1999. Profit over people: Neoliberalism and global order. Seven Stories
Press 1st ed. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Crowther, Jim , Ian Martin , and Mae Shaw . 1999. Popular education and social movements
in Scotland today. Surrey: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE).
Cudworth, Erika . 2003. Environment and society. New York: Routledge.
Dale, Roger . 2005. Globalisation, knowledge economy and comparative education.
Comparative Education 41 (2): 117149.
Dale, Roger . 2007. Globalization and rescaling of educational goverence: A case of
sociological ectopia. In Critique and utopia: New developments in the sociology of education
in the twenty-first century, edited by Carlos Alberto Torres and Antonio Teodoro , 2542.
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa . 2011a. The political economy of global citizenship education.
Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 307310. doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.602292.
181 de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa . 2011b. (Towards) decoloniality and diversality in global
citizenship education. Globalisation, Societies and Education 9 (93): 381397.
doi:10.1080/14767724.2011.605323.
de Sousa Santos, Boaventura . 2007. Beyond abyssal thinking: From global lines to
ecologies of knowledges. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 30 (1): 4589.
DeGregori, Thomas R. 2002. The environment, our natural resources, and modern
technology. Iowa City: Iowa State Press.
Diamond, Jared . 1987. The worst mistake in the history of the human race. Discover 8 (5):
6466.
Dobson, Andrew . 1996. Environment sustainabilities: An analysis and a typology.
Environmental Politics 5 (3): 401428. doi:10.1080/09644019608414280.
Dussel, Enrique D. 1998. Beyond eurocentrism: The world-system and the limits of
modernity. In The cultures of globalization, edited by Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi ,
331. Durham: Duke University Press.
Fanon, Frantz . 1963. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
Fanon, Frantz . 1967. Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.
Fischman, Gustavo . 2009. Un/taming Freires pedagogy of the oppressed. In The Routledge
international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple , Wayne Au , and
Lus Armando Gandin , 232239. New York: Routledge.
Forbes, Jack D. 2008. Columbus and other cannibals: The wtiko disease of exploitation,
imperialism, and terrorism. Rev. ed. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Foster, John Bellamy . 1995. Global ecology and the common good. Monthly Review 46 (9):
110.
Freire, Paulo . 1976. Education, the practice of freedom. London: Writers and Readers
Publishing Cooperative.
Freire, Paulo . 1997. Mentoring the mentor: A critical dialogue with Paulo Freire,
Counterpoints. New York: Peter Lang.
Freire, Paulo . 1998a. Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage, Critical
perspectives series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Freire, Paulo . 1998b. Politics and education, UCLA Latin American studies. Los Angeles:
UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008a. Education for sustainability: A critical contribution to the decade of
education for sustainable development. Green Theory and Praxis: The Journal of
Ecopedagogy 4 (1): 50.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008b. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008c. What we need to learn to save the planet. Journal of Education for
Sustainable Development 2 (1): 2130.
Gadotti, Moacir , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Paulo Freire: Education for development.
Development and Change 40 (6): 12551267. doi:10.1111/j.14677660.2009.01606.x.
Gagnon Thompson, Suzanne C. , and Michelle A. Barton . 1994. Ecocentric and
anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology 14
(2): 149157. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80168-9.
182 Ghosh, Ratna . 2008. The short history of women, human rights, and global citizenship.
In Educating for human rights and global citizenship, edited by Ali A. Abdi and Lynette Shultz
, 8196. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Giroux, Henry A. 2001. Theory and resistance in education: Towards a pedagogy for the
opposition. Rev. and expanded ed, Critical studies in education and culture series. Westport,
CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Giroux, Henry A. , and Peter McLaren . 1989. Critical pedagogy, the state, and cultural
struggle, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Goodman, Robin Truth , and Kenneth J. Saltman . 2002. Strange love: Or how we learn to
stop worrying and love the market, Critical perspectives series. Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
Gramsci, Antonio . 2006. (i) History of the subaltern classes; (ii) The concept of ideology (iii)
Cultural themes: Idealogical material. In Media and cultural studies: KeyWorks, edited by
Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner , 1318. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Gutirrez, Francisco , and Cruz Prado . 1989. Ecopedagogia e cidadania planetria
(Ecopedagogy and planetarian citizenship). So Paulo: Cortez.
Gutirrez, Gustavo . 1988. A theology of liberation: History, politics, and salvation. Maryknoll,
NY: Orbis Books.
Gutirrez, Gustavo . 1990. The truth shall make you free: Confrontations. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis
Books.
