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The Effect of an Emotional Intelligence Intervention on Reducing Stress and Improving Communication Skills of Nursing Students

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Abstract

Intensive care units are one of the most anxious environments for its employees, especially for doctors, nurses and nursing students. The current study was designed to test the efficacy of an emotional intelligence intervention on reducing stress and improving communication skills of nursing students. Nursing student volunteers from an introductory psychology class at a moderate western Chinese university participated for class credit (n=85). We randomly assigned the nursing students to an emotional intelligence group and a control group. The sample completed measures of perceived stress and communication skills at baseline and end of study. As expected, perceived stress decreased in the emotional intelligence group, but not in the control group, due to the intervention. Also, communication skills increased in emotional intelligence group but remained unchanged in the control group. Findings suggest that an emotional intelligence intervention can protect nursing students from an increase in perceived stress and a decrease in communication skills in the intensive care units.

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... However, evidence of links between EI skills, academic performance and a successful occupational future has brought some academic institutions to include emotional intelligence learning opportunities in their curricula (Boyatzis, 2009). Exploration of such efforts revealed that EI programs enhanced students' EI (Fletcher et al., 2009;Kozlowski, Hutchinson, Hurley & Browne, 2018), increased their learning effectiveness and academic achievements (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013), improved their communication skills (Meng & Qi, 2018) and reduced bullying (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013) and stress levels (Meng & Qi, 2018), the latter noted to be one of the factors underlying incivility. ...
... However, evidence of links between EI skills, academic performance and a successful occupational future has brought some academic institutions to include emotional intelligence learning opportunities in their curricula (Boyatzis, 2009). Exploration of such efforts revealed that EI programs enhanced students' EI (Fletcher et al., 2009;Kozlowski, Hutchinson, Hurley & Browne, 2018), increased their learning effectiveness and academic achievements (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013), improved their communication skills (Meng & Qi, 2018) and reduced bullying (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013) and stress levels (Meng & Qi, 2018), the latter noted to be one of the factors underlying incivility. ...
... Similarly, studies of EI training programs administered to nursing school students indicated a significant increase in EI scores in the training group (Kozlowski et al., 2018). In other findings, such programs were found to enhance communications and to reduce stress (Meng & Qi, 2018). ...
Chapter
Emotional intelligence, discussed at length in part two of this book, has been defined as a set of personal, emotional and social skills that help individuals deal with the demands and challenges of everyday life (Bar-On, 2006). High EI was found to contribute to pro social behaviors and to positive social interactions, while low EI was linked to at-risk and aggressive behaviors. In a similar vein, negative links between EI and stress suggest that EI may moderate and mediate the relationships between stress and aggressive behaviors. Academic incivility is one form of aggressive behaviors that has been noted to be negatively associated with social-emotional skills such as empathy, self-regulation and stress-tolerance. In this chapter we propose several EI-based remedies to academic incivility.
... However, evidence of links between EI skills, academic performance and a successful occupational future has brought some academic institutions to include emotional intelligence learning opportunities in their curricula (Boyatzis, 2009). Exploration of such efforts revealed that EI programs enhanced students' EI (Fletcher et al., 2009;Kozlowski, Hutchinson, Hurley & Browne, 2018), increased their learning effectiveness and academic achievements (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013), improved their communication skills (Meng & Qi, 2018) and reduced bullying (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013) and stress levels (Meng & Qi, 2018), the latter noted to be one of the factors underlying incivility. ...
... However, evidence of links between EI skills, academic performance and a successful occupational future has brought some academic institutions to include emotional intelligence learning opportunities in their curricula (Boyatzis, 2009). Exploration of such efforts revealed that EI programs enhanced students' EI (Fletcher et al., 2009;Kozlowski, Hutchinson, Hurley & Browne, 2018), increased their learning effectiveness and academic achievements (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013), improved their communication skills (Meng & Qi, 2018) and reduced bullying (Bennett & Sawatzky, 2013) and stress levels (Meng & Qi, 2018), the latter noted to be one of the factors underlying incivility. ...
... Similarly, studies of EI training programs administered to nursing school students indicated a significant increase in EI scores in the training group (Kozlowski et al., 2018). In other findings, such programs were found to enhance communications and to reduce stress (Meng & Qi, 2018). ...
Book
The book introduces readers with theory and empirical findings related to uncivil behaviour in academic settings and discusses its precursors, implications and remedies. In the first part, we define academic incivility, its manifestations and dimensions, while distinguishing between academic incivility and workplace incivility. We then discuss the prevalence of faculty incivility (FI) and students’ incivility (SI) in academic settings and focus on the dyadic relationships between faculty and students in the broader context of incivility in academia, with an added focus on faculty incivility. The second part introduces the main contributors to academic incivility. Personal factors, in this case, social-emotional competencies, and contextual factors, in this case, learning environments, are explored by combining up-to-date research data, personal stories and interviews with lecturers and students. A deep understanding of the precursors of academic incivility is critical to the examination of possible coping strategies within academic settings and elsewhere. In the third part, we explore the potential and practical remedies that can mitigate incivility in academic settings and, in particular, the enhancement of emotional and social competencies and the modification of learning environments.
... 6 Having more emotional intelligence tends to be associated with better communication skills and less stress in adolescents. 7,8 Stress is well recognized as a risk factor of chronic pain in adolescents. 9 Therefore, it is hypothesized that adolescents with more emotional intelligence are protected from chronic pain due to less experience of stress. ...
... 29 Some other studies have shown that adolescents with higher levels of emotional intelligence may better manage their stress. 7,8 It is well known that stress could negatively affect chronic pain in adolescents. 9 A recent study has also suggested that emotional intelligence contributes to the improvement of one's health consciousness, and consequently participation in behaviors that predict long-term physical health. ...
