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Abstract

Within Entertainment Computing, games research has grown to be its own area, with numerous publication venues dedicated to it. As this area evolves, it is fruitful to examine its overall development—which subcommunities and research interests were present from the start, which have come and gone, and which are currently active—to better understand the research community as a whole and where it may proceed. In this paper, we present a data-driven analysis and interactive visualization tool to shed light on how technical domains within the games research field have evolved from 2000 - 2013, based on publication data from over 8,000 articles collected from 48 games research venues, including Entertainment Computing, FDG, AIIDE, and DiGRA. The approach we present is descriptive. We first used data mining algorithms to group related papers into clusters of similar research topics and evolve these clusters over time. We then designed an interactive visualization system, named Seagull, comprised of Sankey diagrams that allow us to interactively visualize and examine the transition and coalescing of different clusters across time. We present our descriptive analysis in this paper and also contribute the visualization interface to allow other researchers to examine the data and develop their own analysis.

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... But previously, we must take into account that there are works which use the term "games" in general, instead the broader term "videogames". For instance in [6] an analysis of co-words ...
... But previously, we must take into account that there are works which use the term "games" in general, instead the broader term "videogames". For instance in [6] an analysis of co-words and co-venues was made, from a selection of 48 core game journals and conferences, instead searching by term, detecting the appearance of 7 sub-communities. However, as its authors mention, in this work it has been possible to obviate works in interdisciplinary sources. ...
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Videogames are a very interesting area of research for fields as diverse as computer science, health, psychology or even social sciences. Every year a growing number of articles are published in different topics inside this field, so it is very convenient to study the different bibliometric data in order to consolidate the research efforts. Thus, the aim of this work is to conduct a study on the distribution of articles related to videogames in the different fields of research, as well as to measure their interest over time, to identify the sources, countries and authors with the highest scientific production. In order to carry out this analysis, the information system Dimensions.ai has been considered, since it covers a large number of documents and allows for easy downloading and analysis of datasets. According to the study, three countries are the most prolific in this area: USA, Canada and UK. The obtained results also indicate that the fields with the highest number of publications are Information and Computer Sciences, Medical and Health Sciences, and Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, in this order. With regard to the impact of the publications, differences between the number of citations, and the number of Altmetric Attention Score, have been found.
... Prior work has argued for interactive storytelling's power in terms of providing therapeutic benefits Starks et al. (2016), Dias et al. (2018) and enabling learning experiences through educational games Weiß and Müller, (2008), Danilicheva et al. (2009), Melcer et al. (2015, Nguyen et al. (2018), Camingue et al. (2020). Specifically, narrative/storytelling is an important element that can be incorporated into educational games in order to maintain and increase students' motivation Dickey, (2006), Rowe et al. (2011), Padilla-Zea et al. (2014, with some suggesting that integration of a good story into an educational game will determine its success or failure Göbel et al. (2009). ...
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Choice-based interactive storytelling games such as Academical, our responsible conduct of research training game, show great promise as a novel way of providing efficacious ethics training. However, much work remains to determine what factors of such games contribute to their advantages over traditional text-based training tools, especially if we hope to further improve their enjoyment, engagement and efficacy. In this article, we present a case study exploring how the motivational factors of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) underlie players’ perceived most and least enjoyable experiences arising from the design of Academical. Specifically, we discuss how certain elements of Academical’s design influence different SDT factors and subsequently player experience, as well as how such elements can be changed to further improve the game. Furthermore, our work highlights potential limitations of existing conceptualizations for the relatedness factor of SDT—discussing ways that it can be extended to properly understand player enjoyment within single-player educational interactive narrative games.
... Visual, auditory, tactile, and kinaesthetic are the four main learning methods (Deng and Yu, 2014). It was evident that most extant studies had been focussed on discussing the technical aspects of game-based teaching and had further illustrated the importance of adapting to new or up to date technology, especially when teaching by means of gamified elements (Aldecoa and Okada, 2015;Arango-López, Collazos, and Velas, 2018;Breyer, 2019;DeWinter and Moeller, 2016;Faustmann et al., 2019;Krevskiy et al., 2016;Morschheuser, Hamari, and Koivisto, 2017;Nguyen et al., 2018;Souza and Marques, 2020;Sukenasa et al., 2020;Urías, Chust, and Carrasco, 2016;Yasin et al., 2018;Ye, Feng, Yang, Yang, and Yang, 2019). ...
