Article

Health benefits of ancient grains. Comparison among bread made with ancient, heritage and modern grain flours in human cultured cells

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Abstract

Nowadays the higher nutritional value of whole grains compared to refined grains is recognized. In the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in the ancient wheat varieties for producing high-value food products with enhanced health benefits. This study compared two ancient grains, two heritage grains, and four modern grains grown in the same agronomic conditions considering not only their chemical characteristics, but also their biological effects. Whole grain flours were obtained and used to make bread. Bread was in vitro digested, the digesta were supplemented to HepG2 cells, and the biological effects of supplementation were evaluated. In addition, cells previously supplemented with the different digested bread types were then exposed to inflammatory agents to evidence possible protective effects of the pre-treatments. Despite the impossibility to discriminate bread made with different grains based on their chemical composition, results herein reported evidence that their supplementation to cultured cells exerts different effects, confirming the potential health benefits of ancient grains. This research represents an advancement for the evaluation of the apparent positive effects of ancient grains and the formulation of cereal-based products with added nutritional value.

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... With respect to the raw materials, in recent years, certain ancient cereals (spelt, einkorn, emmer, Khorasan) and some soft cultivars such as Verna, Andriolo, Gentilrosso have become more popular among the consumers due to their superior chemical composition compared to that of modern wheat varieties [10][11][12][13] and among the farmers as a result of the increased adaptability and resistance to pedo-climatic conditions [14][15][16]. A number of recent studies are investigating possible starter cultures that could ferment the sourdough obtained with ancient cereals [17][18][19]; thus, by evaluating and characterizing these LAB strains, it is possible to improve the nutritional and technological properties of bakery products based on ancient grains [20]. ...
... Until now it has not been possible to establish the exact nutritional value and health benefits of ancient cereals compared to those of modern varieties, and further studies are needed to make a clear delimitation and to establish with certainty the superiority of ancient species [13,16]. However, based on their composition in bioactive compounds, some studies are reporting only little differences compared to modern wheat varieties [11,13], the health benefits of ancient wheat are reported, mainly due to the antioxidant activity of some compounds naturally present or formed during baking such as polyphenols and melanoidins [13,32]. ...
... Until now it has not been possible to establish the exact nutritional value and health benefits of ancient cereals compared to those of modern varieties, and further studies are needed to make a clear delimitation and to establish with certainty the superiority of ancient species [13,16]. However, based on their composition in bioactive compounds, some studies are reporting only little differences compared to modern wheat varieties [11,13], the health benefits of ancient wheat are reported, mainly due to the antioxidant activity of some compounds naturally present or formed during baking such as polyphenols and melanoidins [13,32]. ...
Article
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In recent years, the attention of farmers, bakers and consumers towards ancient wheat species has been increasing. Low demands of pedo-climatic growth factors, the suitability for organic cultivation along with their high nutritional quality and their content in pro-health compounds make them extremely attractive for bakers and modern consumers, equally. On the other hand, in recent years, sourdough has gained attention due to its ability to produce new functionally active molecules with higher bioaccessibility and thus to produce bread with enhanced nutritional quality. This paper highlights the relevant nutritional profile of einkorn, spelt, emmer and Khorasan which could lead to bread with improved textural, sensorial, microbial and nutritional characteristics through sourdough fermentation. The ancient wheat species could be used as promising substitutes for common wheat flour for the design of innovative types of bread, even for special needs.
... Nonetheless, previous results have demonstrated that the MMP-9 inhibitory activity of deflamin was reduced in the presence of sugar-containing dough; therefore, in the present study we tested whether the lupin protein concentrate could be used as a vehicle for the MMP-9-inhibitory compound deflamin in savoury baked cookies. The use of wheat flour substitutes as acceptable alternatives reduces calorie intake and increases the availability of healthier snacks on the market, in turn reducing inflammation [13,14]; therefore, we tested the incorporation of such flour substitutes in different types of matrices, such as gluten-containing flours from spelt and kamut, which have been reported to cause less inflammatory responses than Triticum aestivum [15], oat, rice and buckwheat flours, which are the most consumed gluten-free flours [16]. ...
... Figure 5a shows that although all lupin-enriched savoury cookies, except for oat flour cookies, were able to significantly inhibit the gelatinase proteolytic activity (p < 0.05) at low levels (around 20%), the only physiologically relevant inhibition levels were observed for buckwheat and kamut flours at 39.6% and 38.9%, respectively, although both flours have been reported as having anti-inflammatory effects. Valli et al. [15] performed an in vitro study in HepG2 cells and reported that kamut bread had an anti-inflammatory activity when compared to other grains, while the anti-inflammatory effects of buckwheat have been reported in in vivo models of intestinal inflammation by reducing colonic mucosa inflammation [38] in comparison with the controls, showing that the activity detected was not due to their intrinsic activity but rather due to the effect of incorporating the LE with anti-MMP-9 activity, as previously reported by Lima et al. [8]. The reasons for the differences found in the different flours could be somewhat related to the amounts of starches and sugary molecules in each one. ...