Article
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Background: Pediatric chronic pain is prevalent and disabling. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of chronic pain among adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. We also compared emotional intelligence, self-esteem and parenting style between adolescents with chronic pain and healthy adolescents. Finally, we examined the predicting role of these variables regarding chronic pain in adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study, from January to June 2018, was conducted on 734 adolescents in Shiraz. A clustering sampling method was used. Adolescents with chronic pain were identified by affirmative answers to screening questions based on the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) criteria. Participants completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and Baumrind parenting style questionnaire. The data were analyzed through SPSS v.22 software using Mann-Whitney and binary logistic regression tests. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 221(30.1%) adolescents who met the ICD-11 criteria of chronic pain. Mann-Whitney tests showed that emotional intelligence (P<0.001), self-esteem (P<0.001), authoritative parenting style (P=0.004), and authoritarian parenting style (P=0.006) were significantly different in adolescents with chronic pain compared to healthy adolescents. Binary logistic regression revealed that emotional intelligence (P<0.001), self-esteem (P<0.001), authoritarian parenting style (P=0.04) and authoritative parenting style (P=0.01) were significantly correlated with chronic pain after controlling for demographic variables. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that emotional intelligence, self-esteem and parenting styles could be important factors in development or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The results have potential to be extended to future interventions for adolescents with chronic pain.
... Hence, Satterfield et al.(50) suggested that, since EI has a protective effect on burnout, EI education should be incorporated into the residency training for doctors. Studies have shown that EI training among doctors and nurses results in significant improvement on EI, stress and general wellness(55)(56). It also improved communication skills among the trainees and they were noted to have lower perceived stress(56). ...
... Studies have shown that EI training among doctors and nurses results in significant improvement on EI, stress and general wellness(55)(56). It also improved communication skills among the trainees and they were noted to have lower perceived stress(56). 3. Schaufeli WB, Greenglass ER. ...
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Burnout is associated with stress and mental health issues among medical students. Based on the previous studies, emotional intelligence (EI) has been proven to be protective against burnout. This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2019 to January 2020 involving 182 medical students from a public university in Terengganu, Malaysia. The objective was to determine the level of EI among medical students and its relationship with burnout. They were requested to answer an online questionnaire that consisted of the Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). The mean score for students’ EI and burnout were calculated. The relationship between EI and burnout was analysed using Pearson correlation. Further analysis was done using simple linear regression. The findings show that more than half of the medical students had a high EI score (n = 105, 57.5%). The overall mean (SD) score of EI was 2.85 (0.52) which is also in the high category. The social competence domain score was noted to be higher than the personal competence domain. Burnout had a fair negative correlation with EI and it was statistically significant (r = –0.395, p < 0.001). An increase in one unit of the EI score will decrease the burnout score by 12.25 units. Thus, EI was significantly and negatively correlated with burnout among medical students. As it may play a role in helping medical students cope with stress and prevent burnout, training in EI is essential for their future professional development.
... Furthermore, the results supported the findings of the study performed by Vahidi et al., [16] which detected that following a similar intervention, scores of emotional intelligence were higher in contrast with the pre-intervention period in the study group of registered nurses in Iran. It is also consistent with the study conducted by Meng & Qi, [17] which reported that around two-thirds of student nurses had higher emotional intelligence scores at the end of the study conducted in China. ...
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The Beneficial Effects of Emotional Intelligence Training for Critical Care Nurses on Job Burnout: A Quasi‑Experimental Study conducted in Cairo, Egypt.
... Jaunākie pētījumi par emocionālā intelekta saistību ar komandas iekšējo komunikāciju ir veikti medicīnas nozarē, kur ir atklāta nozīmīga saistība starp emocionālo intelektu un komandas iekšējo komunikāciju (Raeissi et al., 2019;Amini, Nabiee, & Delavari, 2019;Meng & Qi, 2018). ...
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Nowadays, due to the fierce market competition, the volume, complexity and requirements of projects are increasing, resulting in intensive communication in project teams. Statistics show that one out of five projects is unsuccessful due to ineffective communication. The role of emotional intelligence in project management has been little studied, but it is believed that promoting emotional intelligence can improve internal communication within the project team. The aim of the research was to study the emotional intelligence and internal communication correlation of project managers and team members in organization “X” in order to develop proposals for the management of organization “X” for promoting emotional intelligence and improving internal communication. The emotional intelligence of project managers and team members was measured by using a survey of emotional and social intelligence competencies. Internal communication in project teams was assessed by using a survey based on aspects of effective internal communication within the project team. The results of the study showed that there is a statistically significant and strong correlation between emotional intelligence of project managers and team members and internal communication in project teams. “Self-management” and “social awareness” or the ability to adapt to other people were identified as the most important competencies of emotional intelligence which are required in order to improve internal communication.
... Some researchers have argued that EI has a protective effect against stress among health care students, and should be emphasized more in these students' curricula [16]. A class credit intervention based on the stress in intensive care units had a protective effect on nursing students through increased stress perception and communication skills [18]. However, that study was based on an EI intervention implemented in a specific stressful environment. ...
Preprint
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Background Emotional intelligence represents a person’s interpersonal and communication competencies, and influences medical students and their clinical careers. The aim is to evaluate the impact of team-based learning in an emotional intelligence training intervention among Chinese medical students. Methods This is a quasi-experimental, one-group pre–post-test assessment. A convenience sample of medical university students took an elective course in emotional management recruited for this study. An emotional management course was designed to provide college students with basic knowledge about emotional regulation and to provide opportunities for emotional management practice. The course composed of traditional face-to-face education and the new style of teamwork. They completed the educational modules using their personal computers or cell phones. Using the Emotional Intelligence Scale, Caring Ability Inventory, and a course evaluation questionnaire, two research assistants collected data before and after delivery of the intervention. Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic data. Categorical data were described as frequencies, and continuous data were expressed as means. Differences in respondent characteristics between the pre- and post-intervention assessments were investigated using the chi-squared test. The paired-samples t test was used to investigate differences between pre- and post-intervention. Ninety-eight students completed the pre-intervention questionnaire and 82 students completed the post-intervention questionnaire. Results The intervention improved students’ emotional intelligence and caring ability, as indicated by increased scores in perceiving and expressing emotions (t = 7.045, P 4 points (The total score is 5.). Conclusions This intervention has the potential to influence medical students’ emotional intelligence and caring behavior.
