ArticlePDF Available

Micevski N., & B. Micevski, 2017. Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv, 2017, vol. 2: 17-20

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland. Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
Content may be subject to copyright.
© Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv
http://rnhm.org/en/
Regional Natural History Museum – Plovdiv
University of Plovdiv Publishing House
Bulletin of the Natural History Museum - Plovdiv
Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv, 2017, vol. 2: 17-20
Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)
Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia
Nikola Micevski*, Branko Micevski
Macedonian Entomological Society (ENTOMAK)
Blvd. ASNOM 58, 2-4, 1000 Skopje, MACEDONIA
*Corresponding author: nikom.entomak@gmail.com
Abstract. This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler,
1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland.
Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
Key words: Cacyreus marshalli, Lycaenidae, Macedonia.
Introduction
The Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli
(Butler, 1898) is native species of South Africa.
It was accidentally introduced into the Balearic
archipelago (EITSCHBERGER & STAMER, 1990)
through the importation of its ornamental host
plant (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) and since then
it has continued to spread its areal throughout
Europe. Currently, its known range in Europe
includes Spain (RAYNOR, 1990; SARTO I
MONTEYS & MASO, 1991; SARTO I MONTEYS,
1992), Belgium (TROUKENS, 1991), Italy
(TREMATERRA et al., 1997), France, Portugal
and Morocco (TARRIER, 1998), Malta (SAMMUT,
2007), Sweden (RYRHOLM, 2007), Slovenia
(POLAK, 2009), Croatia (KOSMAČ &
VEROVNIK, 2009; KUČINIĆ et al., 2013), Greece
(PAMPERIS, 2009; PARKER, 2010; ANASTASSIU
et al., 2010; COUTSIS et al., 2011; MARTINOU et
al., 2011; GALANOS, 2014, 2016), Turkey
(SOYHAN et al., 2013), Bulgaria (LANGOUROV &
SIMOV, 2014), Bosnia and Herzegovina
(KOREN & KULIJER, 2016) and Albania
(SACHANOWICZ et al., 2016). A recent
publication (LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017)
expands the list with Macedonia and
Montenegro.
Material and Methods
Field survey was conducted on 22.09.2016
in the v. Grad surroundings (Eastern
Macedonia). During the survey entomological
net was used. Netted specimens were released
after their determination, limiting the collection
to interesting faunistic data only.
Results and Discussion
One fresh specimen of the Geranium
Bronze was discovered on 22 September 2016
in the upper part of the village Grad (Delčevo
Municipality) in a pasture close to a small river
and in the vicinity of the last village house
(41°56'23.51" N, 22°50'42.52" E, 740 m a.s.l.).
The collected specimen (Fig. 1) is deposited in
the research collection of ENTOMAK. This
record confirms the presence of the species in
Macedonia. In 2017, additional surveys were
organized in the eastern part of the country
(mostly in the region of Osogovski Mts.), all of
which didn’t result with new records. However,
LANGOUROV & SIMOV (2017) discovered the
species in the Ohrid Lake area (SW Macedonia)
on 02 August 2017, demonstrating that the
species is already well distributed in the country.
Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia
18
Fig. 1. Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) view of the collected C. marshalli
from Macedonia, Grad Village.
Fig. 2. Updated distribution map of the Geranium Bronze in Europe: green and red circles
(KUDRNA et al., 2011; KUDRNA et al., 2015; UFZ-LEPIDIV, 2017), blue circles (missing in the
atlases). a) First record in Europe; b) First record for the Balkan peninsula; c) New record from
Macedonia.
The closest known locality of the current
record is Levunovo Village (Sandanski
Municipality) in neighbouring Bulgaria, some
63km distant to the SE.
Additional 17 butterfly species were
observed at the site: Polyommatus bellargus
(Rottemburg, 1775), Aricia agestis ([Denis &
Schiffermuller], 1775), Polyommatus icarus
(Rottemburg, 1775), Colias alfacariensis Ribbe,
1905, Hipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766),
Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758), Coenonympha
pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758), Boloria dia (Linnaeus,
1767), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758), Polyommatus
thersites (Cantener, 1835), Issoria lathonia
Nikola Micevski, Branko Micevski
19
(Linnaeus, 1758), Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus,
1767), Pieris balcana Lorković, 1970, Pararge
aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758), Leptotes pirithous
(Linnaeus, 1767), Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus,
1761) and Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871).
Most of the species – including the Geranium
Bronze – were nectaring on Marrubium L.
which was quite common at the site.