Hannigan, John A. 2006. Environmental sociology. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Hesselink, Frits., Peter Paul van Kempen , and Arjen E. J. Wals . 2000. ESDebate:
International debate on education for sustainable development. Gland, Switzerland:
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
hooks, bell . 2010. Teaching critical thinking: Practical wisdom. New York: Routledge.
Huber, Joseph . 1982. Die verlorene unschuld der kologie: Neue technologien und
superindustrielle entwicklung. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer.
Huber, Joseph . 1985. Die regenbogen-gesellschaft: kologie und sozialpolitik. Berlin: Fischer.
Illich, Ivan . 1983. Deschooling society. 1st Harper Colophon ed. New York: Harper
Colophon.
Inkeles, Alex , and David Horton Smith . 1974. Becoming modern: Individual change in six
developing countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jickling, Bob , and Arjen E. J. Wals . 2008. Globalization and environmental education:
Looking beyond sustainable development. Journal of Curriculum Studies 40 (1): 121.
doi:10.1080/00220270701684667.
Jucker, Rolf . 2004. Have the cake and eat it: Ecojustice versus development? Is it possible
to reconcile social and economic equity, ecological sustainability, and human development?
Some implications for ecojustice education. Educational Studies 36 (1): 1026.
Kahn, Richard . 2009. Producing crisis: Green consumerism as an ecopedagogical issue. In
Critical pedagogies of consumption: Living and learning beyond the shopocalypse, edited by
J. Sandlin and Peter McLaren . New York, NY: Routledge.
Kahn, Richard . 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The ecopedagogy
movement, edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg . Vol. 359, Counterpoints:
Studies in the postmodern theory of education. New York: Peter Lang.
183 Karliner, Joshua . 1997. The corporate planet: Ecology and politics in the age of
globalization. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Kellner, Douglas . 2002. Theorizing globalization. Sociological Theory 20 (3): 285305.
Klees, Steven J . 2008a. A quarter century of neoliberal thinking in education: Misleading
analyses and failed policies. Globalisation, Societies and Education 6 (4): 311348.
doi:10.1080/14767720802506672.
Klees, Steven J . 2008b. Reflections on theory, method, and practice in comparative and
international education. Comparative Education Review 52 (3): 301328.
doi:doi:10.1086/589978.
Kopnina, Helen . 2011. Revisiting education for sustainable development (ESD): Examining
anthropocentric bias through the transition of environmental education to ESD. Sustainable
Development 22 (2): 7383. doi:10.1002/sd.529.
Leopold, Aldo . 1968. A sand county almanac, and sketches here and there, Oxford
University paperback GB263. London: Oxford University Press.
Martin, Edward J. 2003. Liberation theology, sustainable development, and postmodern
public administration. Latin American Perspectives 30 (4): 69.
McKeown, Rosalyn , and Charles Hopkins . 2003. EE ESD: Defusing the worry.
Environmental Education Research 9 (1): 117128.
Melosi, Martin V. 1995. Equity, eco-racism and environmental history. Environmental History
Review 19 (3): 116. doi:10.2307/3984909.
Memmi, Albert . 1991. The colonizer and the colonized. Expanded ed. Boston: Beacon Press.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2011. Ecopedagogy in the age of globalization: Educators
perspectives of environmental education programs in the Americas which incorporate social
justice models. Ph.D., Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of
California, Los Angeles (Publication No. AAT 3483199).
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2012. Transformative environmental education within social justice
models: Lessons from comparing adult ecopedagogy within North and South America. In
Second international handbook of lifelong learning, edited by David N. Aspin , Judith
Chapman , Karen Evans , and Richard Bagnall , 423440. London: Springer.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2014. Ecopedagogy and comparative education. Newsletter of the
World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) 3: 1, 1114.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2015. Ecopedagogy and citizenship in the age of globalisation:
Connections between environmental and global citizenship education to save the planet.
European Journal of Education 50 (3): 280292. doi:10.1111/ejed.12138.
Misiaszek, Greg William . 2016. Ecopedagogy as an element of citizenship education: The
dialectic of global/local spheres of citizenship and critical environmental pedagogies.
International Review of Education 62 (5): 587607. doi:10.1007/s11159-016-9587-0.
Misiaszek, Greg William , and Carlos Alberto Torres . Forthcoming (2018). Chapter five: The
missing chapter of Pedagogy of the Oppressed. In Wiley handbook of Paulo Freire, edited by
C. Torres . NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Morrow, Raymond Allen . 2006. ForwardCritical theory, globalization, and higher education:
Political economy and the cul-de-sac of the postmodernist cultural turn. In The university,
state, and market: The political economy of globalization in the Americas, edited by Robert.
