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Medicina Tradicional y Herbolaria Zoque

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The Zoque people inhabit a remarkably biodiverse area of southern Mexico and descend from the Olmecs, Mesoamerica's first civilization. Acculturation is increasingly eroding traditional knowledge and traditional medicine faces complex challenges under rapidly changing sociocultural conditions. The main purpose of this book is to return the results of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research to the local communities in order to encourage a conscious debate within the indigenous communities about the merits of cultural heritage, biocultural diversity and a unique medical tradition adapted to local needs and conditions. Key ethnomedical concepts, diverse health conditions and 116 herbal remedies are presented in an understandable manner. Traditional knowledge, based on interviews with over 100 traditional healers, is combined with bioscientific data in an attempt to maintain and augment the validity and importance of a millennia-old tradition in the 21st century.
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... In addition to these records, a research project including a screening of the ethnofloristic richness in Oaxaca However, relatively few taxa have been reported with a traditional use in scientific literature, mainly in the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz. In the case of Piper, ethnobotanical studies reported only six species: Piper auritum Kunth (Aguilar, Chino, Jaquez, & Lopez, 1994;Andrade-Cetto & Heinrich, 2005;Browner, 1985; Estrada-Reyes, Mart ınez-Laurrabaquio, Ubaldo-Sua´rez, & Araujo-Escalona, 2013;Frei, Baltisberger, Sticher, & Heinrich, 1998;Garci a, Leyva, Marti nez & Stashenko, 2007;Geck, 2018;Geck, Reyes-Garc ıa, Casu, & Leonti, 2016;Joly, 1981;Marti nez, 1969;Pic o & Nuez, 2000;Salinas-Espinoza, Va´squez-Da´vila, Romero-Santilla´n, Manzanero-Medina, 2017;Schultes & Hofmann, 2000); Piper umbellatum L. (Giovannini & Heinrich, 2009;Roersch, 2010); Piper sanctum (Miq.) Schltdl. ...
... (Pic o & Nuez, 2000); Piper amalago L.; and Piper unguiculatum Ruiz & Pav. (Frei et al., 1998;Geck, 2018;Geck et al., 2016). ...
... Some efforts have been done to propagate it ex situ, but "it does not like a different environment" (Rangel-Landa, Casas, Rivera-Lozoya, Torres-Garci a, & Vallejo-Ramos, 2016; Rangel-Landa, Casas, Garci a-Frapolli, & Lira, 2017). This human management, such as transplanting in 14 Tropical Conservation Science homegardens, is also reported for P. auritum (Browner, 1985;Blancas et al., 2013;Rangel-Landa et al., 2016), P. sanctum (Solis-Rojas, 2006), and P. unguiculatum (Geck, 2018). This variable information about different forms of management, and use intensity, stresses the need to develop studies focused on the evaluation of ecological parameters of wild populations of many of these species (density, microhabitat distribution), as well as to evaluate the effects of extraction from wild and to analyze the socioeconomic context of the localities where it occurs. ...
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The ethnobotanical importance of the family Piperaceae is recognized mainly for its medicinal properties. A total of 106 species of two genera of this family (Piper and Peperomia) have been collected in Oaxaca, but only 18 are recorded in scientific publications as medicinal, edible, veterinary, or ritual plants. The objectives of this study are to describe the traditional knowledge and uses of the Piperaceae in areas of high biocultural diversity of Oaxaca and to analyze the relationship between its geographic distribution with ethnobotanical records among ethnic groups. Fieldwork was carried out between 2013 and 2016, and voucher specimens were reviewed in Mexican herbaria. Two multivariate analyses were applied to compare the geographic distribution of Piperaceae with ethnobotanical knowledge in Oaxaca. A total of 13 species of Peperomia, and 7 of Piper were collected, besides some unidentified species of both genera. Seven use categories were registered, with medicinal and edible being the most important. A high percentage (65%) of the species is named in at least one native language. Most species have a single use, mainly medicinal. Peperomia has been collected in Oaxaca since 1980, while Piper since 1960. Multivariate analysis indicated the existence of a differentiated ethnobotanical knowledge of this family among ethnic groups, related to the geographic distribution of species. This study evidences that ethnic groups, who maintain areas of higher biodiversity, obtain these species mainly from the wild, from specific microenvironments; hence, conservation practices must be reinforced for them, as for all ecosystems in general.
... En cuanto a sus usos tradicionales, Frei et al. (1998) y Leonti (2018) describieron que, en la Sierra de Oaxaca, la corteza y la savia son usadas para el tratamiento de enfermedades dermatológicas, así como otras relacionadas con el sistema musculoesquelético. Sin embargo, extractos etanólicos de este árbol colectados en Costa Rica fueron probados frente a diversas especies de hongos que afectan la piel y mucosas, sin mostrar actividad antifúngica (Svetaz et al. 2010). ...