Since C. marshalli is a non-native pest
species which finds the European climate ideal
for survival, it is important to follow closely its
current distribution and spreading throughout
Europe. This can reveal if climate changes are
influencing the species distribution or if its
distribution is merely the result of importation
of infested Pelargonium plants. Records from
the Balkan Peninsula are missing in European
atlases (e.g. KUDRNA et al., 2011; KUDRNA et al.,
2015; UFZ-LEPIDIV, 2017). Therefore, we give
an updated distribution map of the species in
Europe (Fig. 2). The following records are
taken into account: Croatia (KUČINIĆ et al.,
2013), Bosnia and Herzegovina (KOREN &
KULIJER, 2016), Albania (SACHANOWICZ et al.,
2016), Greece (PAMPERIS, 2009; PARKER, 2010;
ANASTASSIU et al., 2010; COUTSIS et al., 2011;
MARTINOU et al., 2011; GALANOS, 2014, 2016;
PAMPERIS, 2017), Bulgaria (LANGOUROV &
SIMOV, 2014) and the Balkan Peninsula
(LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017). Overlooked
records from Turkey (SOYHAN et al., 2013) and
Malta (SAMMUT, 2007) are also included.
Аs can be seen from the map, the species is
rapidly spreading towards east during the last
decade, as it has already been discovered on
Turkish mainland. Most records from the
Balkans come from the Mediterranean coastline
and the islands. The record from Macedonia is
the deepest one yet from the Balkan mainland
(>150 km from the closest Aegean Sea). New
records are expected to follow in the coming
years (e.g. Serbia, Romania).
References
ANASTASSIU H. T., N. GHAVALAS, J. G.
COUTSIS. 2010. First record of Cacyreus
marshalli in Greece and comments on the
potential occurrence of Zizeeria karsandra
on the Greek island of Crete (Lepidoptera:
Lycaenidae). Phegea, 38(3): 85-92.
COUTSIS, J.G., H.T. ANASTASSÍU, N.
GHAVALAS 2011. An explanatory note on
a previous article of ours, population
fluctuations of the imported Cacyreus
marshalli in Greece, and an assessment of
its being a potential threat through larval
competition to native butterflies with
Geranium feeding larvae (Lepidoptera:
Lycaenidae). Phegea, 39(2): 43 – 44.
EITSCHBERGER U., P. STAMER. 1990. Cacyreus
marshalli Butler, 1898, eine neue
Tagfalterart für die europäische Fauna?
(Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Atalanta,
21(1/2): 101–108.
GALANOS C.J. 2014. First records of Pararge
aegeria and Cacyreus marshalli, and a
verification of Muschampia proto from the
Greek Island of Rhodes. First records of
Cacyreus marshalli and Gegenes sp. from the
Greek Island of Tilos; Dodecanese
Complex SE Aegean (Lepidoptera:
Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Phegea,
42(4): 74-77.
GALANOS C.J. 2016. Butterflies and Skippers of
the South-East Aegean Island of Hálki,
Dhodhekánisa (= Dodecanese) Island
Complex, Greece, representing 16 first
records for the island. First record of
Cacyreus marshalli from the Greek Island of
Sími. An update of the Butterfly and
Skipper Fauna of the Greek Island of
Ródhos (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea &
Hesperioidea). Phegea, 44(3): 80–87.
KOREN T., D. KULIJER. 2016. New or
interesting records of three butterfly
(Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea &
Hesperioidea) species from Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Croatia. Natura Croatica,
25(2): 321.
KOSMAČ M., R. VEROVNIK. 2009. First record
of Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae) from the
Balkan Peninsula. Nota lepidopterologica,
32(1): 81-82.
KUČINIĆ M., T. KOREN, I. MIHOCI, M.
VUKOVIĆ, D. BUKOVEC, T. JAKOVLJEVIĆ,
S. JENČIĆ 2013. Can spreading of the
Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli (Butler,
1898) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)
in Croatia be assigned to climate change?
Periodicum Biologorum, 115(3): 429-433.
KUDRNA O., A. HARPKE, K. LUX, J.
PENNERSTORFER, O. SCHWEIGER, J.
SETTELE, M. WIEMERS. 2011. Distribution
atlas of butterflies in Europe. Gesellschaft für
Schmetterlingsschutz e.V., Halle,
Germany, 576 pp.
KUDRNA O., J. PENNERSTORFER, K. LUX.
2015. Distribution atlas of European butterflies
Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia
20
and skippers. Wisseschaftlicher Verlag Peks
i.K., Schwanfeld, Germany, 632 pp.
LANGOUROV S.M., N.P. SIMOV. 2014. Cacyreus
marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lepidoptera:
Lycaenidae), a new species for Bulgaria.
Entomologist’s Rec. J. Var., 126: 190-192.
LANGOUROV S.M., N.P. SIMOV. 2017. New
Data on the Expansion of the Geranium
Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898
(Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in the Eastern
Part of the Balkan Peninsula, with Some
Biological Notes. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica,
Suppl. 9: 301-304.