A. Rhoads and Calos Alberto Torres , xviixxxiii. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
184 Novek, Joel , and Karen Kampen . 1992. Sustainable or unsustainable development? An
analysis of an environmental controversy. The Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers
Canadiens de Sociologie 17 (3): 249273. doi:10.2307/3341323.
Olmos, Liliana , and Carlos Alberto Torres . 2009. Theories of the state, educational
expansion, development, and globalizations: Marxian and critical approaches. In International
handbook of comparative education, 7386. Dordrecht: Springer.
Postma, Dirk Willem . 2006. Why care for nature? In search of an ethical framework for
environmental responsibility and education. New York: Springer.
Saul, John Ralston . 1995. The unconscious civilization, Massey lectures series. Concord,
Ont.: House of Anansi Press.
Schnaiberg, Allan . 1980. The environment, from surplus to scarcity. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Shiva, Vandana . 1992. Recovering the real meaning of sustainability. In The Environment in
question: Ethics and global issues, edited by David E. Cooper and Joy Palmer , 187193.
London: Routledge.
Shultz, Lynette . 2007. Educating for global citizenship: Conflicting agendas and
understandings. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research 53 (3): 248258.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2003. Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.
Stromquist, Nelly P. 2002. Education in a globalized world: The connectivity of economic
power, technology, and knowledge. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Stromquist, Nelly P. , and Karen Monkman . 2002. Globalization and education: Integration
and contestation across cultures. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sutherland, Anne . 1998. The making of Belize: Globalization in the margins. Westport, CT:
Bergin & Garvey.
Thomas, Alan . 2000. Poverty and the end of development. In Poverty and development into
the 21st century, edited by Tim Allen and Alan Thomas , 322. Oxford: Open University in
association with Oxford University Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2002. Globalization, education, and citizenship: Solidarity versus
markets? American Educational Research Journal 39 (2): 363378.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2009. Globalizations and education: Collected essays on class, race,
gender, and the state. New York: Teachers College Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2011. Public universities and the neoliberal common sense: Seven
iconoclastic theses. International Studies in Sociology of Education 21 (3): 177197.
doi:10.1080/09620214.2011.616340.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2013. Emerging global citizenship education agenda. Newsletter of
the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) 1: 2, 1113.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2015. Global citizenship and global universities: The age of global
interdependence and cosmopolitanism. European Journal of Education 50 (3): 262279.
doi:10.1111/ejed.12129.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2016. Education for global citizenship. In Oxford Research
Encyclopedia of Education. USA: Oxford University Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2017. Theoretical and empirical foundations of critical global
citizenship education, edited by Carlos Alberto Torres , Global citizenship education,
globalization and the politics of equity and inclusion. New York: Routledge.
UNESCO. 1992. Refonte de lducation pour un dveloppement durable [Reshaping education
for sustainable development]. Paris: Dossiers Environnement et Dveloppement.
UNESCO. 2002. Title. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.
185 Von Weizscker, Ernst Ulrich , Amory B. Lovins , and L. Hunter Lovins . 1998. Factor four:
Doubling wealth-halving resource use: The new report to the Club of Rome. London:
Earthscan.
Walter, Pierre . 2009. Philosophies of adult environmental education. Adult Education
Quarterly 60 (1): 325. doi:10.1177/0741713609336109.
Williams, Raymond . 2006. Base and superstructure in Marxist cultural theory. In Media and
cultural studies: Keyworks, edited by Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner , 130143.
Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Zaoual, Hassan . 1997. The economy and symbolic sites of Africa. In The post-development
reader, edited by Majid Rahnema and Victoria Bawtree , 3039. London: Zed Books.
Conclusion
Apple, Michael W. 2004. Ideology and curriculum. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.
Apple, Michael W. , Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin . 2009. Mapping critical education.
In The Routledge international handbook of critical education, edited by Michael W. Apple ,
Wayne Au , and Lus Armando Gandin , 320. New York: Routledge.
Banks, James A. 2009. Human rights, diversity, and citizenship education. The Educational
Forum 73 (2): 100110. doi:10.1080/00131720902739478.
Bell, Derek R. 2004. Creating green citizens? Political liberalism and environmental
education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 38 (1): 3754.
Freire, Paulo . 1998. Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage, Critical
perspectives series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Freire, Paulo . 2000. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Gadotti, Moacir . 1996. Pedagogy of praxis: A dialectical philosophy of education, SUNY
series, Teacher empowerment and school reform. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2008. Education for sustainable development: What we need to learn to
save the planet. So Paulo: Instituto Paulo Freire.
