ThesisPDF Available


The convergence of the digital and physical realms through augmented reality brings along many possibilities to architects and other designers, as well as numerous environmental benefits through the revolution’s ‘ripple’ through our society. This paper draws on practical research undertaken by the author to illustrate the necessity and allure of augmented reality.
Digital Architecture
Rafal Kopiec
ARCT 1014 Architecture Dissertation
Session 2017-18
to be presented to the Department of Architecture
and Landscape at the University of Greenwich as
part of the BA (Hons) Architecture course
The convergence of the digital and physical realms
through augmented reality brings along many
possibilities to architects and other designers, as
well as numerous environmental benefits through
the revolution’s ‘ripple’ through our society. This
paper draws on practical research undertaken by
the author to illustrate the necessity and allure of
augmented reality.
You are here
The Problem
The Solution
The Effect
References & Bibliography
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my
academic advisor, Dr. Marko Jobst, for his time and
guidance throughout this project.
I’d like to thank Microsoft for giving me time with
their mixed reality headsets; it allowed my specu-
lations to become much more rooted in reality.
I am indebted to Augment, Inc, without whom the
holographic projections inside would have been
much harder to implement.
Robert T. Kiyosaki has been an inspiration to me
through his published series of autobiographical
And finally, I’d like to thank my parents for main-
taining their support for me throughout this
Course Coordinator: Dr. Marko Jobst
Unit D3: ‘The Writing Unit’
Spaces need to be designed to be used and inter-
acted with through a computer generated overlay,
augmented reality. This in turn will lead to a more
sustainable future, with lowered global electricity
demand, less electronic waste and a more produc-
tive & creative society.
The author has chosen to focus on the significance
of augmented reality, even though it is still in its
infancy. Although the technology has been around
for a number of years, the main reason it isn’t yet
ubiquitous is because the demand hasn’t been
planted into those that would find great use for it,
but don’t yet know it is even possible. The author
has realised that augmented reality has up until
now been designed to be retrofitted into a ready-
made space, and so it is simply an accessory or
fantasy. The moment spaces are designed to make
full use of augmented reality is the instant that the
explosion in demand will occur.
Of course, all new technology needs an initial
“transition period”. Touchscreens and software
keyboards were not in demand until skeuomor-
phism was applied to the design of the user inter-
face, hence why Apple’s iOS version 1 through 6
had been designed to imitate real world materials
and controls. Likewise, we are currently in the age
of the driverless car transition - for the next few
generations of automobiles, steering wheels will
still be present. Therefore for augmented reality
to take hold, it will too have to undergo a transition
period because the leap is too large for the majori-
ty to grasp and understand. In order to accomplish
this, augmented reality will at first imitate physical
appliances and will make use of real-world, tactile
placeholders for the digital content until making
use of the technology has become second nature.
Given that this is a relatively future-oriented topic,
the dissertation is designed to be read as more of a
conversational piece rather than a standard piece
of academic work. The author believes this will
break in the desperate necessity of this technology
in a much more human way.
In true cutting-edge fashion, this work has been il-
lustrated with augmented reality holograms in or-
der to invite the reader to explore the possibilities
of blending the digital and analogue realms. As we
aren’t currently in the age of ubiquitously-owned
AR glasses, the reader is kindly asked to download
the “Augment” app onto their smartphone. Then,
on the indicated pages, rotate the booklet 90º
counter-clockwise and let the application “scan”
the barcode; the hologram will be visible on top,
open for exploration. The holographic work is
based on the authors own research into a studio for
YouTube creators that is optimised for augmented
reality. A brief description for each projection will
be provided.
The dissertation looks into the application of
augmented reality in architecture after the space
has been built, and so subsequently given the
lack of augmented reality applications in today’s
world there is a severe lack of scholarly research
made on this topic by others. Thus, this paper has
to draw on research made from other emerging
technologies to examine potential implications and
opportunities augmented reality has to offer.