... As for kamut cookies, both controls and LE-containing cookies reduced HT29 cell migration, suggesting that this was due to other components of this flour. Previous reports have shown that kamut can cause less inflammatory responses than wheat [15]; however, this is, to our knowledge, the first report on this type of activity in this cereal. ...
Article
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Previous reports have shown that lupin protein extracts (LE) contain a polypeptide named deflamin with a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 inhibitory activity. The aim of our study was to develop an efficient delivery method for incorporating deflamin into cookies using different alternative flours. A lupin protein concentrate (10 g protein/100 g cookie dough) was added to gluten and gluten-free flours to produce savoury cookies, and its impacts on the physical properties of doughs and cookies, as well on the maintenance of deflamin’s anti-MMP-9 activity, were analysed. The results showed that the biochemical compositions of all cookies with LE presented higher protein and ash contents when compared to the control cookies. Rice, buckwheat and oat doughs were firmer than the others, whereas the addition of LE to kamut and buckwheat flours made cookies significantly firmer than the controls. Additionally, strong interactions between LE and several flours were observed, yielding different impacts on the MMP-9 bioactivity. Overall, the only flour that did not interfere with the desired nutraceutical activities was buckwheat, with 60% MMP-9 inhibitory activity and a concomitant reduction of colon cancer migration; hence, buckwheat flour was revealed to be a good vehicle to deliver bioactive deflamin, showing strong potential as a functional food to be used in preventive or curative approaches to gastrointestinal diseases.
... A study performed under in vitro inflamed conditions reported that ancient Triticum grains (spelt and kamut) had a less inflammatory activity by decreasing IL-8 production, when compared to the modern grains [8]. Another study showed a better response to oxidative stress in rats fed with kamut bread than with wheat bread [9]. ...
... However, wheat gluten consisting of glutenins and gliadins cause severe intestinal inflammation in individuals suffering with celiac disease or other forms of gluten intolerance [6]. Hence, several alternative flours have an increase in demand, such as spelt and kamut, as is the case for species of the Triticum genus, but with a healthier nutritional profile than modern wheats, as they provide more nutraceutical compounds, vitamins and minerals [7,8]. ...
Article
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Legume proteins can be successfully used in bakery foods, like cookies, to obtain a protein-enriched product. A lupin extract (10 g/100 g) was added to gluten and gluten-free flours from different sources: rice, buckwheat, oat, kamut and spelt. The impact on the physical properties of the dough and cookies was evaluated for the different systems. Rice and buckwheat doughs were 20% firmer and 40% less cohesive than the others. The incorporation of lupin extract had a reduced impact on the shape parameters of the cookies, namely in terms of area and thickness. The texture differed over time and after eight weeks, the oat and buckwheat cookies enriched with lupin extract were significantly firmer than the cookies without lupin. The incorporation of lupin extract induced a certain golden-brown coloring on the cookies, making them more appealing: lightness (L*) values decreased, generally, for the cookies with lupin extract when compared to the controls. The aw and moisture content values were very low for all samples, suggesting a high stability food product. Hence, the addition of lupin extract brought some technological changes in the dough and cookies in all the flours tested but improved the final product quality which aligns with the trends in the food industry.
... β-cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia eventually fail at producing insulin and β-cell mass is lost to apoptosis. 50 at a molecular level, elevated glucose concentrations in blood cause overpro- 58 HepG2 cells were treated with ultra-filtered digesta after in vitro digestion. Bothtotal antioxidative capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content were increased in digesta of all analyzed breads except the one made of modern wheat (Redwin), for which a significant decrease of TAC was recorded. ...
... 59, 60 Therefore, the findings of Vali et al. suggest the protecting role of AW in NAFLD. 58 In particular, a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LdL and iL-8 was observed in a study involving 20 healthy volunteers of both genders after 10 weeks of Triticum aestivum Verna bread diet. 61 In another randomized, double-blinded crossover trial that was done on 45 healthy volunteers of both genders, the significant decrease in total cholesterol, LdL and blood glucose was also obtained after the consumption of AW (Verna, Gentil Rosso and Autonomia B heritage varieties) in comparison to modern wheat. ...