... Similarly, educating emotional intelligence skills has an effect on behavioral responses to stress in nursing students (Kikanloo et al., 2019). Also, an emotional intelligence intervention may support improvements in perceived stress and communication skills among nursing students (Meng and Qi, 2018). ...
... Wang and Chang (2019) and Meng and Jianping (2018) mentioned that communication skills are related to the feeling of happiness and flexibility in dealing with stress and reinforcing the academic accomplishments of upgrading students. They are fundamental elements in personal and social wellbeing for them. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the communication skills among undergraduate students at Al-Quds University. The researcher obtained responses from (193) undergraduate students enrolled in B.A. program. The researcher used the questionnaire of Hamidat (2007) which composed of (32) statements divided into four areas: listening skill, speaking skill, the skill of understanding others, and controlling emotions skill. The results revealed that university students have achieved a high level of communication skills in three dimensions (listening, speaking, and understanding others). It also showed a medium level in controlling emotions. Moreover, the results showed that there were no significant differences in the level of communication skills according to gender, faculty, or academic year. Keywords: communication skills, undergrduate students, al-quds university
... The first one, the notion of empathic tendency, is well grounded in the literature [40][41][42], which boosts the theoretical framework of the developed model. Secondly, empathic tendencies may undergo modifications, and thus be reinforced by trainings in the field of improving interpersonal skills [21,43,44]. The ability to work with emotions should be underlined here as it is key in shaping a positive attitude [45]. ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the empirical model of factors determining the attitude towards acquiring communicative competences among nurses participating in the program of specialist training courses. Research was conducted using a cross-sectional study. A representative group of 1010 Polish registered nurses that took part in the postgraduate education course answered a self-report survey (three instruments: NEO-PI-R questionnaire, Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), and Empathy Understanding Questionnaire (KRE II)) from the beginning of March to the end of May 2018, which was evaluated using path analysis. The research results conducted confirmed the soundness of the created theoretical model (χ 2 = 0.278, p = 0.598, RMSEA < 0.05). It was proved that acquiring communicative competences in nurses is determined by factors such as professional experience, empathic tendency, and the intensity of agreeableness, whereby these factors are bound with each other creating a homogeneous network. The developed model demonstrated that skills can most effectively be shaped in an individual's attitude based on positive mentoring in work environment.
... Wang and Chang (2019) and Meng and Jianping (2018) mentioned that communication skills are related to the feeling of happiness and flexibility in dealing with stress and reinforcing the academic accomplishments of upgrading students. They are fundamental elements in personal and social wellbeing for them. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the communication skills among undergraduate students at Al-Quds University. The researcher obtained responses from (193) undergraduate students enrolled in B.A. program. The researcher used the questionnaire of Hamidat (2007) which composed of (32) statements divided into four areas: listening skill, speaking skill, the skill of understanding others, and controlling emotions skill. The results revealed that university students have achieved a high level of communication skills in three dimensions (listening, speaking, and understanding others). It also showed a medium level in controlling emotions. Moreover, the results showed that there were no significant differences in the level of communication skills according to gender, faculty, or academic year.
... With the emergence of precision agriculture, the use of advanced technologies in agricultural production has, to some extent, achieved the goal of high efficiency and high output of agriculture. At present, precision agriculture is widely promoted due to the increasing popularity of WSN, and its prospects and market demands in the country are extremely prominent, especially its major role in terms of promoting the intelligentization and informatization of agricultural development, [4][5][6]. The paper aims to make real-time monitoring of the growth and sowing of crops through such technologies, such as convenient networking, strong pertinence, and relatively lower costs, etc. ...
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span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-language: DE; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-GB">In light of the agricultural development in China, more attention has been paid to the studies about precision agriculture. The environmental factors such as temperature-humidity and soil humidity are the key influencing factors on crop growth, therefore, how to rapidly and accurately acquire the environmental information of crop growth and learn about their real-time growing environment is of vital importance. The wireless sensor networks (WSN) can make real-time environmental information acquisition as well as communication and processing of network environmental data. Based on this, the RSSI range-based positioning method was optimized in this paper in order to greatly improve its precision. To be specific, in this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was firstly applied in the hybrid mutation strategy to make more accurate node positioning and significantly improve the evolutionary performance by enlarging the hunting zone; besides, through the use of WSN, the influencing parameters on crop growth such as soil humidity, and temperature-humidity etc. would be monitored; finally, to realize the precise location and derive the unseeded nodes, GPS was applied for accurate positioning, and the intelligence algorithm was adopted to determine the coordinate position of unknown nodes. At last, the actual field test indicates that the designed monitoring system in this paper satisfies the requirements for precise measurement, playing a positive role in promoting the development of precision agriculture.</span
... In nursing practice, the value of emotion can be clearly expressed using the conceptual framework of emotional intelligence (Powell, 2015). Previous studies were emphasized that individuals with higher emotional intelligence scores tended to have more advanced social abilities, richer forms of social communication, and more effective coping strategies (Meng and Qi, 2018;Kikanloo et al., 2019). "Emotional intelligence", also known as emotional-social intelligence, is a subunit of social intelligence that indicates individuals' ability to critique the feelings of themselves and of those around them (Salovey and Mayer, 1990). ...
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This study aims to determine the level of emotional intelligence, social intelligence, self-efficacy, and stress-coping strategies in nursing students, as well as investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence with these variables. The study design was a descriptive relational type. Data were collected from 322 students recruited from one nursing faculty and one faculty of health sciences. Nursing students’ total emotional intelligence score mean (127.73±15.33) was above average. Social intelligence, self-efficacy, and a self-confident coping style were important predictors of emotional intelligence (p
... Since the current study highlights that healthcare professionals' work-related wellbeing (i.e., in terms of low burnout and high WE) is also a matter of how they can manage emotions and relations with service recipients and coworkers, intervention for promoting the TEI could be implemented. Sustainable group interventions (Campo et al., 2015) can be tailored for being applied as a part of training programs dedicated to fostering healthcare professionals' skills (e.g., Grant et al., 2014;Kozlowski et al., 2018;Meng and Qi, 2018). These interventions can increase the awareness about self-reported emotional intelligence, the knowledge, regulation, expression of emotions, and thus promote better relationships with end-users and co-workers. ...