The Problem
The ever-advancing technology industry, making
seemingly incredible leaps in sophistication year
on year. The two year mobile phone contract, aim-
ing to replace every cellular device when the time
has come. The irreparability and inupgradability of
consumer electronic items, coupled with the heav-
ily marketed idea of buying a new replacement,
rather than attempting to recycle the seemingly
The result?
1 billion mobile phones sold by Apple in the last
1 billion.
And that still pales in comparison to the amount
that their nearest competitor Samsung had sold
over a span of just five years, from 2010-2015.
2 billion.
And yet, this doesn’t even begin to match the
total number of mobile devices produced by the
countless other companies, fighting for their own
respective market share.
This in itself is not an issue. It would of course be
grand if these mobile phones were all equally
distributed amongst every person in the world, but
that is simply not the case. In 2016, only an esti-
mated 62% of the people on earth did actually own
a mobile phone, with the total number of owners
estimated to reach 5 billion at the end of 2019. Fac-
tually speaking, the amount of active (not count-
ing the discarded) mobile phones exceeded the
world’s population way back in 2014, crossing the
7.2bn mark. So where exactly does this seemingly
limitless surplus of technology go, after having
been used for the desired time by the consumer?
The waste disposal.
The world as a whole in 2014 produced a total of 50
million tons of electrical waste.
50 million tons.
The reason that number is so large is mostly due
to planned obsolescence - a phenomenon devised
in order to cultivate and propel the consumerist
culture, so that newer developments in technol-
ogy can be made. This creates an economy where
users of electronics tend to upgrade their devices
every couple of years or so - as the newer model
of whatever they have (or the competitor) may be
offering a marginally improved experience. The
issue lies within the fact that these devices are
rarely designed to be manually upgraded in order
to get the latest hardware enhancements - lead-
ing to consumers replacing entire products which
themselves have left a large carbon footprint in
order to just experience a technological advance-
ment of one tiny silicon chip.
This often means that their replaced device is still
perfectly functioning when it is discarded. Even in
the case of a small component malfunction (or the
deterioration of the non-replaceable lithium-ion
battery), the whole unit is disregarded as unusable
- and so discarded.
Of this 50 million annual tons of electrical waste,
only an estimated 15-20% is actually recycled as it
is costly to do so - even though 99% of our electri-
cal waste is perfectly capable of being recycled.
The vast majority unfortunately ends up in landfill
and incinerators, leading to the loss of valuable
elements and creating a linear economy. Out of the
15-20% of what does get recycled in order to create
a closed loop economy, most gets processed in a
very primitive way. This often means being [illegal-
ly] exported under false pretences [used goods]
to developing countries and communities, dam-
aging them in the process. A 2011 report, “Ghana
E-waste Country Assessment”, found that out of
215,000 tons of electrical waste imported due to
be ‘recycled’, 80% was simply burned in the open
air (creating a toxic local environment) whilst the
majority of the remaining 20% involved children
being used to dismantle electrical components
through the use of their hands, basic tools and
acids. Needless to say, such human activity isn’t
particularly “humane”, especially when realising
that their life expectancy tops out at around 15.
Apple has become a major pioneer in the recy-
cling department, having created a robot named
Liam solely designed to take apart the company’s
iPhones in order to recover the various valuable
materials contained within. However this isn’t as
readily advertised as it should be, and still count-
less smartphones with a simple crack in their
glass display (which is far too easy to obtain) end
up in the hands of the local refuse collector.
This has to be made clear however - electronic
waste isn’t just made up of smartphones. It incor-
porates the many other digital appliances a house-
hold may have and decide, or are forced through
planned obsolescence, to upgrade (televisions,
sound systems, tablets, laptops, etc.). Electronic
waste also carries a carbon footprint, which isn’t
encompassed by the actual term.
Every time an item is produced, some pollution is
created. Every time the item is moved, whether it
be from the factory to the shop floor, from the shop
floor to the home of the new owner, or from the
home of the owner to the country in which it will be
deposited for good, some pollution is created.
