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Abstract

Traditionally, physical and anthropometrical profiles of the most successful kayak athletes have been identified in male kayakers. This study attempted to identify the differences in morphology and fitness level of two performance-based groups of young elite female paddlers. Eighty-six female kayakers, aged 13.62 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD) were allocated in two groups (Top-10 and Rest) depending on their ranking in the three Olympic distances (200, 500 and 1000 meters). All subjects underwent a battery of anthropometrical (heights, weight, girths and sum of skinfolds), physical fitness (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test and 20-m multistage shuttle run test) and specific performance assessments (200, 500 and 1000 meters). Best paddlers presented significantly greater anthropometrical values in muscle mass percentage, maturity status and chronological age (p < 0.05) whereas physical fitness comparison only revealed significant differences in countermovement jump (p < 0.05). Furthermore, aerobic power and muscle mass percentage appear to be crucial in achieving optimal performances at long (1000-m) and short duration races (200 and 500-m). These findings confirm the importance of a larger and compact morphology, as well as superior fitness level, for success in female kayakers. The current results not only identify the weak areas on body composition and physical fitness depending on the maturity status but also the development of specific training programs for FEMALES.

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... In previous research, associations between performance and body size were also determined in cycling and running, with correlations coefficients over .7 [17,18]. Similarly, predicting factors of performance were analyzed in young male and female kayakers and included biological maturation determinants such as age at peak height velocity (APHV), chronological age, sitting height and muscular mass [11,19]. In one of the first longitudinal studies on kayaking, McKean, and Burkett [20] determined significant increases of strength measures along three consecutive years in junior competitors over APHV. ...
... Substantial muscularity levels have been typically identified in most successful male paddlers [7,10]. Similarly, the few studies in female competitors determined superior levels of muscularity and mesomorphy in older and more successful kayakers [6,19]. Although, to date, no muscularity data has been reported in Olympic competitors, large values in some Mass (Kerr, 1988); MM K = Muscle Mass (Kerr, 1988). ...
... As for adiposity, FM S values only change significantly in female competitors between the 2nd and the 3rd year. Previous studies have determined similar adiposity levels in young female paddlers [9,19] but an increasing tendency by boys and girls in the transition to senior category [1,6,8]. When observing the sum of eight skinfolds in Olympic competitors, remarkable lower levels than those observed here have been reported [6]. ...
Article
Introduction: There are certain anthropometric attributes common to most high-level paddlers and among the determinants for optimal performance consecution in senior categories. Objective: the present investigation aimed to determine the evolution of morphological characteristics of elite paddlers during adolescence and to compare them with the values exhibited by Olympic competitors. Methods: In a longitudinal study, thirteen young elite paddlers (seven boys and six girls) completed a battery of anthropometric tests (heights, weight, girths, lengths and sum of skinfolds) and on-water performance assessments (200 and 500 meters) during three consecutive years. Results: Body mass and upper body sizes significantly change over the years (p < .05), especially in boys. Both male and female paddlers presented significant differences and large effect sizes in muscle mass and skin mass values (η²p > .64) whereas bone mass and fat mass remained stable from the 1st to the 3rd year. Proportionality analysis revealed girths and breadths differences in arm and chest variables as well as large effect sizes in biacromial breadth among all years (η²p > .62; p < .05), particularly in boys. Similarly, significant improvements in 200-m performance times were observed for both sexes. Conclusions: The findings of the current investigation might suggest a tendency towards a leaner and more robust morphological profile of elite paddlers in the transition from young to senior categories. In addition, the presence of superior relative body dimensions from young categories seems to be paramount in the evolution to later successful paddling.
... 15 Pertanto, l'importanza del miglioramento e del monitoraggio del VO 2max durante l'adolescenza è fondamentale per lo sviluppo di pagaiatori di successo. 71 La principale fonte di energia dei pagaiatori proviene dal sistema aerobico, dal momento che questi trascorrono la maggior parte del tempo di gara nell'intorno del valore di VO 2peak . 29 15,17,22,25,26,34,40,42,48,51,52,55,57,63,73 e fem-ties through the years such as treadmills, 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cycle ergometers, 39,40 arm crankers, 11,15,38,41,42 canoe 39,43,44 or kayak ergometers 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and on-water tests. ...
