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Anti-Inflammatory Activity of The Extract of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L) in The Rat (Rattus norvegicus L)

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Abstract

Using of natural sources that have anti-inflammatory activity for the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases began to be further explored. An investigation on the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) from Sawangan, Depok on white male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain had been carried out on the carrageenan-induced paw edema method. To examine the effect of guava extract on subcutan at different doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight (BW). Indometacine at dose of 10 mg/kg BW was used as a positive control. Observations were made during five hours with an interval of one hour. These results demonstrate that the percentage of inflammation or edema (% E) optimal at the 4th hour and then decreased at the 5th hour, while the percentage of optimal inhibition occurred at the 5th hour. Guava extract at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg BW reduced inhibitory percentage activities by 40.81, 55.45 and 43.61% (p< 0.05) respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that guava extract has anti-inflammatory properties by decreasing edema level. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, guava leaves, edema.

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... The aqueous extract of guava leaves at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg had antiinflammatory activity and decreased edema in rats, with percentage inhibition of 40.81%, 55.45%, and 43.61%, respectively. (9) The Freund's adjuvant model was chosen in this study, as it develops chronic swelling in multiple joints, with influence of inflammatory cells with erosion of joint cartilage and bone destruction. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis is a well established rat model and has been widely used for many years for evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic potential of various agents. ...
... In a previous study, aqueous extract of P.guajava leaves at a dose of 250 mg/ml had anti-inflammatory activity in male albino rats with arthritis induced by carrageenan. (9) From the results observed in the current investigation, it may be concluded that P. guajava leaves have a potentially in vivo antiarthritic activity, and warrants more in-depth investigations on the mechanism of action of its anti-arthritic activity. In practice, it can be developed as an alternative anti-arthritis drug. ...
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BACKGROUND Guava is an herbal with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the ethanol extract of Psidium gujava leaves (EEPG) against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. METHODS An experimental study was conducted on 40 male Wistar Sprague Dawley rats, which were divided into 5 groups. Each group was induced with 0.2 mL CFA (1 mg/mL) on day 1 and 0.1 CFA mL booster injection on day 5. Group I served as an arthritic control, group II received dexamethasone (6.75 mg.kg-1 orally), group III, IV and V received EEPG at oral doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg BW, respectively, on days 14 to 28. Anti-arthritic activity was observed from the arthritis score, the paw circumference was measured on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28, the mobility score was determined on days 12 and 28, and the histolopathology of the knee joint was examined on day 29. RESULTS Ethanol extract of Psidium guajava leaves significantly suppressed the swelling of the paws in chronic phase based on increasing of edema (%), while starting on day 20. EEPG at 250 mg/kg was most effective in significantly reducing arthritis scores (p<0.05). Histopathological examination showed repair of the knee joint synovial membrane and cartilage. CONCLUSIONS Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.
... Another research group reported leaves extract decreased inhibitory activity by 40.81 %, 55.45 % and 43.61 % respectively at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in carrageenan induced rat paw edema. According to this report, leaf extract has anti-inflammatory properties by reducing edema (62). ...
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Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), also known as guava, is a medicinal tree native to tropical America that has been introduced and is widely available in many countries. Almost all plant parts of P. guajava have a long history of being used to treat a variety of ailments, in addition to applications as foods. Guava leaves are used as both medicine and food purposes, and there are numerous scientific reports on their medicinal uses, chemical composition and pharmacological properties. Cancer, blood pressure, diarrhea, bowel irregularities, diabetes, cough, cold, constipation, dysentery, scurvy, weight loss, improves skins tonicity are some of the diseases treated with guava leaves. Polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, flavones, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, phlobatanins, steroids and other classes of bioactive compounds have been identified from the leaves. The primary chemical constituents of guava leaves are phenolic compounds, iso-flavonoids, gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, epicathechin, rutin, naringenin, kaempferol, caryophyllene oxide, p-selinene etc. Several studies have demonstrated its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antitumor, anticancer, antidiarrheal, healing, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial/ anti-plasmodial, dental plaque, antiglycative and many more. This review is aimed on compiling all the literature reported on pharmacological activities and phytochemical compositions of guava leaves as a support to the scientific community for further studies and to provide scientific data to validate its traditional uses.
... guajava L.) on white male rats through carrageenan-induced paw edema method have shown that the percentage of inflammation or edema (% E) is optimal at the 4th hour. Guava extract at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW (body weight) reduced inhibitory percentage activities by 40.81, 55.45, and 43.61% ( p < 0.05), respectively, suggesting that guava extract acts as anti-inflammatory properties by decreasing edema level [77]. ...