Indeed, an ideal solution would be to not have
to produce electrical items ever again, as it is
simply detrimental to our planet and a sector of
our people, whether the item is made of recycled/
reclaimed materials or not. Alas, our consumerist
culture is so well manifested that trillion dollar
industries operate around this very mechanism.
But, there is a way to gently transition the world
into becoming much more sustainable. That is to
say, the consumerist culture was definitely a nec-
essary step in our evolution as a society as over
the last hundred years, this nearly endless supply
of consumers looking to upgrade their products
has provided the resources necessary to evolve
our technologies at a much faster pace than would
have otherwise been possible.
Consumerism as a whole was essentially started
back in 1921 at the annual AEG conference, when
the largest companies of their time needed “fuel” to
drive innovation in their lightbulb technology.
However, just like with many processes, consum-
erism is a mechanism that needs to be fine-tuned
in order to remain a sustainable source of mone-
tary power.
The consumerism machine:
Innovation Profit
new companies billionaire companies
The Solution
Over the last few decades, an increasing amount of
our activities have transitioned over to the digital
realm. Especially with the introduction of the
Internet, many services that have always required
a physical presence or items have now begun to
manifest themselves virtually. Possibly one of the
greatest examples of this is the creation of online
banking through smartphone applications, which
had entered the consumer market just ten years
ago. Banks, which used to send out monthly paper
statements to each and every one of their cus-
tomers have now become paperless. While this
may not sound that significant, it is an immense
development. Whilst the paper-making process
itself may have become almost 100% sustainable, it
is the supply chain that definitely isn’t. Now fewer
heavy diesel trucks have to move raw wood in or-
der to process it into paper, postal services can run
fewer pollution-emitting vehicles, and we are no
longer reliant on every single recipient disposing
of their monthly statement in the correct way - into
the recycling bin.
With ‘going digital’ come a host of new advantages
previously unimagined by the users of said banks
[24/7 account access, transactions, et al]. It can be
argued that the invention of the digital realm has
had one of the greatest ever impacts on humanity.
Due to this, a small computer that fits in the palm
of one’s hand has suddenly become multifunction-
al, allowing for it to be a sole replacement of many
individual, mono-use devices. A smartphone made
within the last decade has, for many, become the
replacement of a landline telephone, a camera,
sound system, television, and many other items
thanks to the synthesis of hardware through
Over the last few years, another monumental leap
in technology has begun to take place.
Hologram: The music department. Every video file needs a soundtrack to accompany
it. By spreading the components of a Digital Audio Workstation (in this particular case
FL Studio 12) across a room, multilple users can interact with the digital composition
at once, even in synchronisity. Through architecture, a digital orchestra is created.
Because of the power of augmented reality, new instruments can simply be down-
loaded, and the only devices that require electricity are the users headsets. Thus, the
computer inhabits the room alongside the users, working with, not for, them.
Augmented reality.
Though virtual reality has been experimented with
since the 1960’s (generally for the sole purpose of
computer games), it is not until recently that con-
sumer processing power had become sufficient
enough for virtual environments to become almost
indiscernible from reality - such that one can
experience the sensation of vertigo one would get
when standing at the edge of a cliff, even though
the viewer could be located safely within their own
bedroom. Today, virtual reality is being used by a
handful of architectural design firms in order to
experience their designs at 1:1 scale, immersing
themselves in three-dimensional environments in
order to quickly test out new ideas without having
to spend time and money making something phys-
ical. However, the above is a relatively niche use
case - the vast majority of the population are con-
sumers of design and architecture, not designers
or architects. And above all, this is all still just soft-
ware being looked at through a device - the objects
seen have no physical presence. The holy grail
instead lies within augmenting our physical reali-
ties with the virtual. Augmented reality does exist
today, in limited applications. The most notable
example of this came with the release of the Micro-
soft HoloLens back in 2016, where the applications
of a computer could be viewed on different walls in
3D space of one’s home. The company has kept it as
a developers’ secret so to speak, as the technology
was (and still is) in its infancy. Nevertheless it has
been put to good use by a few companies, most
notably Ford. The car company traditionally relied
on clay 1:1 models of cars in order to iterate designs
(as does nearly every other competitor), and
given that each model takes the best part of a few
months to complete, design iterating had always
been a slow and cumbersome process. However,
by augmenting a physical car with digital modi-
fications, iterations could even be made live and
viewed immediately at human scale. Microsoft has
current plans to eventually roll out this technology
to the general public at a much more affordable
price point (sub £500 per unit as opposed to the
expensive-in-direct-comparison £3,000 at time of
writing). That said, given that the technology is still
in its development phase, the current experience
Scan with augment
This way up
offered to consumers through the mixed reality
programme is simple virtual reality, with headsets
being aware of their surroundings. With thanks to
Microsoft, I was provided with one such headset
for a week to record my findings. However, given
the experience was pure virtual reality, it didn’t
quite rival the fully immersive blending of realities
that the MS HoloLens augmented reality headset
provides. And even when in my time of testing the
HoloLens at a Microsoft store, the holograms were
simply overlaid and retrofitted onto the space they
were used in; proving once again that spaces need
to be designed to fully make use of this technology
for it to achieve its true potential.