... 15 Therefore, the importance of VO 2max enhancement and monitoring during adolescence for the development of successful paddlers. 71 Paddlers' main source of energy comes from de aerobic system, spending the majority of their races at around VO 2peak . 29,72 Relative values of 55.2±9.3 mL/kg/min, 42.7±7.8 ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Flatwater canoeing is an Olympic sport in which two modalities are differentiated, kayak and canoe. However, the term “canoeing” is commonly used for both, which can give rise to confusion in the scientific literature despite the great differences between modalities. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was to conduct a systematic search of the scientific literature concerning canoeing and kayaking individually to highlight the main determinants of performance of male and female flatwater paddlers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A thorough search up to June 2020 has been conducted in Scopus, Sport Discus and Web of Sciences databases for published literature on male and female flatwater canoeing and kayaking. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Male high-level kayakers and canoeists share similar mesomorph structures, with low fat percentages and strong muscled bodies, reporting high values of lean body mass, with kayakers slightly taller than canoeists. In addition, it has also been reported great levels of aerobic and anaerobic capacity together with a distinguished upper-body strength and muscle thickness, especially in arms and shoulders. Female kayakers follow the same trend with lower values than males. CONCLUSIONS: Canoeing and kayaking successful performance depends on a combination of anthropometric, physiological, biomechanical, neuromuscular, psychological and nutritional factors which differ among specialized kayak and canoe paddlers due their different paddling motor pattern. Hence, the importance of taking into account the specific characteristics and demands of each modality in terms of physical preparation and talent detection of female and male canoeists and kayakers.
... The discrepancy between the functional capacity of the body's organs and systems and the requirements of competitive activities can be compensated for by a high level of development of the physiological properties of these organs and systems. On this basis, a complex of generalized physiological properties is distinguished, which determines the degree and nature of realization of potential opportunities in competitive activities [20][21][22][23]. One of these approaches is focused on the characteristics of metabolism, where the power, capacity and efficiency of metabolic processes are assessed. ...
... A long jump, medicine ball throw, countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, and agility (9-3-6-3-9) test were performed in the specified order. The selected order and test assessment was performed according to previously described protocols [21,24,[31][32][33][34]. The players performed two attempts of each test, with a rest between attempts of two minutes. ...
Article
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Background: Differences in kinanthropometric and physical fitness performance between boys and girls usually start during adolescence, as a result of the changes in the hormonal environment that occur with the advance of age and biological maturation; Methods: A total of 96 1st Regional Division players adolescent volleyball players, 48 males, (age = 14.17 ± 1.00 years-old) and 48 females (age = 14.41 ± 1.21 years-old) underwent a kinanthropometric assessment, were asked to perform different physical fitness test and to complete a questionnaire. Chronological age, maturity offset, age at peak height velocity (APHV), and birth quartile were calculated; Results: Statistical differences were observed between male and female players in the APHV (p < 0.001). Male players showed higher values in the bone and muscle-related variables (p < 0.001-0.040), as well as in the strength and power production-related physical tests (p < 0.001-0.012), while the female showed higher values in the fat-related variables (p = 0.003-0.013), and performed better in the flexibility tests. Age, maturity offset, and birth quartile showed to have statistical influence in the differences found between sex groups; Conclusions: There is a clear influence of age and biological maturation on the differences found between sexes in adolescent volleyball players that could be taken into account regarding grouping in early stages.
... One of the reasons for including dry-land exercises is the inability of kayakers to perform their outdoor on-water training sessions during undesirable weather conditions (i.e., low temperatures, rain, etc.). To determine strength of kayakers, basic tests such as the overhead medicine ball throw (López-Plaza et al., 2018), one-repetition maximum (1RM) tests of compound movements including bench press and prone bench pull exercises (McGuigan et al., 2013;Burkett, 2010, 2014;Ualí et al., 2012), isokinetic tests of elbow flexors (Clarkson et al., 1982), shoulder extension (Tesch, 1983), isometric tests including the hand grip (Hamano et al., 2015), and the bilateral prone bench pull and one arm cable row (Ualí et al., 2012) are used. Several attempts to develop more specific tests consisted of using simulation of the kayak stroke (i.e., to exert a pulling force in the horizontal direction involving trunk rotation, shoulder extension, and elbow flexion in one motion) with an isokinetic device (Van Someren and Howatson, 2008) and tasks under isometric conditions (Steeves et al., 2018). ...