... guajava L.) on white male rats through carrageenan-induced paw edema method have shown that the percentage of inflammation or edema (% E) is optimal at the 4th hour. Guava extract at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW (body weight) reduced inhibitory percentage activities by 40.81, 55.45, and 43.61% ( p < 0.05), respectively, suggesting that guava extract acts as anti-inflammatory properties by decreasing edema level [77]. ...
... Animals and human studies suggested that P. guava leaf, root, fruit or branches may be used to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia [2], [8], [14], [26], [33], [35], [37]. Anti-inflammatory effects of P. guava have also been described [6], [9], [39], [41]. Another study also suggested that P. guava may have strong anti-oxidant properties [30], [40]. ...
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Hypertension is elevation of systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg. It affects 1 billion people and accounts for approximately 7.1 million deaths annually. It is significant risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Some medicinal plants are traditionally used to treat hypertension. Psidium guava is one of widely cultivated medicinal plant used as traditional medication for diabetes, vomiting, diarrhea and dyslipidemia. The study was designed to identify effect of P. guava leaf extract on hypertension in guinea pigs. The study was conducted on six male guinea pigs to measure the effect of ethanol P. guava leaf extract by using invasive method. The result was analyzed by using paired t-test, independent student t test, one –way ANOVA. Ethanol extract of P. guava leaf showed a significant (p= 0.001) ability to relax isolated aortic tissue of guinea pigs in dose dependent manner, after induction of aortic muscle contraction by high potassium chloride concentrations (80 mM KCl). The effects of P. guava leaf extract in relaxation contracted aortic tissue was may be due to numerous effect of phytochemicals.
... Ojewole 5 suggested that the aqueous extract of guava leaves with a dose range of 50-800 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally had analgesic and antiinflammatory activity in rats induced egg albumin. The aquoeus extract of guava leaves (Psidium guajava) at a dose of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg had antiinflammatory activity and a decrease in rats with percentage inhibition of edema was 40.81 % , 55.45 % and 43.61 %, respectively 6 . The previous study was carried out to evalutae the effect of P. guajava leaves extract in alergy disease. ...
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Psidium guajava is a plant that grows widely in some areas of Indonesia which have been proven as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava (EEPG) leaves on active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by ovalbumin. This study used wistar male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=5). Each group was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and Al(OH) on the days of 0 and 7, and finally were challenged by ovalbumin on the day of 14 to induce active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cromolyn sodium was used as standard drug. EEPG with dose of 250mg/kgBW, 500mg/kgBW, and 750mg/kgBW were given orally at day 14. In order to determine the mast cells on the inflammation tissues, the specimens were stained with Toluidine blue. The results showed that EEPG leaves at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg BW could inhibit the pigmentation area of vascular permeability on rats skin, signicantly with controll group (p<0,05), but still lower than cromolyn sodium. Histopathologically, EEPG leaves had inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation process. It indicated that the EEPG leaves had inhibitory effect on active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
... Guava has been known for its anti-inflammatory action. [25,43] The anti-inflammatory action of guava is in its ability to inhibit prostaglandin, kinin and histamine. [44] Aa is an important periodontal pathogen and is associated with aggressive periodontitis. ...
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Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review.
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The present study was designated to evaluate the antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol:water extracts from leaves, roots and stem bark of Psidium guajava L. The antibacterial activities of the extracts against bacteria were tested by using both microdilution assay. The aqueous extracts of P. guajava leaves, roots and stem bark were active against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MICs=500, 125 and 250 µg/ml, respectively) and Bacillus subtilis (MICs=500 µg/ml), and virtually inactive against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs >1000 µg/ml). The ethanol:water extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Based on this finding, the ethanol:water extract of P. guajava leaves was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording flavonoid mixture, triterpenes (a- and b-amyrin) and sterol (b-sitosterol). Flavonoid mixture showed good activity on S. aureus with MIC of 25 µg/ml. b-sitosterol was inactive for all the bacteria tested.
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Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection. Methanolic extracts of R. graveolens with a concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w. and ethanolic extract with a concentration of 50 mg/kg b.w. showed maximum (90.9%) inhibition on carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The effect was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than that of the standard drug Voveran (72.72%). Methanol extract with a concentration of 50 mg/kg b.w. produced 81.81% inhibition, which was also high as compared to the standard drug. Ethanolic extract with a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w and the two doses of aqueous extract produce less percentage of inhibition as compared to the standard drug voveran.