Gadotti, Moacir . 2009. Education for sustainability: A contribution to the decade of education
for sustainable development. Sa Paulo: Editora e Livraria Instituto Paulo Freire.
Glassner, Barry . 1999. The culture of fear. New York: Basic Books.
Harding, Sandra G. 1991. Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from womens lives.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Harding, Sandra G. 1998. Is science multicultural? Postcolonialisms, feminisms, and
epistemologies, Race, gender, and science. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Illich, Ivan . 1983. Deschooling society. 1st Harper Colophon ed. New York: Harper
Colophon.
Kahn, Richard . 2010. Critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, and planetary crisis: The ecopedagogy
movement. In Counterpoints: Studies in the postmodern theory of education, edited by Joe L.
Kincheloe and Shirley R. Steinberg , Vol. 359. New York: Peter Lang.
197 Misiaszek, Greg William , and Carlos Alberto Torres . Forthcoming (2018). Chapter five:
The missing chapter of Pedagogy of the Oppressed. In Wiley handbook of Paulo Freire,
edited by C. Torres . NJ: Wiley-Blackwell..
Misiaszek, L. I. Forthcoming (2019). Exploring the complexities in global citizenship
education: Hard spaces, methodologies, and ethics. In Critical global citizenship education:
Globalization and the politics of equity and inclusion, edited by C. A. Torres , New York:
Routledge.
Palmer, Joy , and Philip Neal . 1994. The handbook of environmental education. London:
Routledge.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2003. Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2015. Global citizenship education: A new educational, pedagogical
and political narrative in the world system? Blue Dot (UNESCO and Mahatma Gandhi
Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development), accessed June 29.
http://mgiep.unesco.org/bluedot/global-citizenship-education-a-new-educational-pedagogical-
and-political-narrative-in-the-world-system/.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2016. Education for global citizenship. In Oxford Research
Encyclopedia of Education. USA: Oxford University Press.
Torres, Carlos Alberto . 2017. Why global commons? Global Commons Review: Magazine of
the UNESCO-UCLA Chair in Global Learning and Global Citizenship Education, February 8:
24.
... Drawing on this perspective this edited volume adds a decided focus on global citizenship and "educating the global citizen" as a shared framework for engaging learners in global issues (e.g. Gaudelli, 2016;Starkey, 2017;Misiaszek, G., 2018;Jackson, 2019;Misiaszek, L., 2020). Thirdly, current international policy frameworks on citizenship education (e.g. the Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture and Digital Citizenship Education, both issued by the Council of Europe) stress the urgency to transform and enrich concrete educational practices, and this edited volume transpositions these cross-curricular frameworks into the domain of foreign language education. ...
... Rooted in critical theories and originating from popular education models of Latin America, ecopedagogy is centered on better understanding the connections between human acts of environmental violence and social violence that cause injustices/ oppressions, domination over the rest of Nature, and planetary unsustainability. …deepening and widening understandings [emerge] from different perspectives, ranging from the Self to local, to national, to global, to the planetary (Misiaszek, 2018) …widening …[centers] environmental well-being -of not just ourselves and our communities, but of all of human populations together and Earth overall. (Misiaszek, 2020b) The term (re)"reading" in the passage's first sentence acknowledges Freirean pedagogy as fundamentally literacy education. ...
... (Misiaszek, 2020b) The term (re)"reading" in the passage's first sentence acknowledges Freirean pedagogy as fundamentally literacy education. As Freire (2000) taught literacy for students to "read the word, to read the world", ecopedagogical literacy can be understood as reading the word to read the world as part of Earth (Misiaszek, 2020b, Misiaszek and Torres, 2019, Misiaszek, 2018. ...
Book
Full-text available
** OPEN ACCESS - https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003183839/global-citizenship-foreign-language-education-christiane-lütge-thorsten-merse-petra-rauschert ** In light of increasing globalization, this collection makes the case for global citizenship education as a way forward for transforming foreign language learning and teaching to better address current and future global challenges in times of unprecedented change. The volume maps a multi-dimensional approach within foreign language pedagogy to take up the challenge of "educating the global citizen". Drawing on sociocultural, pedagogical, cosmopolitan, digital and civic-minded perspectives, the book explores the challenges in constructing epistemological frameworks in increasingly global environments, the need for developing context-sensitive educational practices, the potential of linking up with work from related disciplines, and the impact of these considerations on different educational settings. The collection reflects an international range of voices, attuned to global and local nuances, to offer a holistic compilation of conceptual innovations to showcase the relevance of global citizenship issues in foreign language education and encourage future research. This book will be of interest to scholars in intercultural education, foreign language education, and language teaching, as well as policymakers and foreign language teachers.