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The assessment of the force-velocity (F-V) profile in athletes may have important applications for training prescription, injury management, and fatigue monitoring. This study aimed to assess whether a novel single kayak stroke test (SKST) is able to provide the F-V relationship variables (maximum force, maximum velocity and maximum power) of competitive kayakers with acceptable reliability and external validity. Six female (age: 20.3 ± 3.7 years) and eight male (age: 20.8 ± 2.4 years) elite kayakers performed the SKST, bench press, bench pull, and short Wingate kayak test. The individual F-V relationships were highly linear [median r (range): left stroke = 0.986 (0.897-0.998); right stroke = 0.987 (0.971-0.999)]. The reliability of the F-V relationship parameters obtained during the SKST was high (within-session: CV ≤ 4.48% and ICC ≥ 0.93; between-session: CV ≤ 8.06% and ICC ≥ 0.65). The validity of the F-V relationship parameters obtained during the SKST was generally very high for maximum power (r range = 0.825-0.975), high for maximum force during both the bench press and the bench pull (r range = 0.751-0.831), and high or moderate for maximal velocity during the bench pull (r = 0.770-0.829) and the bench press (r = 0.355-0.471), respectively. The SKST can be considered a feasible procedure for testing the maximal upper-body muscle mechanical capacities of kayakers.
... Indonesian rowing athletes, both men, have a height below 175 cm, even female athletes have an average height of less than 170 cm. The height that is not ideal will greatly affect the performance of national kayaking athletes who have not been maximal at the Sea Games, Asian Games, and even the Olympic level (Akca & Muniroglu, 2008;Hamacher et al., 2018;López-Plaza et al., 2019;McKean & Burkett, 2014;Pickett et al., 2018). ...
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The aim of the study. To better understanding of the indicators of functional support for special endurance and physiological demands in canoeists at a distance of 1000 m. Material and methods: 20 athletes (19-23 years) in canoeing from Shandong and Jiangxi provinces. Results. According to the results of the analysis, the following typological groups of athletes-canoeists, specializing in the distance of 1000 m, with pronounced differences in the implementation of anaerobic energy supply. Typological groups of athletes had no significant differences in aerobic energy capacity (p > 0.05). The first typological group (La max 90s 16.64 mmol·l-1, p
Article
The aim of the study. The overall goal of this manuscript was to gain a better understanding of differences in the level of functional support for special endurance for paddlers of uniform groups (in terms of sports qualification): men kayakers, men canoeists, and women kayakers who specialize in a distance of 200 m. Material and methods. 20 qualified paddlers’ level of functionality is being assessed, among them are a group of elite athletes, the members of the Chinese national team and winners of the 2018 Asian Games. Results. The important feature of the analysis is the evaluation of the structure of the ergonomic power of a 30-second maximum load. Estimating the average value of the ergometric power of work for 25-30 seconds of operation in accordance with the average power of the entire 30-second load made it possible to determine the ratio of the anaerobic alactic and lactic abilities of the athletes, taking into account the requirements of a 200-meter race for canoe and kayak paddlers. A significant range of individual differences in the indices of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system, which are determined by the ratio of the partial pressure of СО2 and the maximum level of pulmonary ventilation (VE/PaCO2) during the10 and 30 second test task, attracts attention. The range of VE/PaCO2 indicators was: the relation of partial pressure СО2 to pulmonary ventilation in the 10 s test – 2.3 ± 0.8 for men kayakers; 2.3 ± 0.7 for men canoeists; 2.2 ± 0.5 for women kayakers; the relation of partial pressure СО2 to pulmonary ventilation in the 30 s test – 3.9 ± 1.0 for men kayakers; 3.8 ± 1.1 for men canoeists; 3.6 ± 0.7 for women kayakers. Conclusion. The results of the study indicate differences in the level of functional support for special endurance for paddlers of uniform groups (in terms of sports qualification): kayakers and canoeists who specialize in a distance of 200 m.
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Purpose: To test whether the force-velocity (F-V) relationship obtained during a specific single-stroke kayak test (SSKT) and during nonspecific traditional resistance-training exercises (bench press and prone bench pull) could discriminate between 200-m specialists and longer-distance (500- and 1000-m) specialists in canoe sprint. Methods: A total of 21 experienced male kayakers (seven 200-m specialists and 14 longer-distance specialists) participated in this study. After a familiarization session, kayakers came to the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by 48 to 96 hours. In a randomized order, kayakers performed the SSKT in one session and the bench press and bench pull tests in another session. Force and velocity outputs were recorded against 5 loads in each exercise to determine the F-V relationship and related parameters (maximum force, maximum velocity, F-V slope, and maximum power). Results: The individual F-V relationships were highly linear for the SSKT (r = .990 [.908, .998]), bench press (r = .993 [.974, .999]), and prone bench pull (r = .998 [.992, 1.000]). The F-V relationship parameters (maximum force, maximum velocity, and maximum power) were significantly higher for 200-m specialists compared with longer-distance specialists (all Ps ≤ .047) with large effect sizes (≥0.94) revealing important practical differences. However, no significant differences were observed between 200-m specialists and longer-distance specialists in the F-V slope (P ≥ .477). Conclusions: The F-V relationship assessed during both specific (SSKT) and nonspecific upper-body tasks (bench press and bench pull) may distinguish between kayakers specialized in different distances.