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Dried ground leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) were extracted by water and aqueous ethyl alcohol 50% (1:10) ratio, and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically according to Folin- Ciocalteu's phenol method and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Remarkably high total phenolic content 575.3 +/-15.5 and 511.6+/-6.2 mg of GAE/g of dried weight material (for ethanol guava leaf extracts and water guava leaf extracts, respectively) were obtained. The antioxidant activity of lyophilized extracts was determined at ambient temperature by means of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryzyl (DPPH*) colorimetry with detection scheme at 515 nm. The activity was evaluated by the decrease in absorbance as the result of DPPH* color change from purple to yellow. The higher the sample concentration used, the stronger was the free radical-scavenging effect. The results obtained showed that ascorbic acid was a substantially more powerful antioxidant than the extracts from guava leaf. On the other hand, the commercial guava leaf extracts and ethanol guava leaf extracts showed almost the same antioxidant power whereas water guava leaf extracts showed lower antioxidant activity. The parameter EC(50) and the time needed to reach the steady state to EC(50) concentration (T(EC(50))) affected the antiradical capacity of the sample. The antioxidant efficiency (AE) has been shown to be a more adequate parameter for selecting antioxidants than the widely used EC(50). This study revealed that guava leaf extracts comprise effective potential source of natural antioxidants.
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Objective: To investigate the antiinflammatory principles of the total alcoholic extract (TAE) and total aqueous extract (TAQ) of the seeds of Carum copticum. Linn. (Umbelliferae). Methods: Antiinflammatory potential was evaluated using acute rat model (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) and a sub acute rat model (cotton pellet induced granuloma). Aspirin (ASA) (150 mg/ kg) and antiinflammatory drug phenyl butazone(PBZ) (150 mg/kg) were used as standard positive controls. Results: TAE and TAQ in 100 mg/kg doses exhibited significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory activity in both the animal models. In carragenan induced rat paw oedema, ASA and PBZ showed an inhibition of 45.23% and 43.83% respectively, while TAE and TAQ extracts showed an inhibition of 38.32% and 41.11%. In cotton pellet induced granuloma studies also TAE and TAQ produced 38.05% and 43.87% inhibition of the pellets weight respectively whereas ASA and PBS produced 44.69% and 42.04% inhibition. The weights of the adrenal glands were found to be significantly increased in TAE and TAQ treated animals (25.53% and 32.2%) where as ASA and PBS showed an increase of 18.86% and 10.00% respectively.
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The antioxidant activities of ten natural p-terphenyl derivatives, 1-10, obtained from the fruiting bodies of three edible mushrooms (Thelephora ganbajun, Thelephora aurantiotincta, Boletopsis grisea) indigenous to China were evaluated in comparison with BHA ('butylated hydroxyanisole'=(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methoxyphenol) and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH ('1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl'=2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl) radical-scavenging method. The compounds 1-3 showed significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-10 and reference compounds followed the order: 2>BHA>1>3>alpha-tocopherol>10>9>6 > 5>8>7>4. The compound 2 exhibited the strongest radical-scavenging activity with an EC(50) value of 0.07 (EC(50)(BHA) 0.09; EC(50)(alpha-tocopherol) 0.25).
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Many plant polysaccharides exhibit hypoglycaemic effect. Though the fruit of Psidium guajava is known to contain free sugars, the fruit extract showed hypoglycaemic effect in alloxan treated mice and human subjects. The present study was aimed to determine the glycaemic potential of P. guajava fruit peel extract on blood glucose level (BGL) of normal and streptozotocininduced sub-diabetic rats during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT). Female albino Wistar rats (n=42) were divided into seven equal groups, and were given different doses of fruit peel extract. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (ip) at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight. Blood glucose levels were measured after collecting the blood from tail veins. The diabetic and sub-diabetic models showed hyperglycaemic effect from a single oral administration of variable doses of P. guajava fruit peel extract. The maximum rise of 26.51 per cent was observed in BGL from a dose of 400 mg/kg bw exactly after 8 h of administration in normal rats whereas the maximum rise of 90.7 per cent was observed with the same dose of 400 mg/kg bw after 2 h of glucose administration in sub-diabetic rats. The hyperglycaemic effect of P. guajava fruit peel suggests that the diabetic patients should peel off the guava fruits before consuming. However, it can also be useful in controlling hypoglycaemia occasionally caused due to excess of insulin and other hypoglycaemic drugs.