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Framing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study deepened how trait emotional intelligence (TEI, i.e., perception about one's own emotional realm) contributes to the work-related well-being of healthcare professionals. A total of 302 healthcare professionals were involved in the study and completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire. The results of the structural equation modeling revealed that TEI was directly and indirectly-mediated by end-user job demands-negatively associated with burnout, and directly and indirectly-mediated by coworkers related job resources-associated with work engagement. According to the health impairment and motivational processes of JD-R, the present study highlights that TEI could targets burnout and work engagement through different paths. The first path revealed that TEI would reduce burnout protecting by the insurgence harmful relationships with service end-users and the second showed that TEI would support work engagement sustaining the development of positive relationship with coworkers.
... 30 Stress is, in turn, an important factor associated with 31 Some researchers stated that high emotional intelligence could improve communication skills. 32 It has been shown that promotion of effective communication skills could result in a decrease in chronic pain. 33 Inversely, individuals with lower emotional intelligence showed more pain catastrophizing. ...
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Background: Research has shown that emotional intelligence and anger are significant predictors of both subjective and objective health. The present study aimed to draw a comparison between migraine patients and healthy individuals in terms of emotional intelligence and anger. In addition, there was an attempt to investigate the predictive role of emotional intelligence and anger in chronic migraine. Methods: This comparative study was carried out on 494 individuals including patients with chronic migraine (n=250) and healthy controls (n=244) in Shiraz between August 2019 and February 2020. The participants with chronic migraine and healthy controls were selected using convenience sampling and multistage sampling, respectively. Participants completed validated self-report questionnaires: Bradberry and Greaves emotional intelligence test and the provocation inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22.0) and chi-square test, t test and logistic regression were used. The significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: The results of independent t-test indicated that the mean intensity of anger was significantly higher among the patients with migraine (51.52±15.66) compared to the healthy controls (28.39±9.85) (P<0.001). The mean score of emotional intelligence was significantly lower among the patients with migraine (75.92±8.23) in comparison to the healthy controls (116.23±12.28) (P<0.001). Binary logistic regression revealed that neither age (P=0.72), sex (P=0.62), marital status (P=0.63) and education level (P=0.68), nor anger (P=0.24) was significantly associated with chronic migraine. However, emotional intelligence had a negative association with chronic migraine (B=-1.13, OR=0.32, P<0.001). Conclusion: The results showed that a low level of emotional intelligence was associated with chronic migraine. The current results could help clinicians in planning for successful pain management/prevention programs.
... Part III: Maslach burnout inventory: Adopted from Maslach et al. [17], this was used to assess nurses' burnout levels. It includes 22 items grouped into emotional fatigue (9 items), personal fulfillment (8 items), and depersonalization (5 items). ...
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Aim: To evaluate the relationship between communication skills and perceived stress of nursing students during the first clinical experience. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 225 nursing students over the period of February 2018 and June 2018. The students compared the following criteria: willing to participate in the study, being in first clinical experience. The Communication Skills Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Individual Identification Form were used for collecting data. Findings: It showed that nursing students’ level of communication skills was high and the level of perceived stress was moderate. There was a weak positive correlation between nursing students’ communication skills and perceived stress. Conclusion: Considering that the stress level of students is moderate and the communication skills level is high, this result can be considered as a positive outcome. Effective communication skills are needed to minimize the high stress experienced in clinical practice.
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Today's experts believe that critical thinking is a major output in higher education and teaching thinking is a basic point to learning. The aim of this study was to explore whether a strategic thinking training program could improve student’s scores on a standardized measure of critical thinking. Sixty-six students aged between 20 and 35 were tested at their college on before the program CCTST and CCTDI. Thirty-nine of these students volunteered to be randomly allocated to the strategic thinking or control group. Students in the strategic thinking group received a strategic thinking training program, but not the students in the control group. The experimental and control groups were then re-tested on CCTST and CCTDI at after the intervention. Students in the strategic thinking group significantly improved their critical thinking skill and critical thinking disposition scores compared to the control group. On average, we observed no group differences between the strategic thinking and control groups. These results have important implications for implementing a strategic thinking training program to protect students from a decrease in critical thinking skill and critical thinking disposition during the achievement of educational goals.
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This study aimed to analyze the influence of communication skill, collaboration, and decision-making upon self-efficacy upon Indonesia nurse’s self-efficacy in performing neonatal resuscitation. The research employed analytical descriptive design with cross-sectional study approach. The data were collected using questionnaire. Moreover, the research was carried out in Malang City area with the total of 75 nurses employed at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) room and perinatology unit. Meanwhile, for data analysis, product moment correlation and linear regression were employed. The presence of influence of communication skill, collaboration, and decision-making upon nurse’s self-efficacy in performing neonatal resuscitation can be an inestimable reference for the need of objective evaluation on nurse’s capability and reflection on skills they have acquired. Communication skills p=0.000 (<0.05), collaboration p=0.000 (<0.05), preparation of results p=0.000 (<0.05) with the effectiveness of nurses in the management of neonatal resuscitation. In addition, multiple linear regression showed communication skills p=0.000, B=0.253 was the most dominant factor influencing nurses' self- efficacy when handling neonatal resuscitation in hospitals in Malang City of Indonesia. This study found an association related to communication skill, collaboration, and nurse decision making. Communication skills are the dominant factor influencing the efficacy of nurses in performing neonatal resuscitation care.
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Aim: To evaluate the relationship between communication skills and perceived stress of nursing students during the first clinical experience. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 225 nursing students over the period of February 2018 and June 2018. The students compared the following criteria: willing to participate in the study, being in first clinical experience. The Communication Skills Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Individual Identification Form were used for collecting data. Findings: It showed that nursing students' level of communication skills was high and the level of perceived stress was moderate. There was a weak positive correlation between nursing students' communication skills and perceived stress. Conclusion: Considering that the stress level of students is moderate and the communication skills level is high, this result can be considered as a positive outcome. Effective communication skills are needed to minimize the high stress experienced in clinical practice.