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Statistical guidelines and expert statements are now available to assist in the analysis and reporting of studies in some biomedical disciplines. We present here a more progressive resource for sample-based studies, meta-analyses, and case studies in sports medicine and exercise science. We offer forthright advice on the following controversial or novel issues: using precision of estimation for inferences about population effects in preference to null-hypothesis testing, which is inadequate for assessing clinical or practical importance; justifying sample size via acceptable precision or confidence for clinical decisions rather than via adequate power for statistical significance; showing SD rather than SEM, to better communicate the magnitude of differences in means and nonuniformity of error; avoiding purely nonparametric analyses, which cannot provide inferences about magnitude and are unnecessary; using regression statistics in validity studies, in preference to the impractical and biased limits of agreement; making greater use of qualitative methods to enrich sample-based quantitative projects; and seeking ethics approval for public access to the depersonalized raw data of a study, to address the need for more scrutiny of research and better meta-analyses. Advice on less contentious issues includes the following: using covariates in linear models to adjust for confounders, to account for individual differences, and to identify potential mechanisms of an effect; using log transformation to deal with nonuniformity of effects and error; identifying and deleting outliers; presenting descriptive, effect, and inferential statistics in appropriate formats; and contending with bias arising from problems with sampling, assignment, blinding, measurement error, and researchers' prejudices. This article should advance the field by stimulating debate, promoting innovative approaches, and serving as a useful checklist for authors, reviewers, and editors.
Article
A 12 week kayak training programme was evaluated in children who either had or did not have the anthropometric characteristics identified as being unique to senior elite sprint kayakers. Altogether, 234 male and female school children were screened to select 10 children with and 10 children without the identified key anthropometric characteristics. Before and after training, the children completed an all-out 2 min kayak ergometer simulation test; measures of oxygen consumption, plasma lactate and total work accomplished were recorded. In addition, a 500 m time trial was performed at weeks 3 and 12. The coaches were unaware which 20 children possessed those anthropometric characteristics deemed to favour development of kayak ability. All children improved in both the 2 min ergometer simulation test and 500 m time trial. However, boys who were selected according to favourable anthropometric characteristics showed greater improvement than those without such characteristics in the 2 min ergometer test only. In summary, in a small group of children selected according to anthropometric data unique to elite adult kayakers, 12 weeks of intensive kayak training did not influence the rate of improvement of on-water sprint kayak performance.
Article
Canoe and kayak paddlers (n = 50 M & 20 F) who competed in the sprint events at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured on a battery of 38 anthropometry dimensions prior to competition. The ensuing analysis aimed to identify common physical characteristics that provide these elite paddlers with a competitive advantage. This study demonstrated that participants in Olympic sprint paddling events can be considered homogeneous in shape and physical size; male and female paddlers have SAMs of 1.1 and 1.0 respectively. Compared to other athlete groups, the variance in stature and body mass of paddlers is generally low. Whilst sprint paddlers are not athletes with extreme proportionality profiles, they do possess unique characteristics not commonly observed in the general population. These include a lean body composition (Phantom z-scores for skinfolds range from -1.5 to -2.5 for most sites) with proportionally large upper body girths (z-scores > +1.0 for arm and chest girths), and narrow hips (for males). The morphology of elite paddlers appears to have altered during the past 25 years toward a more compact, robust physique. This trend is especially noticeable for the female competitors.
Article
The physical characteristics and performances of female collegiate rowers were examined from two perspectives: level (novice, varsity) and years of participation (0, 1, 2, 3) in collegiate rowing. The participants were 90 female collegiate rowers from three US Division I university teams, of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Height, body mass, sitting height, arm span, skinfolds, limb circumferences, and skeletal breadths were measured. Leg length was estimated and Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotypes were calculated. Performance measures included lower-back flexibility, vertical jump, and 2-km time on a rowing ergometer. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the total sample and by level and years of experience. Multivariate analysis of variance and a Bonferroni-adjusted alpha level (P < 0.05) were used to test differences. Varsity rowers had significantly more rowing experience ( approximately 0.5 years) before college, higher vertical jumps ( approximately 3 cm), faster 2-km times ( approximately 25 s), and lower endomorphic characteristics than novice rowers. Anthropometric and performance differences among rowers by years of experience were negligible with the exception of slower 2-km times ( approximately 32 s) in rowers with no collegiate experience than rowers with collegiate experience. In conclusion, collegiate rowers differ to some extent in physical and performance characteristics by level and experience.
Assessment of lean body mass and bone mass in specific sites 14 in elite kayak paddlers
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Physiological predictors of flat-water kayak performance in women
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