... Globalization from below can provide possibilities of localizing and diversifying "quality" HE (discussed more later). Neoliberal globalization's goal is to maintain hegemony by narrowing (higher) education and coinciding citizenship roles to increasing economic profit and consumption (Torres, 2002), and places no value on ending environmental devastation of Nature unless affecting these roles (Misiaszek, 2018b). Education for Development masked as empowering citizenship is a tool for cultural reproduction of oppressions for hieratical socio-economic structures to remain, with HE "success" and "quality" ideologically falling in line. ...
... This is opposite to Development's "commonsense" in which development is legitimized without regard socioecological contexts of the self-defined Local or Self, or simply without regard for (de-)development. Ecopedagogical teaching for sustainability guides students to view "sustainable development" as simply "development," and "socio-environmental" justice as just "justice" (Misiaszek, 2018b(Misiaszek, , 2020a(Misiaszek, , 2020b. Determining how does assimilating to certain cultures that lead to increased HE access and "success" coincide or counter socio-environmental justice must include critically deconstructing what is "success" within and outside of academics and (dis)connections to specific cultures. ...
... A double-sided inseparability emerges from such problematizing of cultural reproduction between environmentally violent actions and social violence within the world (all humans and human populations -the "anthropocentric sphere" or the "world"), and the other side as us being part of Nature (all of Earth, including and beyond the anthropocentric sphere). For example, languages often contribute to world-Earth distancing, calling for the need of (eco) linguistic analysis on how language is too-frequently disconnected from the Self's local cultures, politically othered cultures, and "us" from the rest of Earth (see Luardini & Sujiyani, 2018;Misiaszek, 2018bMisiaszek, , 2020aStibbe, 2012). When speaking of improving quality education internationally, what cultures and epistemologies are seen as linked to increased quality and the politics of the linkages are essential to improve education as "development" for social justice and planetary sustainability? ...
Article
• Socio-environmental justice issues on cultural reproduction from higher education. • Freirean ecopedagogy teaching and research on cultural aspects of higher education. • local-to-planetary problematizing of development from higher education cultures. • Dominance of global Northern cultures, epistemologies within higher education. • Comparative educational work on universities’ epistemological, cultural diversity.
... Rooted in critical theories and originating from popular education models of latin America [from Freire], ecopedagogy is centered on better understanding the connections between human acts of environmental violence and social violence that cause injustices/oppressions, domination over the rest of Nature, and planetary unsustainability. [Better understanding is] through the aspect of deepening and widening understandings from different perspectives, ranging from the Self to local, to national, to global, to the planetary (Misiaszek, 2018). ...
... As such, Freirean pedagogies, including ecopedagogies, are action-based through deepened and widened reflexivity (i.e., praxis)-'ecopedagogical literacy' (Misiaszek, 2015(Misiaszek, , 2018(Misiaszek, , 2020b, including non-anthropocentric reading of planetary (un)sustainability and (un)wellbeing (Misiaszek, 2020a). Widening reflexivity in ecopedagogical spaces can be thought of in various ways. ...
... Although not emphasized until his later writings (see Freire, 1997Freire, , 1998Freire, 2004), Freire argued that humans' uniqueness gives us (i.e., humans) the responsibility of stewardship for Earth holistically. In short, we are the source of unsustainability because the rest of Nature returns to balance/equilibrium through, what we term, the laws of Nature (Misiaszek, 2018(Misiaszek, , 2020b. In short, only humans can cognitively decide our actions. ...
Article
This article delves into ecopedagogy, grounded in the work of the Brazilian pedagogue Paulo Freire on popular education and critical pedagogies, to teach students to critically deconstruct the subjectivity and transformability of our world (all humans, human populations) with the rest of Earth (i.e., rest of Nature). As Friere emphasized humans’ unique characteristic of ‘unfinishedness’ with abilities of self-reflexivity through our histories and goal-setting from our dreams, (environmental) pedagogues must teach toward deepened and widened understandings for praxis grounded in socio-environmental justice and planetary sustainability, including disrupting anthropocentricism. This ‘unfinishedness’ has made humans agents of world-Earth unsustainably and dominance in constructing the Anthropocene, but also allows for possibilities of transformation to counter them. I argue that ecopedagogy is essential in disrupting the following falsely taught ideologies that justifies the Anthroposphere: (1) false commonsense that separates environmental and social violence (i.e., socio-environmental violence) and instills anthropocentrism that separates humans from the rest of Nature (i.e., world-Earth distancing); (2) fatalism that extinguishes hope of ending humans’ acts of unsustainable environmental violence; (3) ‘development’ for sustaining hegemony and planetary unsustainability (i.e., Development rather than development); and (4) epistemological dominance that legitimizes the first three ideologies given (e.g., epistemologies of the North).