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This conceptual review study aims to present a compact and comprehensive reference document for the researchers and the practitioners by bringing together the findings of studies and examples regarding the use and application of emotional intelligence in businesses. With the growing importance of the service sector in the Gross National Products of countries, the study primarily discusses the relevancy of emotional intelligence for service sector businesses, and its role and potential for the service sector businesses.
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The development of emotional intelligence in early adolescence is important and urgent problem, since at this age the need for communication is actively realized, manifesting itself in behavioral patterns as types of interpersonal behavior that poorly understood. The problem of the study is to identify components of emotional intelligence and types of interpersonal behavior of respondents with high and low sociometric status. Research hypothesis: the combination of the level of emotional intelligence components development and the prevailing types of interpersonal behavior are associated with the achievement of high or low sociometric status. The study sample consisted of 956 people: 456 girls (47.7%) and 500 boys (52.3%) aged 16-17. Research methods: a questionnaire of emotional intelligence "Emin" by D.V. Lyusin; test "The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality" by T. Leary; sociometry by J. Moreno in the adaptation by M.R. Bityanova. The relationship between emotional intelligence, the prevailing types of interpersonal behavior, and the sociometric status was studied using mathematical statistics methods of SPSS Statistics 20 program (cluster analysis procedure). Six clusters were identified. They describe the combination of components of emotional intelligence and the prevailing type of interpersonal behavior between young men and women with low and high sociometric statuses. Comparison of cluster indicators revealed significant differences at a high level of significance (α<0.01) across all scales. Thus, the hypothesis was confirmed. The research has a high practical significance because it opens up opportunities for the development of emotional intelligence, as well as the harmonization of interpersonal relations.
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Developing and enhancing emotional intelligence in nursing students is a necessary element of nursing education. Various evidence-based strategies to cultivate emotional intelligence characteristics, such as self-reflection, self-awareness, problem-solving, and interprofessional collaboration in nursing students, are described along with the value of role-modeling Christian qualities that promote empathy and compassion in nursing graduates.
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Objective Undergraduate nursing students may experience high levels of stress, anxiety or depression. This can not only influence their personal wellbeing and academic performance, but also communication with patients during clinical placement and the quality and safety of the healthcare delivered. The objective of the review was to identify interventions that target stress, anxiety or depressed mood in undergraduate nursing students during their undergraduate course. Review Method A quantitative systematic review, guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, was conducted. The review considered studies that included undergraduate nurses, and which evaluated interventions targeting stress, anxiety and depression mood. The review included experimental studies published in English from 2008 to 2018. A tabulated and narrative summary was utilised to present the results. Results A total of 1579 studies were identified following a systematic search and 931 studies were screened by title and abstract. A total of 44 studies were critically appraised resulting in 22 studies for inclusion in the systematic review. The studies focused on stress (10 studies), anxiety (14 studies) and depression (7 studies). The majority of the studies (18 of 22) reported a statistically significant reduction in the stress, anxiety or depression experienced by nursing students who participated in interventions targeting these symptoms. Interventions that sought to improve coping management skills, such as mindfulness-based interventions, were most reported. Conclusion There are a range of effective interventions that target stress, anxiety or depressed mood among nursing students. The quality of the studies reporting these interventions was found to be variable and generally samples were small with limited follow-up. Studies of mindfulness interventions comprised the largest sample sizes, displayed the highest levels of evidence, and transcended stress, anxiety and depressed mood. Future research would benefit from a co-ordinated approach to build the strength of the body of evidence.
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Many factors such as intelligence, age, education, and sex may have an important influence on verbal fluency according to literature. The aim of this study is to examine the possible impact of the emotional schemata associated with sex differences on verbal fluency performances. Four tasks of verbal fluency were used in this study: two tasks of semantic verbal fluency (Animals, Vehicles) and two tasks of affective verbal fluency (PleasantJoy, Unpleasant-Fear). The results were analysed for 302 adults aged 18 to 70 years old. The number of correctly enumerated words, the number of phonemic clusters, the number of semantic clusters, and the number of phonemic and semantic switches were recorded. The results confirmed data that sex explains a little variance of results in verbal fluency performance; sex is not a predictor of semantic verbal fluency, but a significant predictor for emotional verbal fluency. Significant differences in verbal fluency between men and women were found only in emotional tasks. The hypothesis about the unconscious emotional schemata and linguistic fluency associated with sex differences was formulated.
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Communication, as a key element in providing high-quality health care services, leads to patient satisfaction and health. The present Cross sectional, descriptive analytic study was conducted on 70 nurses and 50 patients in two hospitals affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences, in 2012. Two separate questionnaires were used for nurses and patients, and the reliability and validity of the questionnaires were assessed. In both groups of nurses and patients, nurse-related factors (mean scores of 2.45 and 2.15, respectively) and common factors between nurses and patients (mean scores of 1.85 and 1.96, respectively) were considered the most and least significant factors, respectively. Also, a significant difference was observed between the mean scores of nurses and patients regarding patient-related (p=0.001), nurse-related (p=0.012), and environmental factors (p=0.019). Despite the attention of nurses and patients to communication, there are some barriers, which can be removed through raising the awareness of nurses and patients along with creating a desirable environment. We recommend that nurses be effectively trained in communication skills and be encouraged by constant monitoring of the obtained skills.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n = 89) and an active control group (CG) (n = 88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the first weeks of the semester would lead to more perceived stress in the CG, but not in the time management training group, due to the time management intervention. As hypothesised, perceived stress increased in the CG, but not in the time management training group. Furthermore, perceived control of time increased in the time management training group but remained unchanged in the CG. Even a rather short intervention of 2 h can protect freshmen from an increase in perceived stress at the beginning of the semester.