Over time, it is inevitable that AR glasses will
become as small a regular sun/reading glasses
whilst merging the power of future smartphones
within, and thus will become as ubiquitous as
smartphones are today. Through augmenting
reality, many digital and even non digital appli-
ances that we rely on in our everyday life could
be synthesised through software. By allowing
software to manifest itself in our physical world by
imitating real world objects, our material need will
be greatly reduced as physical objects will simply
become a tactile interface for the digital aug-
mentation. This, coupled with the ability of quickly
changing the appearance of physical objects
through this process, has the power to satisfy our
consumerist hunger too. In this manner, a simple
wall can become an ultra large television just as
a simple hard-wearing table can become a 1970’s
vintage masterpiece. Object “skins” would simply
be available for download through the internet,
thus severely reducing our need for material
goods and the fossil fuels required to transport
Through this, the role of the architect doesn’t
change, but instead he suddenly has more control
over the final design - with the addition of the
Hologram: The visual zone. Most videos tend to be recorded in the great outdoors as
that is far more exciting, but more often than not a light controlled studio is necessary
to get the right shot. Here Adobe Premiere Pro takes centre stage as its modules are
virtually spread out across the workzone.
power to do things that are physically impossible. A
space designed to have a digital overlay becomes a
space that is immensely more powerful. A common
complaint amongst virtual and augmented reality
testers today is the absurd lack of content. Another
common complaint amongst current desktop com-
puter users is the sedentary lifestyle.
By designing architecture to be used in synchro-
nicity with an augmented reality digital overlay,
a computer program can essentially inhabit and
direct the form of a space. This in turn would natu-
rally create a more human experience as physical
movement would be required to interact with the
computer; the computer living within the fabric of
the space. Naturally, collaboration would take hold
in applications where currently it is a solo-only
experience. Want to edit a video file with a few
colleagues? Manipulate a photograph? Create dig-
ital music? By creating a digital layer, spaces can
become much more interactive and personalised
to the designated need, given that so much of what
we do today is currently only viewable through a
small glass window.
These augmentations do not have to be drastic to
have a monumental impact on the way people feel
and behave. A brilliant example of this is Niantic’s
iOS and Android game Pokémon Go, where virtual
characters are spread across our physical planet
Earth and players are tasked with physically
walking with their devices, invited to explore their
local (and sometimes not-so-local) environments
- all while ‘hunting down’ the digital creatures.
The creatures would often manifest themselves in
usual places named ‘Pokestops’, and the explorers
would often be seen huddled near them looking as
though they were searching for something physical
- to the outsider’s perspective.
The game can be said to have been almost too
effective as many retail owners began to capitalise
on the game by acquiring ‘Pokestops’ and placing
them within their stores in order to attract traffic.