... Rooted in critical theories and originating from popular education models of Latin America, ecopedagogy is centered on better understanding the connections between human acts of environmental violence and social violence that cause injustices/oppressions, domination over the rest of Nature, and planetary unsustainability. [Better understanding is] through the aspect of deepening and widening understandings from different perspectives, ranging from the Self to local, to national, to global, to the planetary (Misiaszek, 2018). With this widening there is the aspect of environmental well-beingof not just ourselves and our communities, but of all of human populations together and Earth overall -which, as explained by Neera M. Singh (2019), calls for an extension of NIMBY to NIABY worldwide and NOPE that has a planetary scope. ...
... The crucial question of teaching for "progress" is how the goal(s) are defined that are inherently better than the current situation(s) to teach toward. Ecopedagogical reading of the connections between human populations and the rest of the planet, to determine the connections between 'development,' 'livelihood,', and overall well-being to counter environmental violence that is inseparable to social violence/injustice (and vice versa) (Gadotti, 2008a(Gadotti, , 2008bGadotti & Torres, 2009;Kahn, 2010;Misiaszek, 2011Misiaszek, , 2018Misiaszek, , 2020cMisiaszek, , 2020d. In how we teach the concepts and possible actions toward "development" (or progress), teachers must problematize what (un)sustainable, (anti-environmental), and socio-environmental (un)just action are we ideologically promoting. ...
... Disrupting development singularly framed and measured by hierarchical upward positioning compared to others and increased accumulation is a key goal ecopedagogy (Misiaszek, 2018(Misiaszek, , 2020d. Although such logic can be very much problematized, it is problematizing the defining masters by their slaves (a la Hegel), or by the numbers of people "beneath" them (false 'success,' a la Freire [2000]), in which liberation emerges from the "slaves" recognizing their own bottom-up power. ...
Chapter
Environmental teaching must deepen and widen students’ understandings on how the rest of Nature is affected by human actions and, consequently, upon each other as we are part of Nature. However, many environmental pedagogies do not critically teach to better understand the inseparable connections between environmental and social violence, and us dominating Nature. Critical, Freirean-based ecopedagogy is essential to read the complex, politically hidden dynamics of socio-environmental actions that lead to injustices and unsustainability (i.e., ecopedagogical literacy). Ecopedagogical reading includes decoding how racism, post-truthism, globalizations, neo(coloniality), patriarchy, heteronormativity, xenophobia, epistemicide, neoliberalism, and their intersectionalities falsely justify socio-environmental injustice and planetary unsustainably. I argue how critical theories are essential within environmental pedagogies, as well as research upon them, for students’ praxis to emerge for determining and doing actions needed to save Earth.
... This chapter will discuss some of the complexities and contradictions of comparative work upon environmental teaching to be locally contextual within the national sphere and the global sphere for the goal of being in balance with the rest of Nature (i.e., within the planetary sphere). Comparing and contrasting the commonalities and differences within the limitlessly diverse anthroposphere (i.e., the "world") for planetary sustainability is an endless, utopian task for CIE. 3 Teaching for balance bet\veen our subjective world and the nonsubjective, apolitical rest of Earth can only be achieved through critical reflectivity that our world is inseparably part of Earth (Misiaszek, 2018;20206; Although environmental injustices and planetary unsustainability will inherently lead to social injustices, tensional conundrums are frequently encountered from planetary sustainable actions that do not coincide with social justice directly. For example, cultural practices, such as gathering one's livelihood needs that result in devastation to the Local's natural environment, are not planetarily sustainable. ...
... Who benefits, who pays, and who suffers from human action that is harmful to the environment? (Misiaszek, 2018) Although essential in all environmental pedagogies, this question is frequently ignored or shallowly discussed. Rooted in critical theories and reinvented from the popular education work of Paulo Freire,4 ecopedagogy continuously centers this question by critically reading and rereading the struggles of, and the connections between, violent environmental acts and social violence within planetary (un)sustainability (Gadotti, 2000;2008c;Gadotti & Torres, 2009;Gutierrez & Prado, 2008;Kahn, 2010;Misiaszek, 2012). ...