Article
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are two conditions that commonly exist together in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Several scientific advances in understanding this association have identified insulin resistance as the key point in the pathogenesis of both diseases. The first line treatment suggested in the management of these diseases is represented by lifestyle changes and in particular the modification of alimentary regimen, with the transition to a healthy diet. In this context, several studies have focused their attention on the identification of food products with beneficial actions, like ancient wheat (AW). AW are defined as the early cereals that were domesticated in their places of origin in the "Fertile Crescent" of the Middle East, and played a central role as a main source of food for the early civilizations in that region. The present narrative review aims to provide a systematic overview of the state of the art on the effects of AW on insulin resistance.
... Thus, incorporating YM leaves is an interesting alternative for the bakery industry. Bread is the main bakery product for incorporating bioactive ingredients due to its high level of consumption, being the most consumed type of food in the world, sensorial acceptance and diversity of products (Geng, Harnly, & Chen, 2016;Valli, Taccari, Di Nunzio, Danesi, & Bordoni, 2018). However, in the bread-making process, fermentation and baking are crucial steps and they determine the functional and quality characteristics of the end product. ...
Article
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Untargeted metabolomics analysis was applied to evaluate the phenolic profile of whole wheat bread with yerba mate (YM) during the bread-making process (flour, dough and bread). The free, bound and total phenolic contents of the samples evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed the highest values for the flour, dough and bread samples prepared with 4.5% YM in fine and medium particle sizes (flour 181.48 – 175.26 mg GAE/g; dough 149.62 – 141.40 mg GAE/g; and bread 148.32 – 147.00 mg GAE/g). Globally, 104 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, belonging to the five subclasses: flavonoids (35), phenolic acids (32), other polyphenols (10), stilbenes (2) and lignan (1). Of these compounds, 24 had the same m/z but showed different fragmentation profiles. A higher number of polyphenols was identified in the bound extracts (77%) than in the free extracts (59%). The addition of 4.5% of YM promoted an improved and more abundant profile of phenolic compounds in the dough and bread. The major compounds found in the samples containing YM were 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid. The baking process did not adversely affect the abundance of phenolic compounds. The bread-making process positively affected the phenolic profile due to the release of bound phenolic compounds. At the same time, the addition of YM as a natural ingredient promoted an increase in the polyphenols in the bread.
... The digestion process was performed on 50 g of bakery product or water (blank digestion) for 245 min (5 min of oral, 120 min of gastric and 120 min of intestinal digestion) at 37°C, according to the INFO-GEST standardized protocol (Minekus et al., 2014) as described in Valli, Taccari, Di Nunzio, Danesi, and Bordoni (2018). During in vitro digestion, simulated saliva (containing 75 U/mL α-amylase), simulated gastric juice (containing 2000 U/mL pepsin) at acid pH, and simulated pancreatic juice (containing 10 mM bile and 100 U/mL pancreatin) at neutral pH were added. ...
Article
Nowadays, the strong demand for adequate nutrition is accompanied by concern about environmental pollution and there is a considerable emphasis on the recovery and recycling of food by-products and wastes. In this study, we focused on the exploitation of olive pomace as functional ingredient in biscuits and bread. Standard and enriched bakery products were made using different flours and fermentation protocols. After characterization, they were in vitro digested and used for supplementation of intestinal cells (Caco-2), which underwent exogenous inflammation. The enrichment caused a significant increase in the phenolic content in all products, particularly in the sourdough fermented ones. Sourdough fermentation also increased tocol concentration. The increased concentration of bioactive molecules did not reflect the anti-inflammatory effect, which was modulated by the baking procedure. Conventionally fermented bread enriched with 4% pomace and sourdough fermented, not-enriched bread had the greatest anti-inflammatory effect, significantly reducing IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells. The cell metabolome was modified only after supplementation with sourdough fermented bread enriched with 4% pomace, probably due to the high concentration of tocopherol that acted synergistically with polyphenols. Our data highlight that changes in chemical composition cannot predict changes in functionality. It is conceivable that matrices (including enrichment) and processing differently modulated bioactive bioaccessibility, and consequently functionality.
... There are enough data published referring to element concentrations in grains and flours, as shown in Results and discussion. Furthermore, gluten-free products, ancient crops as well as the physical and sensory characteristics of whole grain products have been investigated recently [8][9][10][11][12][13]. However, a comparison of the elemental composition of whole flour and white flour from spelt, rye, and wheat as well as their final goods at once has not been done. ...