LEPIDIV. 2017. Distribution maps of European
butterflies. Available at:
http://www.ufz.de/european-
butterflies/index.php?en=43003
MARTINOU A.F., D. PAPACHRISTOS, P.G.
MILONAS. 2011. Report of the Geranium
Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli for
mainland Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection
Journal, 4: 31-34.
PAMPERIS L. N. 2009. The Butterflies of Greece.
Athens, Editions Pamperis, 766 pp.
PAMPERIS L. N. 2017. The butterflies of Greece.
Cacyreus marshalli in Greece, updated map
(Data till 31 III 2013). Available at:
http://www.pamperis.gr/THE_BUTTER
FLIES_OF_GREECE/Prosthetea_Adde
nda.html
PARKER R. 2010. Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898
(Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) newly recorded
for Corfu, with notes on other butterflies
on the island in September 2008.
Entomologist's Gazette, 61: 40 -42.
POLAK S. 2009. Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus
marshalli (Butler, 1898)): A new butterfly
species for the Slovenian fauna. 2nd
Slovenian Entomological Symposium, Ljubljana,
7-8 Febr. 2009: 104-105.
RAYNOR E. M. 1990. The occurrence of a
Cacyreus species (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in
Majorca. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of
Variation, 102: 250.
RYRHOLM N. 2007. Blavingen Cacyreus marshalli
tillfalligt etablerad i sodra Gastrikland.
Fauna och Flora Stockholm, 102(1): 12–13.
SACHANOWICZ K., S. ŁUCZKOWSKI, A.
LARYSZ. 2016. State of Knowledge of
Butterfly Fauna of Albania, with three
new species for the country. Acta Zoologica
Bulgarica, 68(4): 511-518.
SAMMUT P. 2007. Cacyreus marshalli Butler,
[1898] reaches the Maltese Islands
(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). SHILAP
Revista de lepidopterología, 35(139): 317–319.
SARTO I MONTEYS V., A. MASO. 1991.
Confirmacion de Cacyreus marshalli Butler,
1898 (Lycaenidae,Polyommatinae) como
nueva especie para la fauna europea.
Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal - Plagas, 17: 173-
183.
SARTO I MONTEYS V. 1992. Spread of
Southern African Lycaenid butterfly,
Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lep:
Lycaenidae) in the Balearic Archipelago
(Spain) and considerations on its likely
introduction to continental Europe.
Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 31: 24–
34.
SOYHAN T., S. BAŞER, V. NAZARI. 2013. First
record of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898
(Lycaenidae) from Turkey. Nota
lepidopterologica, 36(2): 189-190.
TARRIER M. 1998. Cacyreus marshalli Butler,
1898, a new species for France, Portugal
and Morocco (Lepidoptera Lycaenidae).
Alexanor, 20(2-3): 143-144.
TREMATERRA P., A. ZILLI, V. VALENTINI, P.
MAZZEI. 1997. Cacyreus marshalli, un
lepidottero sudafricano dannoso ai gerani
in Italia. Informatore Fitopatologico, 7-8: 2-6.
TROUKENS W. 1991. Cacyreus marshalli Butler,
1898 aangetroffen in Belge (Lepidoptera:
Lycaenidae). Phegea, 19(4): 129–131.
Accepted: 02.12.2017
Published: 29.12.2017
... The Geranium Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli, is invasive in eastern Spain and the Mediterranean islands of Ibiza, Majorca and Menorca (Sarto i Monteys 1992). This species appears to be spreading rapidly in Europe: Crete (Anastassiu et al. 2010), Capania (northern Italy: Pignataro et al. 2006, the Balkan peninsula (Marko and Verovnik 2009), Republic of Northern Macedonia (Micevski and Micevski 2017) and in Egypt (Fric et al. 2014). Moreover, the risk of further spread of this species in Europe has been suggested, together with economic impacts to the horticultural trade, particularly against geraniums and pelargoniums (Quacchia et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This review provides the first assessment of animal species that are native to South Africa and invasive elsewhere in the world. While around a twelfth of all naturalised plants in the world are native to South Africa, there are very few examples of South African native marine, terrestrial, or freshwater animals becoming invasive elsewhere. We provide a narrative of each of the 34 cases that we could find. Three of these species, the Common Waxbill, Estrilda astrild, the Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis, were widely traded, and introduced on several continents with invasive populations becoming the subject of substantial research. Most other species are poorly documented in the literature such that it is often not known whether South African populations are the source of invasions. These species demonstrate the same trend in pathways of animals entering South Africa, moving from deliberate to accidental through time. The role of mavericks, individuals whose deliberate actions wilfully facilitate invasions, is highlighted. While South Africa has acted as an important bridgehead for the invasions of forestry pests, crayfish, fish and amphibians on the continent, it is clearly not a major donor of animal invasions, but rather a recipient. This could be due to South African ecosystems being fundamentally more invasible, or South African fauna showing reduced invasiveness, though it is likely that substantial differences in historical pathways also played a crucial role.