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Over the last few years, gamification has sparked significant interest in both industry and academia. However, the focus of the debate has been mostly on game studies and human-computer interaction (HCI). Even though games are increasingly being supplied as services to customers, few academic works have linked game studies to the service or marketing literature (Dikcius and Urbonavicius, 2020; Dukembay and Zhaksylyk, 2019). This paper presents an examination of the emerging trends of gamification and e-learning for young learners. The first section presents a text-based cluster bibliometric analysis based on 222 qualified articles published between 2015 and 2020. We conducted this analysis to identify the most prominent themes in the literature through cluster identification via the VOS viewer software. As the themes were found to be interlinked, the second section presents a systematic literature review based on a bibliometric analysis performed using the PRISMA method on 32 qualified articles. The findings highlighted the four major future research themes of personalization, game elements, learner styles, and learner engagement. Finally, we provide a future research agenda based on the theory, characteristics, context, and methodology (TCCM) framework. Our findings offer key insights aimed at enabling actors in education policy making and gamification-based software companies and agencies to identify the gamification techniques best suited for e-learning.
... Prior work has argued for interactive storytelling's power in terms of evoking empathy (Bratitsis 2016;Salter 2016;Samuel et al. 2017), 1 providing therapeutic benefits (Dias et al. 2018;Starks et al. 2016), and enabling learning experiences through educational games (Camingue et al. 2020;Danilicheva et al. 2009;Melcer et al. 2015;Nguyen et al. 2018;Weiß and Müller 2008). Specifically, narrative/storytelling is an important element that can be incorporated into educational games in order to maintain and increase students' motivation (Dickey 2006;Padilla-Zea et al. 2014;Rowe et al. 2011), with some suggesting that integration of a good story into an educational game will determine its success or failure (Göbel et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
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Responsible conduct of research (RCR) is an essential skill for all researchers to develop, but training scientists to behave ethically is complex because it requires addressing both cognitive (e.g., conceptual knowledge and moral reasoning skills) and socio-affective (e.g., attitudes) learning outcomes. Both classroom- and web-based forms of RCR training struggle to address these distinct types of learning outcomes simultaneously. This chapter presents a pair of experiments providing initial evidence that playing a single brief session of Academical, a choice-based interactive narrative game, has positive effects on all three key RCR learning outcomes. Our results highlight that utilizing a choice-based interactive storytelling game is a uniquely effective way to holistically address RCR learning outcomes that drive ethical research behaviors.
... Interactive storytelling has substantial potential for education and games [6,8,36,41,69]. Specifically, narrative/storytelling is an important element that can be incorporated into educational games in order to maintain and increase students' motivation [7,10,44,53], with some suggesting that integration of a good story into an educational game will determine its success or failure [13]. Interactive storytelling has been incorporated into a number of educational games focusing on topics such as history [7,61], STEM [8,70,73], and bullying [2,67]. ...
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Concepts utilizing applied ethics, such as responsible conduct of research (RCR), can prove difficult to teach due to the complexity of problems faced by researchers and the many underlying perspectives involved in such dilemmas. To address this issue, we created Academical, a choice-based interactive storytelling game for RCR education that enables players to experience a story from multiple perspectives. In this paper, we describe the design rationale of Academical, and present results from an initial study comparing it with traditional web-based educational materials from an existing university RCR course. The results highlight that utilizing a choice-based interactive story game is more effective for RCR education, with learners developing significantly higher engagement, stronger overall moral reasoning skills, and better knowledge scores for certain RCR topics.
... When interactive, they afford personalised queries, and thus more in-depth and succinct analyses. Previous systematic mapping studies that leverage this technique include: a visualisation of the evolution of technical games research [48], a tool to support the review of HCI and InfoVis literature [53], a system to visualise research trends in conferences [40] and an interactive characterisation of the state of the art in visualizing dynamic graphs [11]. Inspired by these examples, we designed an online tool to allow dynamic visualisation of our dataset using the HFI taxonomy. ...
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... When interactive, they afford personalised queries, and thus more in-depth and succinct analyses. Previous systematic mapping studies that leverage this technique include: a visualisation of the evolution of technical games research [48], a tool to support the review of HCI and InfoVis literature [53], a system to visualise research trends in conferences [40] and an interactive characterisation of the state of the art in visualizing dynamic graphs [11]. Inspired by these examples, we designed an online tool to allow dynamic visualisation of our dataset using the HFI taxonomy. ...
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Activity in Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research is sky-rocketing across a broad range of disciplinary interests and concerns. The dynamic and heterogeneous nature of this emerging field presents a challenge to scholars wishing to critically engage with prior work, identify gaps and ensure impact. It also challenges the formation of community. We present a Systematic Mapping Study of HFI research and an online data visualisation tool developed to respond to these issues. The tool allows researchers to engage in new ways with the HFI literature, propose modifications and additions to the review, and thereby actively engage in community-making. Our contribution is threefold: (1) we characterize the state of HFI, reporting trends, challenges and opportunities; (2) we provide a taxonomy and tool for diffractive reading of the literature; and (3) we offer our approach for adaptation by research fields facing similar challenges, positing value of the tool and approach beyond HFI. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing → HCI theory, concepts and models. * Altarriba Bertran and Wilde are co-first authors.