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Stress in health sciences students has been studied extensively. Nevertheless, only few studies have been conducted on pharmacy students and nothing was done to compare stress effects on the immune responses of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. The aim of this pilot study was (1) to measure the self-reported perceived stresses, immune-related diseases and health outcomes of pharmacy and PharmD students, (2) to investigate the relationship between perceived stresses, health outcomes and immune-related diseases and (3) to compare stress induced changes in the health and immune system of pharmacy and PharmD students. The study represents a cross sectional survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire about stress and students' health states during the fall semester of 2009/2010. At commence of this study, 222 of pharmacy and PharmD participant students (113 and 109 respectively) from the third and uppermost levels of study were picked up randomly. They were found to perceive stress related to program intensity, lack of exercise and social activities, bad nutritional routines and accommodation. Effects of increased study loads on students' health and immune-related diseases were more pronounced on PharmD students, while showing significant changes on Pharmacy students. In general, more than 50% of students of each program got ill several times, mainly during the midterm period, had cold/flu, were under medical care and had problems in skin and/or hair. Also, PharmD students reported relatively higher levels of perceived stress and lower emotional and satisfaction quality of life compared to Pharmacy students. Results may help to increase the awareness of students to get prepared to what they might face, and may enable them to reduce the program's negative effects.
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Because of our poor emotionally intelligent responses and interactions, many nurses and other health care staff have become scarred emotionally from abusive, demoralizing, or hostile acts inflicted on one another. Rude, disruptive behavior among health care professionals can pose a serious threat to patient safety and the overall quality of care. The expectation of regulating bodies is that health care professionals focus on effects disruptive behavior has on a culture of safety for both patients and staff. Relatively recent research in training and development, and behavior change, specifically on emotional intelligence, suggests that it is possible to improve the emotional competence of adults. I posit it is possible to increase emotional competence to reduce health workplace stress and workplace violence.
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Good communication between nurses and patients is a central aspect of palliative care. However, evaluation of courses designed to improve nurses' communication skills has been inconclusive. Most courses have concentrated on skills training, although communication training programmes which have been integrated into clinical practice over time and have also focused on attitudes and used a range of teaching methods, have been shown to be effective. A study was set up to evaluate whether a communication skills course which would focus on knowledge, attitudes and skills would improve nurses' communication skills. One-hundred-and-ten nurses completed a 26 h training programme over six months and completed precourse and postcourse audiotape recordings of a patient assessment. An overall statistically significant improvement in assessment skills between pretest and post-test mean total scores (P < 0.001) was found, with statistically significant improvements in six of the nine key areas assessed. The nurses reported that although some elements of the programme, such as role play, had been stressful they felt more confident in handling difficult situations. The longer integrated communication skills programme which allows nurses to explore attitudes, raise self-awareness and develop knowledge and skills appears to be effective.
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The present manuscript is an empirically based theoretical paper that presents, describes, and examines the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI) in deep. First, a description of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i), which has played an instrumental role in developing the model, is given. The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. It has been translated into more than 30 languages, and data have been collected around the world. The impact of age, gender, and ethnicity on the Bar-On model is presented. A description of the model's construct and predictive validity is given. Finally, the author summarizes the key points, discusses the limitations of the model, and raises the ideas for developing a future model of ESI.
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Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the individual's biological vulnerability (i.e., genetics, constitutional factors), psychosocial resources, and learned patterns of coping. Psychosocial interventions have proven useful for treating stress-related disorders and may influence the course of chronic diseases.
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Type 2 diabetes is one of the psychosomatic diseases, and stress has a great effect on its development, severity, recurrence, and chronicity. The present study was carried out in order to compare quality of life and emotional intelligence among type 2 diabetic patients and healthy individuals. The present study was a causal-comparative investigation. The statistical population included all type 2 diabetic patients who had referred to the hospitals and clinics of Zanjan, Iran during 21st May to 21st August 2016. Convenience sampling was employed. The sample size was 160 individuals (80 patients and 80 healthy individuals). Data collection instruments were SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale. MANOVA was utilized to analyze the collected data. The results of the present study showed that there was a significant difference between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals in terms of quality of life and components of physical health and mental health (p<0.01). There was also a significant difference between them with regard to their emotional intelligence and components of emotion regulation, emotion expression, and emotion use (p<0.01). Based on the results of the present study regarding the remarkable effect of diabetes on decrease in quality of life and emotional intelligence among patients, it is highly significant to pay attention to quality of life and mental status of such individuals and try to improve them through better training, following up, and controlling the disease, and these issues need to be taken into serious account in treatment of these patients. Key Words: Quality of life, Emotional Intelligence, Type 2 D
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in patients' satisfaction after their doctor has participated in a brief educational intervention on medicolegal risk management. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaire completed by ambulatory patients, measuring satisfaction with their doctor's communication skills before and three months after the doctor participated in a three hour workshop on medicolegal risk management. 75 obstetrician/gynaecologists (O&Gs) and 99 general practitioners (GPs) were each rated by 60 of their patients following a consultation in their clinical rooms. Findings – Patient satisfaction as evidenced by change to “complete satisfaction” with doctor's communication skills and overall satisfaction with the clinical encounter. Practical implications – Participants had high initial patient satisfaction ratings and these were found to have improved across all parameters three months after the educational intervention. Originality/value – The educational intervention was successful in improving doctors' communication skills as evidenced by enhanced patient satisfaction in all key areas, including those most frequently associated with patient complaint, litigation and adverse outcome.
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Whilst the majority of new students cope well with the transition to university, a number experience levels of homesickness which can adversely affect the process of adaptation. In this study the relationship between homesickness and self-disclosure, seen as a possible mediating factor, was assessed in a sample of 83 students (mean age 18.0541 years,s.d.=7.055 months) at the start of their first semester and then 6 weeks later. The results showed that homesickness declined during the semester whilst levels of self-disclosure increased. A significant negative association was found between levels of self-disclosure and homesickness at both time periods. High self-disclosers experienced a significantly greater reduction in homesickness than low self-disclosers. The results showed the importance of the socially-mediated and supportive benefits of self-disclosure during this life transition.
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The purpose of this study was to identify junior baccalaureate nursing students’ perceived stressors and ways of coping during the clinical component of nursing education and the use of coping strategies by students with different ethnic backgrounds. Data were collected from 107 junior nursing students enrolled in the first clinical course. Results revealed students frequently perceived stressors in the clinical setting. The findings also revealed that students utilized two problem-focused coping strategies—problem solving and seeking social support coping strategies—more frequently than two emotion-focused coping strategies—tension reduction and avoidance coping. Additional findings revealed that both Caucasian and African-American students used more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping strategies.