Other ‘more naturally occurring’ ‘Pokestops’ hap-
pened to be in quite secluded locations, and it was
comical to witness on more than one occasion rival
‘gangs’ forming, both on a mission to ‘catch’ more
than the other group.
Scan with augment
This way up
Perhaps the greatest proof of all that these digital
augmentations were perceived as real, but also
the most unfortunate, was that these rivalries had
spawned a few murders on location. Although the
emotional effect of this game was substantial, it
was however only a game, and thus the amount of
users quickly fell soon after the initial excitement
had passed.
If anything, this shows the world has already em-
braced the power of augmented reality with open
hands, and if the technology is tightly integrated
to something more concrete (like a building), it is
more likely to have a lasting and positive impact.
A great use case for this technology would be in a
small apartment, where the organisation of space
is a priority in order to make effective use of the
available space. Through the power of augment-
ed reality, a single room can have many differ-
ent settings or modes, each designed to invoke
different feelings or create different storylines. A
room could potentially be switched from a library,
to an artist’s studio, to a cinema - all at the flick of
a switch or even a few voice commands. What’s
actually new for architects here is that they can
be tasked to continually update or reconfigure a
space even after it has been built, by manipulating
it digitally.
Perhaps most exciting of all for the consumers
of this architecture is that given that their spaces
have become digitised and optimised for the com-
puter programs that would direct the form of that
room, their lifestyles would greatly improve. With
the digital holographic synthesis of many pieces
of electronic equipment, many more opportuni-
ties suddenly become available to the consumer.
Through this, it is the authors hope that this digital/
analogue realm convergence shall motivate more
people to be creators and not explicit consumers.
Hologram: The mapping deck. The better a recording expedition is planned out, the
better the final video will be - which will ultimately result in more views and income.
Through digitally augmenting reality, this process comes to life. It brings unique
opportunities like virtual teleportation, enabling precise shot planning as well as
holographic telecommunication.
In this new world of seemingly infinite possibilities,
one would have even more opportunity and moti-
vation surrounding them to discover the happiness
that comes with creating something.
Scan with augment
This way up
The Effect
Fifty years from now once this technology has
truly taken hold provided that spaces have been
designed to make use of digitisation, the world
will have greatly changed. With most consumer
electronic devices replaced by just a pair of aug-
menting-reality-glasses, the global demand for
manufactured electronics would have been dis-
tilled down to just one item - the augmenting-re-
ality-glasses. The repercussions of this shift are
incredible. As most of the world will rely on just
one device, it will have the advantage of driving a
closed-loop economy as the method of recycling
that one device can be perfected to not have an
adverse impact.
The global demand for electricity would be then
substantially reduced especially in more econom-
ically developed countries like the United States of
America, where today in 2017 the average house-
hold possesses 22 separate electronic devices.
This will greatly assist in the global transition to
renewable energy (solar, wind, geo et al). And
given that only one consumer electronics device
would be mass produced, this will drive down
the cost of production immensely - meaning that
every human on earth would have access to the
Internet. This will become the great equaliser as
every person on earth would essentially have
access to the same resources, so long as that is
politically permitted.
Without doubt, this will be a monumental step
towards equality - humanitarian utopia.
The reason why it cannot be a true utopia is purely
because of human nature. Today we have Face-
book, a global internet-based social network that
has 2.07 billion monthly active users as of the third
quarter of 2017. From an outsider’s perspective,
this may seem incredible - Facebook has single-
handedly created a platform on which many peo-
ple around the world can connect with each other
based on shared interests, whether they may be
socially or financially driven. However the site is
not without its flaws. The user interface of the plat-
form is centred around a central timeline-based
‘homescreen’, from where the activity of the people
one is connected with can be viewed. This activity
often consists of text or photos, and generally con-
veys the mood or feeling of the post author.
While this is all perfectly acceptable, the trick
comes in when Facebook starts to get involved to
carry out their own research. Typically, these posts
are displayed in chronological order, with the most
recent posts shown first. However, during 2012,
Facebook decided to carry out a social experiment
on 700,000 active individuals designed to see
how much of an affect they have on their users.