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We present CitNetExplorer, a new software tool for analyzing and visualizing citation networks of scientific publications. CitNetExplorer can for instance be used to study the development of a research field, to delineate the literature on a research topic, and to support literature reviewing. We first introduce the main concepts that need to be understood when working with CitNetExplorer. We then demonstrate CitNetExplorer by using the tool to analyze the scientometric literature and the literature on community detection in networks. Finally, we discuss some technical details on the construction, visualization, and analysis of citation networks in CitNetExplorer.
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This paper relates the results of a co-word analysis of over 70 years of biological safety literature. The database used in this project is theSonger Safety Bibliography (SSB) which lists around 17 000 references. The results show biological safety to be a very fragmented field, characterized by the existence of several relatively independent foci of interest, none of which has been able to structure the field into a tight network. Early periods of activity were marked by the construction of the basic tools of biological safety practices. Those tools became a “robust package” which, in more recent periods, was used routinely. While the safety problems related to recombinant DNA research have received much attention in the general press, they do not seem to occupy a prominent place within the biological safety literature, at least the one compiled in SSB.
Article
We use a co-word analysis of the key words of 6055 articles that appeared in the psychology of work from 1973 to 1987 and were listed in the PASCAL database to bring out changes in the scientific themes of the field. We can discern which themes remained significant and which disappeared, as well as the psychology of work's borrowings from and contributions to other disciplines. Co-word analysis therefore constitutes a new tool in the science policy arena.
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In this article I argue for a critical analysis and re-evaluation of the term pervasive. Due to ambiguous definitions in both the discourse on computing and gaming, this term has become theoretically entangled with others. This has led to multiple definitions, and also, in the case of gaming, to the neglect of the different perspectives in which a game can be pervasive. In the current nascent stage of research into pervasive gaming, in which attempts are being made to theorize this concept, I argue for an analytical overview of the use of the term pervasive in order to understand the different perspectives in which it is used.
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Virtual worlds, where thousands of people can interact simultaneously within the same three-dimensional environment, represent a frontier in social computing with critical implications for business, education, social sciences, and our society at large. In this paper, we first trace the history of virtual worlds back to its antecedents in electronic gaming and on-line social networking. We then provide an overview of extant virtual worlds, including education-focused, theme-based, community-specific, children-focused, and self-determined worlds – and we analyze the relationship among these worlds according to an initial taxonomy for the area. Recognizing the apparent leadership of Second Life among today's self-determined virtual worlds, we present a detailed case study of this environment, including surveys of 138 residents regarding how they perceive and utilize the environment. Lastly, we provide a literature review of existing virtual world research, with a focus on business research, and a condensed summary of research issues in education, social sciences, and humanities.
Article
Pervasive gaming is a genre of gaming systematically blurring and breaking the traditional boundaries of game. The limits of the magic circle are explored in spatial, temporal and social dimensions. These ways of expanding the game are not new, since many intentional and unintentional examples of similar expansions can be found from earlier games, but the recently emerged fashion of pervasive gaming is differentiated with the use of these expansions in new, efficient ways to produce new kinds of gameplay experiences. These new game genres include alternate reality games, reality games, trans-reality games and crossmedia games.
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This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). Although VR supports multisensory interaction channels, visual representations predominate. Few are the studies that incorporate intuitive interactivity, indicating a research trend in this direction. Few are the settings that use immersive EVEs reporting positive results on users’ attitudes and learning outcomes, indicating that there is a need for further research on the capabilities of such systems. Features of VR that contribute to learning such as first order experiences, natural semantics, size, transduction, reification, autonomy and presence are exploited according to the educational context and content. Presence seems to play an important role in learning and it is a subject needing further and intensive studies. Constructivism seems to be the theoretical model the majority of the EVEs are based on. The studies present real world, authentic tasks that enable context and content dependent knowledge construction. They also provide multiple representations of reality by representing the natural complexity of the world. Findings show that collaboration and social negotiation are not only limited to the participants of an EVE, but exist between participants and avatars, offering a new dimension to computer assisted learning. Little can yet be concluded regarding the retention of the knowledge acquired in EVEs. Longitudinal studies are necessary, and we believe that the main outcome of this study is the future research perspectives it brings to light.
Article
The aim of this study is to map the intellectual structure of the field of Information Retrieval (IR) during the period of 1987–1997. Co-word analysis was employed to reveal patterns and trends in the IR field by measuring the association strengths of terms representative of relevant publications or other texts produced in IR field. Data were collected from Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) for the period of 1987–1997. In addition to the keywords added by the SCI and SSCI databases, other important keywords were extracted from titles and abstracts manually. These keywords were further standardized using vocabulary control tools. In order to trace the dynamic changes of the IR field, the whole 11-year period was further separated into two consecutive periods: 1987–1991 and 1992–1997. The results show that the IR field has some established research themes and it also changes rapidly to embrace new themes.