... Emergent from Freirean pedagogy for learners to critically read the word to read the world, ecopedagogical literacy is reading Earth and the world within Earth (Misiaszek, 2018;20206;. Ecopedagogical reading within CIE is essential both within more methodological work by CIE scholars and all learning spaces, coinciding with socioenvironmental inseparability and whole-curricula approaches. ...
Chapter
Environmental pedagogies are not apolitical or universal in their processes, goals, and practices, which form contested terrains of coincidences and conflicts in teaching socio-environmental justice, sustainable development, and/or planetary sustainability. This chapter discusses how to critically compare the commonalities and differences within and between environmental pedagogies through local to global lenses. Achieving socio-environmental justice with planetary sustainability is inherently global in scope; however, environmental teaching must be locally contextual. Intensifying globalization provides both opportunities for environmental teaching, but also processes that counter their goals and effectiveness. How critical comparative education can help construct effective environmental pedagogies through deepened contextual investigation alongside widened global and planetary analysis will be discussed. Comparative de/reconstruction provides examination on how environmental pedagogies teach, or not, how socio-historical oppressions (e.g., coloniality, racism, patriarchy, xenophobia, epistemicide) falsely justifies environmentally violent actions which are inherently connected to social violence. The need to problematize how the following are ideologically and politically defined, framed, and legitimized within teaching are examined: “development,” "livelihood," "sustainability," "economics," "citizenship," and “Nature” (especially epistemological non-/connections with “us”). This chapter critically compares differing environmental pedagogical models and their contextual usages through these aspects, with particular attention to problematizing global North-to-South dominance and analysis of the United Nation's (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
... En el ámbito de esta pedagogía crítica y transformadora de la realidad socioambiental, se evidencia la necesidad de reivindicar una acción educativa que no se limite a la sensibilización o información de los efectos devastadores de la actividad humana, sino que se centre en favorecer cambios en los estilos de vida (Hernández, López y Guerrero, 2016). Se precisa un pensamiento crítico socioambiental glocal que sea capaz de conectar el ámbito local con el global a través del reconocimiento de una ciudadanía planetaria (Thompson, 2001;Bowers, 2004;Moreno, 2013) fundamentada en la ecopedagogía o pedagogía sostenible (Gutiérrez, 2001;Antunes y Gadotti, 2006;Misiaszek, 2017;Murga y Novo, 2017;Payne, 2017). Con la finalidad de abandonar la visión lineal del mundo, que percibe sus elementos de forma aislada, para entenderlo desde su dimensión holística, es decir, a través de la implicación de todos los ámbitos sociales en la comprensión de las interdependencias existentes entre los sistemas vivos. ...
... El significado de estos dibujos y sus explicaciones es coherente con el diagnóstico de Morales y Santana (2019) en el que señalaron la escasa presencia del modelo docente investigador en el análisis de la didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales en la Educación Infantil. Las representaciones glocales conectan competencias y cambio, desde la Didáctica Crítica (Carr y Kemis, 1988), para abordar la comprensión del mundo desde su complejidad (Morín, 1983;, a través del reconocimiento de una ciudadanía planetaria (Thompson, 2001;Bowers, 2004;Moreno, 2013) fundamentada en la ecopedagogía o pedagogía sostenible (Gutiérrez, 2001;Antunes y Gadotti, 2006;Misiaszek, 2017;Murga-Menoyo y Novo, 2017;Payne, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The perception and understanding of the environment and milieu concepts is essential in Early Childhood teacher training. Through a case study, based on a sample of 377 4th Grade Early Childhood Education students for the period 2016-2020, results indicate a distortion in the understanding of both concepts. Using the pictorial representations and its brief explanation as a research tool, results also show a predominant teaching vision of the environment as “close social milieu” and as “close and concrete local milieu”. In the case of the milieu, there are many representations such as “natural milieu and distant” and “general local milieu”. In this way, deficiencies related to interdisciplinary perception and glocalization processes are manifested, while a lack of these deficiencies could contribute to transform teacher training. KEYWORDS perception; environment; milieu; transforming teacher training; Early Childhood Education
... Drawing on this perspective this edited volume adds a decided focus on global citizenship and "educating the global citizen" as a shared framework for engaging learners in global issues (e.g. Gaudelli, 2016;Starkey, 2017;Misiaszek, G., 2018;Jackson, 2019;Misiaszek, L., 2020). Thirdly, current international policy frameworks on citizenship education (e.g. the Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture and Digital Citizenship Education, both issued by the Council of Europe) stress the urgency to transform and enrich concrete educational practices, and this edited volume transpositions these cross-curricular frameworks into the domain of foreign language education. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
** OPEN ACCESS - https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003183839/global-citizenship-foreign-language-education-christiane-lütge-thorsten-merse-petra-rauschert ** In times of rapid and unprecedented global sociocultural changes and the ever-growing significance of globalization, there is an urgent necessity to challenge, renegotiate and expand on current pedagogic discourses that have formulated global citizenship issues as an integral part of twenty-first century education. This edited volume embraces global citizenship education (GCE) as a trajectory to update and transform foreign language pedagogies – epistemologically, critically and in practice – across a range of themes, research approaches, and contextualized applications. All these perspectives taken together help construct much-needed innovative conceptual groundworks, context-sensitive explorations, and future-minded orientations that serve to increase and showcase the relevance of global citizenship issues in foreign language education research and practice.
