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Micevski N., & B. Micevski, 2017. Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv, 2017, vol. 2: 17-20


Abstract and Figures

This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland. Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
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© Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv
Regional Natural History Museum – Plovdiv
University of Plovdiv Publishing House
Bulletin of the Natural History Museum - Plovdiv
Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Plovdiv, 2017, vol. 2: 17-20
Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)
Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia
Nikola Micevski*, Branko Micevski
Macedonian Entomological Society (ENTOMAK)
Blvd. ASNOM 58, 2-4, 1000 Skopje, MACEDONIA
*Corresponding author:
Abstract. This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler,
1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland.
Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
Key words: Cacyreus marshalli, Lycaenidae, Macedonia.
The Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli
(Butler, 1898) is native species of South Africa.
It was accidentally introduced into the Balearic
archipelago (EITSCHBERGER & STAMER, 1990)
through the importation of its ornamental host
plant (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) and since then
it has continued to spread its areal throughout
Europe. Currently, its known range in Europe
includes Spain (RAYNOR, 1990; SARTO I
1992), Belgium (TROUKENS, 1991), Italy
(TREMATERRA et al., 1997), France, Portugal
and Morocco (TARRIER, 1998), Malta (SAMMUT,
2007), Sweden (RYRHOLM, 2007), Slovenia
(POLAK, 2009), Croatia (KOSMAČ &
VEROVNIK, 2009; KUČINIĆ et al., 2013), Greece
et al., 2010; COUTSIS et al., 2011; MARTINOU et
al., 2011; GALANOS, 2014, 2016), Turkey
(SOYHAN et al., 2013), Bulgaria (LANGOUROV &
SIMOV, 2014), Bosnia and Herzegovina
(KOREN & KULIJER, 2016) and Albania
(SACHANOWICZ et al., 2016). A recent
publication (LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017)
expands the list with Macedonia and
Material and Methods
Field survey was conducted on 22.09.2016
in the v. Grad surroundings (Eastern
Macedonia). During the survey entomological
net was used. Netted specimens were released
after their determination, limiting the collection
to interesting faunistic data only.
Results and Discussion
One fresh specimen of the Geranium
Bronze was discovered on 22 September 2016
in the upper part of the village Grad (Delčevo
Municipality) in a pasture close to a small river
and in the vicinity of the last village house
(41°56'23.51" N, 22°50'42.52" E, 740 m a.s.l.).
The collected specimen (Fig. 1) is deposited in
the research collection of ENTOMAK. This
record confirms the presence of the species in
Macedonia. In 2017, additional surveys were
organized in the eastern part of the country
(mostly in the region of Osogovski Mts.), all of
which didn’t result with new records. However,
LANGOUROV & SIMOV (2017) discovered the
species in the Ohrid Lake area (SW Macedonia)
on 02 August 2017, demonstrating that the
species is already well distributed in the country.
Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Confirmed for the Republic of Macedonia
Fig. 1. Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) view of the collected C. marshalli
from Macedonia, Grad Village.
Fig. 2. Updated distribution map of the Geranium Bronze in Europe: green and red circles
(KUDRNA et al., 2011; KUDRNA et al., 2015; UFZ-LEPIDIV, 2017), blue circles (missing in the
atlases). a) First record in Europe; b) First record for the Balkan peninsula; c) New record from
The closest known locality of the current
record is Levunovo Village (Sandanski
Municipality) in neighbouring Bulgaria, some
63km distant to the SE.
Additional 17 butterfly species were
observed at the site: Polyommatus bellargus
(Rottemburg, 1775), Aricia agestis ([Denis &
Schiffermuller], 1775), Polyommatus icarus
(Rottemburg, 1775), Colias alfacariensis Ribbe,
1905, Hipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766),
Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758), Coenonympha
pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758), Boloria dia (Linnaeus,
1767), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758), Polyommatus
thersites (Cantener, 1835), Issoria lathonia
Nikola Micevski, Branko Micevski
(Linnaeus, 1758), Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus,
1767), Pieris balcana Lorković, 1970, Pararge
aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758), Leptotes pirithous
(Linnaeus, 1767), Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus,
1761) and Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871).
Most of the species – including the Geranium
Bronze – were nectaring on Marrubium L.
which was quite common at the site.
Since C. marshalli is a non-native pest
species which finds the European climate ideal
for survival, it is important to follow closely its
current distribution and spreading throughout
Europe. This can reveal if climate changes are
influencing the species distribution or if its
distribution is merely the result of importation
of infested Pelargonium plants. Records from
the Balkan Peninsula are missing in European
atlases (e.g. KUDRNA et al., 2011; KUDRNA et al.,
2015; UFZ-LEPIDIV, 2017). Therefore, we give
an updated distribution map of the species in
Europe (Fig. 2). The following records are
taken into account: Croatia (KUČINIĆ et al.,
2013), Bosnia and Herzegovina (KOREN &
KULIJER, 2016), Albania (SACHANOWICZ et al.,
2016), Greece (PAMPERIS, 2009; PARKER, 2010;
ANASTASSIU et al., 2010; COUTSIS et al., 2011;
MARTINOU et al., 2011; GALANOS, 2014, 2016;
PAMPERIS, 2017), Bulgaria (LANGOUROV &
SIMOV, 2014) and the Balkan Peninsula
(LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017). Overlooked
records from Turkey (SOYHAN et al., 2013) and
Malta (SAMMUT, 2007) are also included.
Аs can be seen from the map, the species is
rapidly spreading towards east during the last
decade, as it has already been discovered on
Turkish mainland. Most records from the
Balkans come from the Mediterranean coastline
and the islands. The record from Macedonia is
the deepest one yet from the Balkan mainland
(>150 km from the closest Aegean Sea). New
records are expected to follow in the coming
years (e.g. Serbia, Romania).
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Accepted: 02.12.2017
Published: 29.12.2017
... The Geranium Bronze Butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli, is invasive in eastern Spain and the Mediterranean islands of Ibiza, Majorca and Menorca (Sarto i Monteys 1992). This species appears to be spreading rapidly in Europe: Crete (Anastassiu et al. 2010), Capania (northern Italy: Pignataro et al. 2006, the Balkan peninsula (Marko and Verovnik 2009), Republic of Northern Macedonia (Micevski and Micevski 2017) and in Egypt (Fric et al. 2014). Moreover, the risk of further spread of this species in Europe has been suggested, together with economic impacts to the horticultural trade, particularly against geraniums and pelargoniums (Quacchia et al. 2008). ...
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RAYNOR E. M. 1990. The occurrence of a Cacyreus species (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in Majorca. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation, 102: 250.
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