Article
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Concentrations of 27 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, and U) in grain, flour, different bread and pasta samples, all bought in Austria, were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In total, we have investigated 73 grain and flour samples, including rye (Secale cereale), spelt (Triticum spelta) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), and additional 54 bread samples and 21 pasta samples. All investigated samples were within legal limits and show no health risk with respect to metal contamination. Furthermore, the importance of whole flour over white flour in bread and pasta to meet the daily requirements with respect to major and trace elements is demonstrated.
... The Western diet places a large emphasis on processed grains and animal protein, which are primarily macronutrients, when medical evidence suggests a healthy eating plan should be rich in vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts and seeds. Industrial researchers continue the search for product formulations with enhanced nutrition [65,66], but whole foods remain our best bet for attaining health and wellness. ...
Article
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Integrative medicine is becoming increasingly important for a patient population afflicted with preventable illnesses such as cardiometabolic disease. Diet and nutrition are an under-tapped opportunity in health care for improving wellness and patient-centered health outcomes. Key nutritional principles are reviewed for alternate dietary strategies patients choose from in pursuit of healthy living or to alleviate chronic illness. Whole food eating plans are discussed including plant-based, Mediterranean, Paleo, and ketogenic diets as well as the specific carbohydrate and low FODMAP diets for colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Opposed to the traditional categorization of diets by macronutrient composition, it is more useful to discuss the nutritional quality of specific foods and available micronutrients. Cardiovascular and other risk factors are reviewed for foods and food combinations, supporting a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts/seeds, and seafood omega-3 fats.Nutrition and lifestyle education is needed to counsel patients on the best dietary strategy that ensures their adherence and improves long-term health outcomes.
... Protein content in the cell lysate was determined spectrophotometrically by Comassie assay according to Valli et al. [34], using bovine serum albumin as the standard. ...
Article
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Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. Less is known on the potential effect of sourdough fermentation, which might be worth exploring as the biological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form and sourdough fermentation is known to cause transformations of nutrients and phytochemicals, including the conversion of inorganic selenium into organic selenocompounds. Here we investigated the bio transformation of selenium by sourdough fermentation in a typical Italian flatbread (piadina) made with standard (control) or selenium-enriched flour. The different piadina were submitted to in vitro digestion, and the biological activity of the resulting hydrolysates was tested by means of cultured human liver cells exposed to an exogenous oxidative stress. The use of selenium-enriched flour and sourdough fermentation increased the total content of bioaccessible selenium in organic form, compared to conventional fermentation, and led to protective effects counteracting oxidative damage in cultured cells. The present study suggests that selenium-rich, sourdough-fermented bakery products show promise for improving human selenium nutrition whenever necessary.
... Ancient varieties of durum wheat have received recent attention due to their functional and toxicological characteristics (Cooper, 2015;Valli et al., 2018). Following this rediscover process, comparative experiments with modern scientific approaches are encouraged to evaluate physiological and agronomic properties of these wheat varieties. ...
Article
Durum wheat is widespread cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, where it is used to produce high-quality semolina for pasta. Although over the years local and ancient wheat cultivars have been replaced by new ones, better suited to intensive cultivation, the increasing demand of consumers for nutritional and sensory qualities, as well as their attention to sustainable agronomic practices, renewed the interest toward traditional varieties. In order to fully exploit their agronomical and nutritional potential, a systematic analysis of molecular traits would be desirable. Nowadays, this examination is greatly facilitated by the current availability of high-throughput genomic and proteomic methods, which are integrated with classical measurements on plant physiology. To this purpose, we performed a comparative study on germination performances, hormone level variations, and differential protein representations of three-days germinated shoots of two traditional wheat cultivars from Southern Italy, namely Senatore Cappelli and Saragolla, and the commercial elite variety Svevo. Two-dimensional electrophoresis- and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis revealed 45 differentially represented spots, which were associated with 32 non-redundant protein species grouping into storage, stress/defense and metabolism/energy production functional categories. Major differences in the traditional varieties concerned over-representation of glutenins, gamma-gliadin and some enzymes of glycolysis and TCA cycle, as well as a down-representation of proteins involved in the response to stress conditions. These features were here discussed in relation to the hormone profile and the known agronomic features of traditional varieties, as compared to the commercial one.
... A low pH favors the absorption of minerals such as calcium and magnesium. It also reduces the toxic side effects of luminal ammonia by promoting its absorption as NH 4 + by the bacterial mass and its removal through faeces instead of urine as NH 3 [11]. ...