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Persons with major mental illness often have chronic diseases and poor physical health. Therefore, all practicing physicians should learn about communicating effectively with these patients. Few efforts to teach medical students communication skills have specifically targeted patients with major mental illness. Indeed, most of the limited literature on this topic is decades old, predating significant scientific advances in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric therapeutics and changes in social policies regarding major mental illness. To gather preliminary insight into training needs, we interviewed 13 final-year students from 2 Boston medical schools. Students' observations coalesced around 4 themes: fears and anxieties about interacting with persons with major mental illness; residents “protecting” students from patients with major mental illness; lack of clinical maturity; and barriers to learning during psychiatry rotations. Educational researchers must explore ways to better prepare young physicians to communicate effectively with patients with major mental illness.
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• This article is based on a literature review carried out as part of a study of communication skills training in pre-registration nursing education in England in 2000. • A systematic literature search was conducted and 200 articles were found that were relevant to the study. • Definitional problems were found, with terms such as communication skills and interpersonal skills being used interchangeably. • The term communications strategies is suggested to overcome these problems, as it reflects the logical organization of a number of different communication skills within a theoretical or empirical framework. • Problems in current communication skills teaching and social barriers to using communication skills in practice are discussed. • It is concluded that problems continue to exist in these areas and that an emphasis on both aspects is needed if patient and staff satisfaction is to be improved.
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Despite a great deal of popular interest and the development of numerous training programs in emotional intelligence (EI), some researchers have argued that there is little evidence that EI is both useful and different from other, well established constructs. We hypothesized that EI would make a unique contribution to understanding the relationship between stress and three important mental health variables, depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. University students (n=302) participated in a cross-sectional study that involved measuring life stress, objective and self-reported emotional intelligence, and mental health. Regression analyses revealed that stress was associated with: (1) greater reported depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among people high in emotional perception (EP) compared to others; and (2) greater suicidal ideation among those low in managing others' emotions (MOE). Both EP and MOE were shown to be statistically different from other relevant measures, suggesting that EI is a distinctive construct as well as being important in understanding the link between stress and mental health.
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Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI as a distinct group of mental abilities, and other researchers instead study an eclectic mix of positive traits such as happiness, self-esteem, and optimism. Clarifying what EI is and is not can help the field by better distinguishing research that is truly pertinent to EI from research that is not. EI--conceptualized as an ability--is an important variable both conceptually and empirically, and it shows incremental validity for predicting socially relevant outcomes.
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This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
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Clinical teaching is a dynamic process that occurs in a variety of sociocultural contexts. The quality of student-teacher interaction in the clinical field can either facilitate or hinder the students' learning in the clinical area. This paper presents the results of a study to explore Jordanian undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of effective clinical teacher characteristics. The results showed that overall, the nursing students rated the professional competence of the clinical teacher as the most important characteristic, which when compared to the Western population was different. When male and female nursing students' perceptions were compared, no significant differences were found. However, responses of nursing students from the three academic years differed significantly in that second-year students rated the clinical teachers' relationship with students as most important and fourth-year students rated personal qualities of the clinical teachers as most important. The results were significant in that they were congruent with the students' level of education and most importantly, their cultural beliefs and values about education.
Article
Reducing distress in first level and student nurses: a review of the applied stress management literature Following recent evidence of continuing high levels of distress in both trained and student nurses, a critical review of the stress reduction and stress management literature targeting both trained and student nurses is presented. Using a systematic approach, some 36 studies dating from 1980 until the present day were identified adopting either pre-experimental, quasi-experimental or experimental designs. While many work-site programmes in this series were successful in terms of adaptive changes in problem-solving, self-management skills including relaxation and interpersonal skills, affective well-being, and work performance, a number of design and evaluation inadequacies were identified. The relative lack of home–work interface or organizational level programmes to reduce work-related distress, and the scarcity of interventions targeting aspects of the work environment likely to contribute to such outcomes may have contributed to continuing high levels of distress in trained and student nurses. Recommendations regarding the future design, provision and evaluation of such work-site interventions include the further clarification of the structure of perceived stressors, and development of causal models of the stress process to identify the job characteristics ‘causing’ work-related distress. Such an approach would inform the design and implementation of evidence-based organizational level interventions augmenting strategies to target the health behaviour, lifestyle/risk factors and self-management skills of practitioners and students with attempts to amend problematic elements of the psychosocial work environment.
Article
This paper reports on a cross-sectional survey investigating communication and information needs of community psychiatric nurses attached to community mental health teams in the United Kingdom. Community psychiatric nurses' access to and communication with other professionals was also assessed. In total, 200 teams were randomly sampled UK-wide, and postal questionnaires were sent to community psychiatric nurses attached to these teams; 110 questionnaires were completed and returned (55% response rate). Spearman's rho, Pearson's correlation and the chi-square test were used in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression in multivariate analysis. Participants reported to be mainly in contact with psychiatrists (71%) and other community psychiatric nurses (52%). Eighty-four per cent and 91% reported psychiatrists and community psychiatric nurses, respectively, to be quite/extremely helpful when consulted; the proportions were lower for general practitioners and counsellors/therapists (32% and 31%, respectively). All reported lack of time and 84% reported communication problems with other professionals as barriers to their work. Although 70% reported having the necessary training/skills for managing severe cases, 76% indicated they had information needs. Being a long-serving community psychiatric nurse (OR = 4.51, 95% CI = 1.06-19.20), perceiving the discussion of cases with other professionals as less helpful (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.16-20.01), being mainly in contact with other CPNs (OR= 6.72, 95% CI= 1.21-37.15), reporting not having the necessary training/skills (OR = 7.78, 95% CI = 1.37-44.25), and wanting information on mental health law (OR= 12.27, 95% CI = 1.75-86.36) were significant predictors of having information needs. This survey provided valuable information on problems facing these nurses and highlighted the need for training and for easier access to and increased communication with other professionals.