Article
Full-text available
In light of recent changes within Norway’s teacher education and its perceived global position as a champion of human rights and equality, this exploratory study had two pursuits. First, we put forth a cognitive mapping heuristic for what we refer to as “critical/neoliberal” Global Citizenship Education (GCE), using a semiotic square that encourages greater nuance between and among two commonly used terms (“neoliberal” and “critical”) and their “contraries”. Second, based on ideas brought forth by our heuristic, we engaged in conversations with teacher educators in Norway who have published on global- and citizenship-related topics. We asked them to share their thoughts on how GCE is currently viewed and enacted across Norway, as well as what tensions and prospects exist. Our conversations highlighted that teacher educators in Norway have the freedom to incorporate global dimensions into their teaching and curriculum on an individualized and value-driven basis. However, there is a need to explicitly incorporate education about political economy when teaching GCE in order to ensure that the principles of a critical, not-neoliberal approach become known.
Article
Full-text available
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is becoming an important part of general education, based on a concept that includes three components: Environmental, Social and Economic. The sustainable development curriculum in Croatia is based on this concept, and activities in this area are mainly limited to environmental protection and ecological activities. At the same time, the technological and political context needed to take the right action and develop critical thinking and a systemic approach is lacking. In this context, a survey on pupils’ attitudes towards the relationship between technology and engineering with the themes of ecology and sustainable development was conducted to investigate the impact of this curriculum on students’ awareness. The research was conducted on a stratified sample of primary school pupils ( N = 2205 ) from Croatia. The results show that pupils view technology as important for life and progress, but do not understand how it relates to sustainable development and environmental issues. This refers to issues of water conservation, construction of facilities, waste disposal, and understanding technology only as pollution. These results point to the need for “deeper” and transformative technology teaching that takes place in a real-world context. Only in this way can students understand the concept and meaning of sustainable development and the role and importance of technology in this context, and be educated to be responsible citizens.
Article
Critical problematization of environmental and development issues This article proposes to develop a pedagogical and didactic perspective on the purposes and contents of critical environmental education in the Anthropocene. We mobilise the conceptual framework of curriculum didactics and more particularly that of curricular guideposts to propose a didactic actualisation of the purposes of critical pedagogies at the level of learning contents as defined in education for sustainable development objectives.
Article
Full-text available
This article asserts that despite the salience of race in U.S. society, as a topic of scholarly inquiry, it remains untheorized. The article argues for a critical race theoretical perspective in education analogous to that of critical race theory in legal scholarship by developing three propositions: (1) race continues to be significant in the United States; (2) U.S. society is based on property rights rather than human rights; and (3) the intersection of race and property creates an analytical tool for understanding inequity. The article concludes with a look at the limitations of the current multicultural paradigm.
Chapter
This book provides a new inter-disciplinary look at the practice and policies of conservation in Africa. Bringing together social scientists, anthropologists and historians with biologists for the first time, the book sheds some light on the previously neglected but critically important social aspects of conservation thinking. To date conservation has been very much the domain of the biologist, but the current ecological crisis in Africa and the failure of orthodox conservation policies demand a radical new appraisal of conventional practices. This new approach to conservation, the book argues, cannot deal simply with the survival of species and habitats, for the future of African wildlife is intimately tied to the future of African rural communities. Conservation must form an integral part of future policies for human development. The book emphasises this urgent need for a complementary rather than a competitive approach. It covers a wide range of topics important to this new approach, from wildlife management to soil conservation and from the Cape in the nineteenth century to Ethiopia in the 1980s. It is essential reading for all those concerned about people and conservation in Africa.