Article
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit which is considered to be a source of dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic compounds (PCs). In this study, high DF mango-based fruit bars were developed from whole mango (peel and pulp). The bars were evaluated for their nutritional composition, the bioaccesibility of PCs during gastrointestinal digestion, and the PCs metabolites profile after in vitro colonic fermentation. The amount of DF in a 30 g portion of mango bars was 9.5 g, i.e., 35% of the recommended daily intake. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid; cinnamic acids, such as ferulic, coumaric, and caffeic acids; flavonoids such as quercertin; and xanthones such as mangiferin and mangiferin gallate, were identified as the main PCs in the bars. The antioxidant capacity associated with the PCs profile, together with the high DF content are indicative of the potential functional features of these natural fruit bars. The bioaccesibility of PCs in the mango bar was 53.78%. During fermentation, the PCs were bioconverted mainly to hydroxyphenolic acids and the main short-chain fatty acid produced was acetic acid. The xanthone norathyriol was identified after 12 h of fermentation. This study on the digestion and colonic fermentation of mango-based bars using in vitro models provides hints of the potential physiological behavior of PCs associated with DF, which constitutes relevant information for further development of natural and health-promoting fruit-based bars.
... Other foods have been tested to determine their influence on inflammatory status. For example, digested einkorn-based bread was tested with stimulated Caco-2 cells, achieving a significant reduction in IL-6 production [53], and similar levels of ROS and NO inhibition were observed using digested bread with HepG2 cells [54]. Cytokines were also shown to be downregulated by bile salt used in digestion [55]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, more consumers demand healthier products. A way to offer such products is to functionalize them using health-promoting bioactive compounds. Meat and meat products are high in essential nutrients; however, their excessive consumption implies a high intake of other substances that, at levels above recommended uptake limits, have been linked to certain non-communicable chronic diseases. An effective way to reduce this danger is to reformulate meat products. In this study, natural botanical extracts rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds were used to improve the health properties of a cooked ham with an optimal nutritional profile (i.e., low in fat and salt). The RAW 264.7 mouse cell line was used as an inflammatory model and was stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide to evaluate changes in inflammatory biomarkers such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, the interleukins (ILs) IL-1β and IL-6, nitric oxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that the use of natural extracts in optimized cooked ham significantly downregulated inflammatory markers and reduced the levels of intracellular ROS. Thus, the present study proposed a new functional cooked ham with potential health properties via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in vitro activity.
... Recently, there have been claims made stating that consumption of modern wheat cultivars in foods such as bread is related to obesity and subsequent metabolic syndrome because of changes in starch content compared with ancient wheat (Arzani & Ashraf, 2017;Brouns et al., 2013;Dinu, Whittaker, Pagliai, Benedettelli, & Sofi, 2018). Some research conducted on durum wheat indicated that ancient wheat is related to positive effects in human cultured cells (Valli, Taccari, Nunzio, Danesi, & Bordoni, 2018); however, another study indicated that modern wheat is not necessarily related to negative effects on human health (De Santis et al., 2018). The aim of this research was to analyze the starch composition, starch fractions, and estimated glycemic index (eGI) in white flour and bread made with historic and modern HRS wheat cultivars that were grown under the same environmental conditions to determine whether there were differences due to the genotype. ...
Article
Background and objectives There have been concerns that there is a link between the carbohydrate properties of modern wheat cultivars and increasing levels of obesity and diabetes worldwide. This research was conducted to determine starch composition and digestibility of thirty historic and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars and to evaluate whether there were statistical differences between the genotypes in relationship to the release year. Findings There were no significant differences (p < .05) between historic and modern wheat cultivars for amylose content in flour or for amylose and amylopectin molecular weight in flour and bread samples. Starch digestibility in bread did not show significant differences (p < .05) among cultivars, and there was no significant correlation (p < .05) with the release year and the SDS, HI, and eGI. Conclusions Starch digestibility of bread prepared from historic and modern wheat cultivars is not related to release year. It is unlikely that wheat breeding practices have caused wheat to be more rapidly digestible and the digestibility could be more related with the bread‐making process or formula than the release year. Significance and novelty Knowledge about the effect of the release year on starch in historical and modern wheat cultivars helps us to support that wheat breeding is not related to increased incidence of chronic disease.
... Its principal ingredient is wheat flour, although other cereals can be also used, and it constitutes a major part of the average daily diet (Shewry, 2009). Bread is considered an important food for human nutrition due to its energetic value and content of proteins, vitamins, micronutrients, antioxidants and fibre (Valli, Taccari, Di Nunzio, Danesi, & Bordoni, 2018). ...