Article
A stop list, or negative dictionary is a device used in automatic indexing to filter out words that would make poor index terms. Traditionally stop lists are supposed to have included only the most frequently occurring words. In practice, however, stop lists have tended to include infrequently occurring words, and have not included many frequently occurring words. Infrequently occurring words seem to have been included because stop list compilers have not, for whatever reason, consulted empirical studies of word frequencies. Frequently occurring words seem to have been left out for the same reason, and also because many of them might still be important as index terms.This paper reports an exercise in generating a stop list for general text based on the Brown corpus of 1,014,000 words drawn from a broad range of literature in English. We start with a list of tokens occurring more than 300 times in the Brown corpus. From this list of 278 words, 32 are culled on the grounds that they are too important as potential index terms. Twenty-six words are then added to the list in the belief that they may occur very frequently in certain kinds of literature. Finally, 149 words are added to the list because the finite state machine based filter in which this list is intended to be used is able to filter them at almost no cost. The final product is a list of 421 stop words that should be maximally efficient and effective in filtering the most frequently occurring and semantically neutral words in general literature in English.
Article
Summary We explore the possibility of using co-citation clusters over three time periods to track the emergence and growth of research areas, and predict their near term change. Data sets are from three overlapping six-year periods: 1996-2001, 1997-2002 and 1998-2003. The methodologies of co-citation clustering, mapping, and string formation are reviewed, and a measure of cluster currency is defined as the average age of highly cited papers relative to the year span of the data set. An association is found between the currency variable in a prior period and the percentage change in cluster size and citation frequency in the following period. The conflating factor of “single-issue clusters” is discussed and dealt with using a new metric called in-group citation.
Article
Virtual reality (VR) is a scientific method and technology created during the exploration of the nature by human beings to understand, simulate, and better adapt and use the nature. Based on the analysis on the whole process of VR, this paper presents different categories of VR problems and a type of theoretical expression, and abstracts three kinds of scientific and technical problems in VR field. On the basis of foresaid content, this paper also studies current major research objectives, research results and development trend of VR in the aspects of VR modeling method, VR representation technology, human-machine interaction and devices, VR development suites and supporting infrastructure, as well as VR applications. Finally, several theoretical and technical problems that need to be further studied and solved are addressed.
Article
While ISSI was founded in 1993, scientometrics and bibliometrics are now at least half a century old. Indeed, the field can be traced to early quantitative studies in the early 20th Century. In the thirties, it evolved to the "science of science." The publication of J. D. Bemal's Social Function ofScience in 1939 was a key transition point but th'e field lay dormant until after World War 11, when DJD Price's books Science Since Babylon in and Little Science, Big Science in were published in1961 and 1963. His role as the "father of scientometrics" is clearly evident by using the HistCite software to visualize his impact as well as the subsequent impact of the journal Scientornetrics on the growth of the field. Scientometrics owes its name to V. V. Nalimov, the author of Naukometriya, and to Tibor Braun who adapted the neologism for the journal. The primordial paper on citation indexing by Garfield which appeared in Science 1955 became a jnidge between Bemal and Price. The timeline for the evolution of scientometrics is demonstrated by a HistCite tabulation of the ranked citation index of all the 100,000 references cited in the 3,000 papers citing Price.
Article
Data-Driven Documents (D3) is a novel representation-transparent approach to visualization for the web. Rather than hide the underlying scenegraph within a toolkit-specific abstraction, D3 enables direct inspection and manipulation of a native representation: the standard document object model (DOM). With D3, designers selectively bind input data to arbitrary document elements, applying dynamic transforms to both generate and modify content. We show how representational transparency improves expressiveness and better integrates with developer tools than prior approaches, while offering comparable notational efficiency and retaining powerful declarative components. Immediate evaluation of operators further simplifies debugging and allows iterative development. Additionally, we demonstrate how D3 transforms naturally enable animation and interaction with dramatic performance improvements over intermediate representations.
Article
We present VOSviewer, a freely available computer program that we have developed for constructing and viewing bibliometric maps. Unlike most computer programs that are used for bibliometric mapping, VOSviewer pays special attention to the graphical representation of bibliometric maps. The functionality of VOSviewer is especially useful for displaying large bibliometric maps in an easy-to-interpret way. The paper consists of three parts. In the first part, an overview of VOSviewer's functionality for displaying bibliometric maps is provided. In the second part, the technical implementation of specific parts of the program is discussed. Finally, in the third part, VOSviewer's ability to handle large maps is demonstrated by using the program to construct and display a co-citation map of 5,000 major scientific journals.