Article
This paper describes the evaluation of a short training course in solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) skills. This evaluation examined the relevance of SFBT skills to nursing and the extent to which a short training course affected nurses' communication skills. Nurses' communication skills have been criticized for many years, as has the training in communication skills that nurses receive. The absence of a coherent theoretical or practical framework for communication skills training led us to consider the utility of SFBT as a framework for a short training course for qualified nurses, the majority of them are registered nurses working with adults. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected: the former using pre- and post-training scales, the latter using a focus group conducted 6 months after the training. Data were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and content analysis. Quantitative data indicated positive changes in nurses' practice following the training on four dimensions, and changes in nurses' willingness to communicate with people who are troubled reached levels of significance. Qualitative data uncovered changes to practice, centred on the rejection of problem-orientated discourses and reduced feelings of inadequacy and emotional stress in the nurses. There are indications that SFBT techniques may be relevant to nursing and a useful, cost-effective approach to the training of communication skills. Solution focused brief therapy provides a framework and easily understood tool-kit that are harmonious with nursing values.
Article
Patient-centred communication is a basic component of nursing and facilitates the development of a positive nurse-patient relationship which, along with other organizational factors, results in the delivery of quality nursing care. Nurses are frequently described in the literature as poor communicators, however, very few studies have examined patients' experiences of how nurses communicate. The aim of the study was to explore and produce statements relating to patients' experiences of how nurses communicate. A qualitative perspective using an hermeneutic phenomenological approach was considered to be the most appropriate methodology for this study. Using purposeful sampling, eight patients in a general teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed. Data were collected using unstructured interviews. Data analysis was a reflective process and the findings were presented through the description and interpretation of themes and sub-themes. Following data analysis four themes emerged. These were, 'lack of communication', 'attending', empathy' and 'friendly nurses'. The findings of this study indicate that, in contrast to the literature that suggests that nurses are not good at communicating with patients, nurses can communicate well with patients when they use a patient-centred approach. However, health care organizations do not appear to value or recognize the importance of nurses using a patient-centred approach when communicating with patients to ensure the delivery of quality patient care. The implication of these findings for clinical practice is that the task-centred approach to patient care that is associated with nursing in the past, appears to be alive and well. If health care management want to ensure that patients receive quality nursing care, they will need to consider patient-centred communication to be essential to encourage and support nurses to communicate in this manner.
Article
To determine the occurrence and type of medical errors in an intensive care setting using a voluntary reporting method. Prospective, single-center, observational study. The medical intensive care unit (19 beds) at an urban teaching hospital. Adult patients requiring at least 48 hrs of intensive care. Prospective reporting of medical errors. During a 6-month period, 232 medical events were reported involving 147 patients. A total of 2598 patient days were surveyed yielding 89.3 medical events reported per 1000 intensive care unit days. The source of the reports included nurses, who reported most of the medical events (59.1%), followed by physicians-in-training (27.2%) and intensive care unit attending physicians (2.6%). One hundred thirty (56.2%) medical events occurred within the intensive care unit and were judged to involve patient careproviders who were working directly in the intensive care unit area. One hundred and two (43.8%) medical events were commissions or omissions that occurred outside of the intensive care unit during patient transports or in the emergency department and hospital floors. Twenty-three (9.9%) medical events leading to a medical error resulted in the need for additional life-sustaining treatment, and seven (3.0%) medical errors may have contributed to patient deaths. Medical errors appear to be common among patients requiring intensive care. Medical events resulting in an error can result in the need for additional life-sustaining treatments and, in some circumstances, can contribute to patient death. Patient healthcare providers appear to be in a unique position to identify medical errors. Institutions should develop formalized methods for the reporting and analysis of medical errors to improve patient care.
Article
To assess whether the practice and rehearsal of communication skills is likely to lead to better outcomes following training, and whether the use of simulated patients in training is likely to be superior to role-play in terms of communication skill acquisition. The databases Medline, Amed, Cinahl, BNI, Embase, Psychinfo and HMIC were searched for articles which compared the use of simulated patients and/or role-play in training healthcare practitioners in acquiring communication skills. Most studies appear to indicate that outcomes are better in communication skills training programs where skills practice has taken place. However, a number of methodological weaknesses make concrete conclusions difficult to draw. There was just one study that directly compared the use of role-play with simulated patients. This found no significant difference in outcomes between the two methods. There is a need for more well-designed studies that assess skill acquisition following the use of simulated patients and/or role-play in a number of different settings. Simulated patients and role-play are frequently used in teaching communication skills worldwide. Given the expense of using simulated patients, educators should be made aware of cheaper alternatives that may be equally effective in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills.
Article
Background and aims: Stress amongst nursing students is a global issue. There is an absence of published international comparative studies which investigate this and so this paper sets out to explore the sources of stress among nursing students throughout their course of study and to determine whether they were more stressed by academic or clinical factors across five different countries (Albania, Brunei, the Czech Republic, Malta and Wales). Although each country, within this study, has a unique culture, a cross-cultural comparison can be made in an attempt to better understand stress in the student nursing population. Methods: The study was undertaking using a descriptive quantitative design using the Stress in Nurse Education Questionnaire with 1707 nursing students across the five countries. Results: The mean score for the total sample for all the items on the stress scale was 52.3 (SD 17.1). The sample from Wales had the lowest mean score and those in Brunei had the highest. Students in Brunei and Malta were more stressed by the academic elements of the course than by the clinical elements. Whereas for those students in the Czech Republic For students in Wales and in Albania - Korçe there were no differences in stress experienced between the academic and clinical elements of the course. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total stress scores by year of study for students in Albania - Tirana, Albania-Korçe, Malta and Wales. In Brunei however, ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in total stress scores by year of study. Further analysis revealed that students in year 3 scored higher on the overall scale than students in year 1. The individual item on the stress scale with highest mean in the Albania - Korçe and the Albania-Tirana sample was "The death of a patient" whilst the Bruneian sample, Maltese sample and Welsh sample opted for "Revising for and sitting examinations" and the Czech sample chose: "Continuous pressure to meet deadlines for assessments". Conclusions: This study has succeeded as the first of its kind to compare and contrast levels and sources of stress amongst an international sample. The findings indicate that student nurses worldwide do share much in common while still retaining individual cultural features relating to stress throughout their course of study.
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