Article
In Mediterranean countries, and in Sardinia in particular, durum wheat is traditionally used for bread production and modern cultivars have gradually replaced the use of old landraces due to the poor technological quality of the latter. However, recent escalation in customer demand for old varieties thanks to an appreciation of their nutritional properties, as well as ecological issues, has led to the need for technological improvements able to enhance the rheological performance of the old varieties to support their diffusion. The aim of this study was to assess whether the baking performance of an Old Italian wheat cultivar, Russello wheat, could be improved through the addition of different hydrocolloids (methylcellulose, guar, psyllium, xanthan and tara). The effects of two different concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of each hydrocolloid on the rheological properties, pasting, fermentation and microstructural properties of dough were assessed, and the results compared with those obtained using a modern durum wheat cultivar flour. Significant differences were found in the dough obtained with hydrocolloids. In particular, dough extensibility was increased with 1% psyllium or xanthan gum, whereas the gas retention coefficient was increased with all hydrocolloids. The pasting properties were modified via an increase in the final viscosity and setback value compared with control semolina (with the exception of methylcellulose); this resulted in a more homogeneous dough structure with a compact appearance and the absence of any deep interruptions in the gluten network as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.
... Despite these differences, which appear quite modest at the nutritional level, when the flours or their extracts are added to cell cultures, the differences between ancient or heritage grains and modern ones become more easily detectable [85]. When switching to clinical trials, performed on patients and on healthy subjects, all doubts disappear and diets based on ancient or heritage cultivars always showed clear advantages in terms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. ...
Article
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Although ancient, heritage, and modern wheat varieties appear rather similar from a nutritional point of view, having a similar gluten content and a comparable toxicity linked to their undigested gluten peptide, whenever the role of ancient end heritage wheat grains has been investigated in animal studies or in clinical trials, more anti-inflammatory effects have been associated with the older wheat varieties. This review provides a critical overview of existing data on the differential physiological responses that could be elicited in the human body by ancient and heritage grains compared to modern ones. The methodology used was that of analyzing the results of relevant studies conducted from 2010 through PubMed search, by using as keywords “ancient or heritage wheat”, “immune wheat” (protein or peptides), and immune gluten (protein or peptides). Our conclusion is that, even if we do not know exactly which molecular mechanisms are involved, ancient and heritage wheat varieties have different anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties with respect to modern cultivars. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that the health proprieties attributed to older cultivars could be related to wheat components which have positive roles in the modulation of intestinal inflammation and/or permeability.
... The digestion process was performed on 50 g of bakery product or water (blank digestion) for 245 min (5 min of oral, 120 min of gastric and 120 min of intestinal digestion) at 37°C, according to the INFO-GEST standardized protocol (Minekus et al., 2014) as described in Valli, Taccari, Di Nunzio, Danesi, and Bordoni (2018). During in vitro digestion, simulated saliva (containing 75 U/mL α-amylase), simulated gastric juice (containing 2000 U/mL pepsin) at acid pH, and simulated pancreatic juice (containing 10 mM bile and 100 U/mL pancreatin) at neutral pH were added. ...
Preprint
By-products represent a major disposal problem for the food industry, but they are also promising sources of bioactive compounds. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, bakery products enriched with defatted olive pomace powder and their conventional counterparts were chemical characterized and in vitro digested. The bioaccessible fractions were supplemented to cultured human intestinal cells exposed to an inflammatory stimulus, and the anti-inflammatory effect and metabolome modification were evaluated. Although in all bakery products the enrichment with olive pomace significantly increased the total phenolic content, this increase was paralleled by an enhanced anti-inflammatory activity only in conventionally fermented bread. Therefore, while confirming olive oil by-products as functional ingredients for bakery food enrichment, our data highlight that changes in chemical composition cannot predict changes in functionality. Functionality should be first evaluated in biological in vitro systems, and then confirmed in human intervention studies.
... Final detection was performed with enhanced chemiluminescence (Clarity TM Western ECL Substrate) Western Blotting detection kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the images were acquired using the ChemiDoc TM MP Imaging System (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Densitometry differences were analyzed with the Image Lab software and normalized for the total fluorescent protein signal intensity (Valli et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Desmin (DES) and Vimentin (VIM) exert an essential role in maintaining muscle cytoarchitecture and since are considered reliable markers for muscle regeneration, their expression has been extensively investigated in dystrophic muscles. Thus, exhibiting features similar to those of human dystrophic muscles, the present study aimed at assessing the distribution of VIM and DES proteins and the expression of the corresponding genes in Pectoralis major muscles affected by white striping (WS), wooden breast (WB), and spaghetti meat (SM) abnormalities as well as in those having macroscopically normal appearance (NORM). For this purpose, 20 Pectoralis major muscles (5/group) were collected from the same flock of fast-growing broilers to perform immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and gene expression. Immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased number of fibers immunoreactive to both VIM and DES in WS and WB, while only a few immunoreactive fibers were observed in NORM. Concerning the protein level, if compared with NORM, a 55% increase in VIM content was found in WB affected cases (P < 0.05) thus suggesting the development of intense regenerative processes in an early-stage within these muscles. The significantly higher amount of DES (+53%) found in WS might be attributed to a progression of the regenerative processes that require its synthesis to preserve the structural organization of the developing fibers. On the other hand, significantly lower VIM and DES contents were found in SM. About gene expression, VIM mRNA levels gradually increased from the NORM to the SM group, with significantly higher gene expressions in WB and SM samples compared to the NORM group (P = 0.009 for WB vs. NORM and P = 0.004 for SM vs. NORM). Similarly, the expression of DES gene showed an increase from the NORM to WB group (P = 0.05). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that intense regenerative processes take place in both WB and WS muscles although a different progression of regeneration might be hypothesized. On the other hand, the lack of correspondence between VIM gene expression and its protein product observed in SM suggests that VIM may also exert a role in the development of the SM phenotype.