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Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz, (jonote), tiene uso terapéutico en el sureste mexicano, no se cuenta con información científica de sus actividades biológicas específicas. El objetivo del trabajo fue, determinar la actividad antioxidante, antimicrobiana y la toxicidad en Artemia franciscana, de tres extractos (metanólico, cloruro de metileno y hexánico), de hojas de esta planta. Los resultados indicaron que el extracto metanólico, presentó la mayor actividad antioxidante (1251 ±44 µM de TEAC para ABTS y 565 ±51 µM de TEAC para DPPH). Al evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana, sólo el extracto de cloruro de metileno mostró actividad (p <0.05). La evaluación de la toxicidad, mostró que, el extracto de cloruro de metileno tiene la mayor actividad tóxica, con una concentración mínima tóxica de 1 ppm (p<0.05), aunque la viabilidad desciende sólo hasta un promedio de 70 % en la concentración de 100 ppm.
... En cuanto a sus usos tradicionales, Frei et al. (1998) y Leonti (2018) describieron que, en la Sierra de Oaxaca, la corteza y la savia son usadas para el tratamiento de enfermedades dermatológicas, así como otras relacionadas con el sistema musculoesquelético. Sin embargo, extractos etanólicos de este árbol colectados en Costa Rica fueron probados frente a diversas especies de hongos que afectan la piel y mucosas, sin mostrar actividad antifúngica (Svetaz et al. 2010). ...
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Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz (jonote) is used in traditional medicine in central, southern and southeastern Mexico; howe�ver, scientific information on their specific biological activities is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxi�dant, antimicrobial and toxicity activity of organic extracts of different polarity, obtained from the leaves of this plant. The methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (1251 ± 44 µM TEAC for ABTS and 565 ± 51 µM TEAC for DPPH) and the highest total phenolic content (48.3 mgEAg/ge). The extract obtained with methylene chloride showed antimicrobial activity on E. coli (p<0.05). This same extract showed the highest toxic activity in Artemia franciscana, which decreased viability up to 70% and presented a minimum toxic concentration of 1 ppm (p<0.05).
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Background Oaxaca is one of the most diverse states in Mexico from biological and cultural points of view. Different ethnic groups living there maintain deep and ancestral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants as well as traditional practices and beliefs about diseases/illnesses and cures. Previous ethnobotanical research in this state has helped document this knowledge, but with the addition of more studies, more records appear. We updated the inventory of medicinal knowledge between the different ethnic groups that inhabit the Oaxacan territory. Methods A database was constructed from two sources: (1) original data from a 3-year project in 84 municipalities of Oaxaca inhabited by eight ethnic groups and (2) different electronic databases. Results Records of 1032 medicinal plants were obtained; 164 families were registered, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rubiaceae being the most commonly used. A total of 770 species were reported in 14 vegetation types; the most important species came from temperate forests. Only 144 species corresponded to introduced species, and 272 were listed in a risk category. Illnesses of the digestive and genitourinary systems as well as culture-bound syndromes were treated with high numbers of medicinal plants. The Mestizo, Mixe, Mixtec, and Zapotec ethnic groups exhibited the greatest number of recorded medicinal plants. The 17 species that were used among almost all ethnic groups in Oaxaca were also used to cure the highest number of diseases. Discussion Inventories of medicinal plants confirm the persistence of traditional knowledge and reflect the need to recognize and respect this cosmovision. Many species are gathered in wild environments. The most important illnesses or diseases recorded in the present inventory are also mentioned in different studies, suggesting that they are common health problems in the rural communities of Mexico. Conclusions Medicinal plants are essential for ethnic groups in Oaxaca. It is necessary to recognize and understand the complex ancestral processes involved in the human-nature interaction and the role of these processes in the conservation of biodiversity and in the survivorship of ethnic groups that have persisted for centuries. Finally, this study serves as a wake-up call to respect those worldviews.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5,500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Materials and methods: A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. Results: A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. Conclusion: At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of snakebites, such as pain or anxiety, although more studies are needed to further evaluate the scientific basis for their use.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Organoleptic properties, and more specifically chemosensory cues, have been shown to guide therapeutic applications of medicinal plants. Humoral qualities, on the other hand, are widely believed to be an abstract concept, mainly applied post hoc to validate therapy. However, the nexus between humoral qualities, chemosensory properties, and medicinal plant uses has never been systematically assessed. Aim of the study: To systematically analyse the correlations between chemosensory properties, humoral qualities, and medicinal uses of selected botanical drugs. Methods: The issue was approached experimentally via an organoleptic testing panel, consisting of Zoque healers in Chiapas, Mexico. The healers smelled and tasted 71 selected herbal drugs and subsequently commented on their humoral qualities and therapeutic uses. The resulting dataset is analysed for correlations between these variables using Bayesian statistics. Qualitative data on the characteristics and role of the hot-cold dichotomy complement the quantitative analysis, facilitating meaningful interpretation. Results and discussion: The results reproduce and extend the findings of previous studies, which established specific correlations between chemosensory cues and nosological units. The key predictors of drugs’ therapeutic uses, however, are their humoral qualities, which are themselves conditioned by taste and smell. These findings appear to be valid for drug samples known to the participants as well as for unfamiliar samples. Thus, this study establishes the role of the hot-cold dichotomy as an important cultural filter connecting organoleptic properties and therapeutic uses of herbal drugs. Conclusions: There is considerable cross-cultural consensus in Mesoamerica for the specific correlations described in this study. Given the continued pervasiveness of the hot-cold dichotomy, humoral qualities and the underlying organoleptic properties ought to be increasingly considered in the design of pharmaceutical products as well as public health strategies. Such culturally appropriate adjustments may considerably improve the perceived quality and effectiveness of healthcare.