By simply hiding positive posts from a portion of
the group, they found that this group started to
display a similar response - becoming less happy.
The same was true for the reverse - those shown
exclusively positive posts were observed to have
been happier over the months that followed. The
results of the experiment were revealed two years
later which provoked outrage amongst those af-
fected (as well as many others), and subsequently
Facebook were forced to apologise.
The above is a great example of social hacking,
through the owners of the platform. Computer
hacking is a separate topic, but is still connect-
ed given the damage that it might incur (theft of
private data, ransom demands, etc.). As it turns
out, once the physical and digital realms become
one through augmented reality, this enables much
deeper possibilities of hacking for personal gain
at the expense of others. We are already sub-
jected to something similar in our everyday lives.
The constant influx of advertisements all around
us, whether they be on our mobile devices or in
the physical world, continue to invade our sub-
conscious to eventually steer us into decisions
that were seen as inconceivable or impractical
before. Like a miniscule tugboat slowly changing
the course of a large oil tanker; the changes to our
belief systems will not be noticed until it is too late.
The further digitalisation of our homes will spawn
its own generation of conspiracy theorists, quite
like how the rapid advancement of technologies
that enabled us to let humans walk on the moon
formed a group of people that refuse to accept that
it is reality. Experiments have found that people
are much more vulnerable and susceptible to
believing incorrect information when in virtual
reality; once our own reality becomes merged with
digital augmentations it will become much harder
to tell fact from fiction (i.e. Pokémon Go murders).
Potentially the most dramatic change that might
come because of the convergence of augmented
reality and physical architecture, particularly in
future cheap/social housing, is the fact that spaces
might get smaller than they ever could have been
before given that the technology can provide the
illusion of space. Osaka’s capsule inn has become
somewhat of an attraction, offering an average of
two square metres per room in order to fit as many
sleeping factory workers in as possible. While the
aim was to provide as many spaces for as cheap
as possible, there are still countless examples
of people actually living in small, sometimes
even windowless homes like these. And, with the
ubiquitination of augmented reality, what is to
stop more developers seeking insane profit per
cubic metre commissioning more designs like
that? “If one can have a virtual bedroom the size of
a football field, and if it is convincing enough that
one does not feel claustrophobic from the physi-
cal location they are in, then one would only need
what is absolutely necessary” - so would be the
saying, somewhat reminiscent of George Orwell’s
Animal Farm.
However, take the above examples with a pinch
of salt; this would only happen in a very dystopian
timeline - but it is important that we strive to step
away from it as far as possible.
The reality is that there are many possibilities that
will open up to architects that have been previ-
ously unheard of and even unimagined, all due to
the convergence of the digital with the physical.
The author is convinced that computer-enhanced
reality will one day become just as essential as
electricity is today, especially once it has been
organically implemented into new architecture.
Doing so opens up the power of the computer and
its set of programs onto the physical, inhabitable
world, creating impossible-up-until-now experi-
ences. Somewhat akin to the Bauhaus movement,
the form-follows-function design method would
be especially prominent once we enable computer
applications and workflows to be a design driver.
Walking into a room that has not been designed
with augmented reality in mind will be frustrating
at the very least.
Let me reiterate - spaces need to be designed
to make use of augmented reality, else they risk
becoming outmoded and unwanted.
This dissertation marks the next step of architec-
tural evolution.
Digital Architecture.
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This research applies micro-simulation function, with XML algorithms made by the researcher, inside a virtual reality environment, the VR Studio programme. The research utilises this function of the VR program in architectural design studios. The main objective is to investigate how and to what extend students would benefit from applying this new potential of the VR function. The hypothesis was that the function potential would assist students to have more understanding of the structural system selected, which would be simultaneously beneficial on the architectural design level. The students used the VR programme during the design process in the stage of proposing and exploring the structural system. The used application focuses on providing the students with an effective tool to select and visualise a structural system and its construction process. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the students to record their remarks and opinions of using the VR function. The questionnaire replies indicate and open more areas than the hypothesis. The research methodology is to use mainly qualitative analysis and secondarily quantitative analysis, to have evaluation that indicates the effectiveness of Virtual Reality as an educational tool in the architectural design studio. The research employs the VR Studio programme in order to introduce new visualization potentials other than what are currently used. The research concludes to solid results of the use of VR in the architectural design studio, and proceeds further to open new research venues.