... However, it has been recognized that the apical uptake phase has two distinct elements: a saturable, phloridzin-sensitive fraction (SGLT1) and a diffusive component, suggesting that more than one transporter may be involved. Studies have revealed that glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) is also expressed at the apical membrane of enterocytes (a) Viability was determined by conversion of the MTT salt to its formazan product detected at 560 nm using a Tecan Infinite M200 microplate reader (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) [15]. Cell viability was expressed as percentage of viability in control cells, assigned as 100%. ...
Article
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Although epidemiological studies indicate a strong correlation between high sugar intake and metabolic diseases, the biological mechanisms underlying this link are still controversial. To further examine the modification and crosstalk occurring in enterocyte metabolism during sugar absorption, in this study we evaluate the diffusion and intestinal metabolism of glucose, fructose and sucrose, which were supplemented in equimolar concentration to Caco-2 cells grown on polyester membrane inserts. At different time points after supplementation, changes in metabolite concentration were evaluated in the apical and basolateral chambers by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas-chromatography (GC). Sucrose was only minimally hydrolyzed by Caco-2 cells. Upon supplementation, we observed a faster uptake of fructose than glucose, the pentose sugar being also faster catabolized. Monosaccharide absorption was concomitant to the synthesis/transport of other metabolites, which occurred differently in glucose and fructose supplemented cells. Our results confirm the prominent role of intestinal cells in fructose metabolism and clearance after absorption, representing a further step forward in the understanding of the role of dietary sugars. Future research, including targeted analysis on specific transporters/enzymes and the use of labeled substrates, will be helpful to confirm the present results and their interpretation
... Valli et al. 20 . Each juice was digested in duplicate and the resulting final digested solutions were centrifuged at 50,000 g for 15 min. ...
Article
Background Although phenolic compounds have a role in the health benefits of fruit juice consumption, little is known about the effect of processing on their bioaccessibility. The release of phenolic compounds from the food matrix during digestion is an important pre‐requisite for their effectiveness within the human body, so it is fundamental to identify technological treatments able to preserve not only the concentration of phytochemicals but also their bioaccessibility. In this study we investigated the impact of high‐pressure homogenization (HPH), alone and in the presence of 100 g kg⁻¹ trehalose or Lactobacillus salivarius, on bioaccessibility of flavonoids in mandarin juice. In addition, digested mandarin juices were supplemented to liver cultured cells in basal and stressed condition to evaluate their protective effect in a biological system. Results HPH reduced the concentration of total phenolics and main flavonoids but increased their bioaccessibility after in vitro digestion (p < 0.001). In basal condition, supplementation with all digested juices significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration (p < 0.001). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in the medium was also reduced by supplementation with HPH‐treated juices. Although pre‐treatment with juices did not completely counteract the applied oxidative stress it preserved cell viability, and cells pre‐treated with juices submitted to HPH in the presence of probiotics showed the lowest ROS concentration. Conclusion Our study represents an important step ahead in the evaluation of the impact of processing on the nutritional and functional value of food, which cannot simply be assessed based on chemical composition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... TAC was measured in the chemical extracts and in the <3 kDa digested fraction, as reported in Valli et al. [40]. Values obtained were expressed as µmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of cookie. ...
