Towards a fast evaluation of environmental impacts

  • Holonix srl


textcopyright IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013. Full LCA is a well-known methodology which can help decisionmakers to select the product or process that results in the least impact to the environment. However performing a Full LCA is resource and time intensive. Therefore different simplified LCA methods are developed in literature. This paper would develop another simplified LCA tool, driven by the extreme ease of use for all the people that don't know in depth environmental issues or that haven't time / data to deepen these topics. This tool can be very useful to the designers. They should be evaluate environmental impacts of something doesn't exist and it can help them to evaluate rapidly the more “green” product.
... non-market -[…] a wide variety of situations wherein markets are nonexistent, incomplete or institutionally restrained from reflecting interactions between supply and demand‖ (Asian Development Bank, 1999). ...
The importance for disabled people of accessible transport is now widely recognised, as is the reality that this also benefits many non-disabled people. Many previous commentaries offer a qualitative perspective, but quantitative evidence, particularly of benefits to the population as a whole, has been lacking. This research, underpinned by the Social Model of disability, established that the absence of such evidence creates a barrier to the inclusion of disabled people in mainstream transport. Further, it demonstrates that there is a way to remove this barrier: by applying stated preference techniques, the benefits of providing access to transport systems can be robustly monetised and successfully incorporated into the economic appraisal of transport projects. A multiple-case study of tram systems investigated how practitioners currently incorporate disabled access into project appraisals. Analysis showed that isomorphic forces identified by new institutional theory have led to similarity in practice, with the effect that ways of incorporating the costs of disabled access are well established, but ways of incorporating the benefits remain unclear. Resulting benefit:cost ratios, often apparently unfavourable, may be misleading. A systematic literature review catalogued methods for valuing non-market goods, and from these identified methods transferable to disabled access. Stated preference, a method of monetisation common in the transport environment, emerged as an appropriate method, with discrete choice modelling a suitable technique. A discrete choice experiment enabled calculation of monetary values for platform-to-platform access at stations. Using a cross-section of the population and addressing socioeconomic factors such as age, disability, and attitudes to disabled people, willingness-to-pay figures were derived for access methods suited to disabled people‘s needs. Finally, these willingness-to-pay figures were incorporated into two appraisals. The amended benefit:cost ratios more accurately represent the value of access provision, and the figures incidentally enable the relative values of different access options to be distinguished.
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Environmental sustainability urgently needs to be embraced as a driver of development for society and industry. While researchers and practitioners herald numerous benefits when adopting eco-efficiency and circular economy approaches, these green solutions are yet to become pervasive principles for designing and operating industrial systems. This study reviews the last ten years of research contributions from the International Federation for Information Processing Working Group 5.7 (IFIP WG5.7) on Advances in Production Management Systems (APMS) through its dedicated annual conference. A systematic literature review method was employed to map the APMS conference papers against eco-efficiency principles and to identify how these principles have been addressed by this research community. A cross-thematic analysis further describes the trends around dominant themes in production research. Finally, the paper concludes with an update on eco-efficiency principles applied to manufacturing and a proposed framework to consider more systematically the environmental implications of advances in production research.
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