Article
Full-text available
Red Lists are very valuable tools in nature conservation at global, continental and (sub-) national scales. In an attempt to prioritise conservation actions for European butterflies, we compiled a database with species lists and Red Lists of all European countries, including the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). In total, we compiled national species lists for 42 countries and national Red Lists for 34 of these. The most species-rich countries in Europe are Italy, Russia and France with more than 250 species each. Endemic species are mainly found on the Macaronesian archipelagos and on the Mediterranean islands. By attributing numerical values proportionate to the threat statuses in the different national Red List categories, we calculated a mean Red List value for every country (cRLV) and a weighted Red List value for every species (wsRLV) using the square root of the country’s area as a weighting factor. Countries with the highest cRLV were industrialised (NW) European countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic and Denmark, whereas large Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy had the lowest cRLV. Species for which a Red List assessment was available in at least two European countries and with a relatively high wsRLV (≥ 50) are Colias myrmidone, Pseudochazara orestes, Tomares nogelii, Colias chrysotheme and Coenonympha oedippus. We compared these wsRLVs with the species statuses on the European Red List to identify possible mismatches. We discuss how this complementary method can help to prioritise butterfly conservation on the continental and/or the (sub-)national scale.
Article
Full-text available
The present paper reports some new records of the species Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus marshalli) from certain localities in the Mediterranean part of the South-East Balkan Peninsula, along with data regarding its biology. The collection of the data was done as a part of field work across Bulgaria, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, as well as from other different sources (literature data, personal communications and the Internet). The first finding of the Geranium Bronze in the R. of Macedonia is also reported here.
Article
Full-text available
The butterfly fauna of Albania, a country located in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, has remained poorly studied, even though 201 species have been reported. It was expected that new species would be added to the country’s checklist because of their geographic ranges and known occurrence in adjacent, usually better surveyed regions. We recorded two new species (Anthocharis damone, Melitaea diamina) during faunal field explorations in 2003-2012 and a third (Cacyreus marshalli) during a tourist visit to Tiranë, thus increasing to 204 the number of species recorded in the country. In addition, we provide the first chronological records of Colias aurorina and Pieris balcana. We also confirmed the occurrence of Apatura metis, which was recorded in this country more than 80 years ago. For the species recorded we have extended their known geographical ranges in southern Europe. At present, Albania is the country in the western Balkans with the second highest number of butterfly species recorded after Greece (235) and ahead of Macedonia (203).
Article
Full-text available
In July and September 2010, two samples of infested geranium plants (Pelargonium spp.), which were originally collected from Kifi ssia, Attica-Greece, were received at the Laboratory of Biological Control at Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Greece. Larvae were taken from infested plants and kept under laboratory conditions at 25±1°C, 70±5% RH and under a photoperiod of 16L:8D h until adults emerged. Adults were identifi ed as the Geranium Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli Butler (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). This species is recorded for the fi rst time for mainland Greece. Cacyreus marshalli is on the EPPO A2 List of pests recommended for the regulation as quarantine pests. Geranium Bronze Butterfly has the potential to establish in Greece and the rest of the Mediterranean basin as climatic conditions can allow this pest to overwinter outdoors and its host plants are commonly propagated.
Article
Full-text available
Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 (Lycaenidae) is recorded for the forst time from Turkey.
Article
Full-text available
The establishment of the lycaenid butterfly Cacyreus marshalli on the island of Majorca (Spain), originating from southern Africa, has already been reported (Eitschberger & Stamer, 1990; Sarto i Monteys & Masó, 1991). The latter warned of the likelihood of this species being introduced to neighbouring areas, particularly the northeastern coast of Spain (the Communities of Valencia and Catalonia) and the other islands of the balearic archipelago. The present work reports the finding of this species on the islands of Menorca and Ibiza and its apparent absence, for now, from the island of Formentera. Its present status in the archipelago is discussed with the likelihood of invading the Iberian Peninsula and the European continent.
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of a well-established population of Cacyreus marshalli Butler 1898 (Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae) on the island of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) is confirmed. The butterfly is to be found abundant throughout the island, being its larval foodplant cultivated geraniums of the genus Pelargonium, of which it has become a serious pest. This species, originating from South Africa, is new to the European butterfly fauna.
The occurrence of a Cacyreus species (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in Majorca
RAYNOR E. M. 1990. The occurrence of a Cacyreus species (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in Majorca. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation, 102: 250.
Blavingen Cacyreus marshalli tillfalligt etablerad i sodra Gastrikland
RYRHOLM N. 2007. Blavingen Cacyreus marshalli tillfalligt etablerad i sodra Gastrikland. Fauna och Flora Stockholm, 102(1): 12-13.