Compared with our parents or grandparents, we are spending increasing amounts of time in environments that not only limit physical activity but require prolonged sitting—at work, at home, and in our cars and communities. 1 Work sites, schools, homes, and public spaces have been (and continue to be) re-engineered in ways that minimize human movement and muscular activity. These changes have a dual effect on human behavior: people move less and sit more. From an evolutionary perspective, humans were designed to move—to locomote and engage in all manner of manual labor throughout the day. This was essential to our survival as a species. The recent shift from a physically demanding life to one with few physical challenges has been sudden, occurring during a tiny fraction of human existence. Societal indicators of reductions in human energy expenditure and increases in sedentary behavior during the past several decades are particularly striking. In 1970, 2 in 10 working Americans were in jobs requiring only light activity (predominantly sitting at a desk), whereas 3 in 10 were in jobs requiring high-energy output (eg, construction, manufacturing, farming). 2 By 2000, more than 4 in 10 adults were in light-activity jobs, whereas 2 in 10 were in high-activity jobs. 2 Moreover, during the past 20 years, total screen time (ie, using computers, watching television, playing video games) has increased dramatically. In 2003, nearly 6 in 10 working adults used a computer on the job and more than 9 in 10 children used computers in school (kindergarten through grade 12). 3 Between 1989 and 2009, the number of households with a computer and Internet access increased from 15% to 69%. 3 Other significant contributors to daily sitting time—watching television and driving personal vehicles—are at all-time highs, with estimates of nearly 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively.
dad-brought-home-leadkids-got-sick Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initia tives, practices, and consequences As e-waste mountains soar, UN urges smart technologies to protect health https?NewsID=33845&Cr=waste&Cr1 (Accessed Nov '17) Where computers go to die & kill http
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& Bibliography Dad brought home lead, kids got sick (Accessed Oct '17) news/2016/02/12/dad-brought-home-leadkids-got-sick/80078164/ Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH. (2012) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initia tives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ.Worldwide E-waste (Accessed Oct '17) index.cfm?articleid=316 United Nations (2010) As e-waste mountains soar, UN urges smart technologies to protect health asp?NewsID=33845&Cr=waste&Cr1 (Accessed Nov '17) Where computers go to die & kill ture/2006/04/10/ewaste (Accessed Nov '17)
Happy City Alain de Botton (2006) The Architecture of Happiness Hanhsaio -Beyond the Building (tate) users of IrisVR program (hmcarchitects
  • Montgomery Charles
Charles, Montgomery (2013) Happy City Alain de Botton (2006) The Architecture of Happiness Hanhsaio -Beyond the Building (tate) users of IrisVR program (hmcarchitects, miele australia, corgan, ennead, shop, mortenson) tion
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Mathew (2014) tion/282006837_Importance_of_Virtual_Reali ty_in_Current_World/
As e-waste mountains soar, UN urges smart technologies to protect health
United Nations (2010) As e-waste mountains soar, UN urges smart technologies to protect health asp?NewsID=33845&Cr=waste&Cr1 (Accessed Nov '17) Where computers go to die & kill ture/2006/04/10/ewaste (Accessed Nov '17)
The Smallest Hotel Rooms in the World
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Kilberg, Lauren (2014) The Smallest Hotel Rooms in the World galleries/2014-09-09/cozy-or-claustropho bic-the-smallest-hotel-rooms-in-the-world
Facebook conducted secret psychology experiment on users
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Alexander, Harriet (2014) Facebook conducted secret psychology experiment on users' emotions technology/facebook/10932534/ Facebook-conducted-secret-psychology-ex periment-on-users-emotions.html Autodesk al-reality-in-architecture/