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It is widely recognized that the biological effects of phytochemicals cannot be attributed to the native compounds present in foods but rather to their metabolites endogenously released after intake. Bioavailability depends on bioaccessibility, which is the amount of the food constituent that is released from the matrix in the gastrointestinal tract. The use of chemical extraction to evaluate the content and profile of phytochemicals does not mirror the physiological situation in vivo, and their bioaccessibility should be considered while assessing their nutritional significance in human health. The current study was designed to compare the (poly)phenolic profile and content and antioxidant capacity of whole-grain (WG) cookies using chemical extraction and a more physiological approach based on simulated digestion. Three types of organic WG cookies (made with durum, Italian khorasan, or KAMUT® khorasan wheat) were considered, either fermented by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae or sourdough. Although the flour type and the fermentation process influenced the release of phytochemicals from the cookie matrix, in almost all samples, the simulated digestion appeared the most efficient procedure. Our results indicate that the use of chemical extraction for evaluation of the phytochemicals content and antioxidant capacity of food could lead to underestimation and underline the need for more physiological extraction methods.
... Nonetheless, pseudocereals like amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and many others are obviously not included in the ancient wheats category, since they are not part of the genus Triticum. This new definition is supported by several authors in literature [3,7,8,[14][15][16] and by earlier work [2,4,6,12,13,16]. Finally, particularly in crisis situations like the actual COVID-19 pandemic, the revival of the cultivation and use of ancient wheats and the strengthening of short food supply chains and local productions might be essential to take a step forward in the safeguarding of the right of access to healthy and sustainable food [13,17]. ...
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Pasta, bread, and bakery products are considered worldwide as essential foods for human nutrition. In particular, ancient wheats and whole wheat flours, despite being able to provide health benefits via bioactive compounds, present significant technological problems related to poorer dough rheological properties and final product characteristics. Moreover, both the food industry and consumers are increasingly sensitive to environmental impacts, highlighting the urgent need for sustainable innovations and improvement strategies, from cradle to grave, for the entire production chains, thus motivating this review. The aim of this review is to provide technological innovations and improvement strategies to increase the sustainability, productivity, and quality of flours, pasta, bread, and bakery products. This review is focused on the main operations of the production chains (i.e., wheat cultivation, wheat milling, dough processing, and, finally, the manufacturing of pasta, bread, and bakery products). To achieve this goal, the use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) analysis proved to be an effective tool that can be used, from early stages, for the development of eco-friendly improvement strategies. The correct management of the wheat cultivation stage was found to be essential since it represents the most impacting phase for the environment. Successively, particular attention needs to be paid to the milling process, the kneading phase, to breadmaking, and, finally, to the manufacturing of pasta. In this review, several specifically developed solutions for these essential phases were suggested. In conclusion, despite further investigations being necessary, this review provided several innovations and improvement strategies, using an approach “from cradle to grave”, able to increase the sustainability, productivity, and final quality of flour, semolina, pasta, bread, and bakery products.
... The differences observed among the flours for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were not observed in bread, these two features were not affected by none of the factors (Table S2). Probably, the whole production process levelled the differences, thus ancient and modern grain final products were not discriminated based on these characteristics as reported by Valli et al. [26]. ...
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The aim of the work was to assess the influence of the leavening agent on several technological, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of breads prepared with whole soft wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) flours. As leavening agents in bread-making, baker’s yeast, biga, and sourdough were utilized. Two ancient varieties, Andriolo and Verna , and a modern grain variety, Bologna, were used. Analysis of the obtained breads included the measurement of the phenols content, the antioxidant activity, the in vitro protein and total digestibility, the texture profile, the crumb grain characteristics and the microbial shelf-life test. The results of the principle component analysis of bread features indicated a clustering depending especially on the leavening agent rather than on the employed flour, particularly when sourdough was used. Protein digestibility, crumb grain characteristics, and shelf-life led to the main differences among the samples. Ancient wheat flour displayed similar features when the same leavening agent was applied. Particularly, the use of sourdough levelled the differences due to flour, leading to breads with similar technological and nutritional characteristics. The findings highlighted a marked effect of the leavening agent on bread final characteristics.
... In the last decade, a rediscovery of ancient varieties took place, aiming to produce high value food products with great health benefits [2,3]. These beneficial properties were attributed to the presence of some nutrients, especially unsaturated fatty acids, soluble fibers, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals [3][4][5][6][7]. The highest concentration of such nutrients occurs in the outer layers of grains [8,9], thus explaining why the reduced risk of developing several diseases has been associated with an increased consumption of whole grains [10][11][12]. ...
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The effects of replacement of maize grain with ancient wheat by-products on intestinal morphometry and enzymatic activity in laying hens was studied. Eighty hens were divided into two groups (40 each, 8 replicates, 5 hens/replicate) fed two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. In the treated group, part of the maize was replaced by a mix of ancient grains (AGs) middling, in a 50:50 ratio of Triticum aestivum L. var. spelta (spelt) and Triticum durum dicoccum L. (emmer wheat). The AG diet affected the weight of all the large intestine tracts, decreasing the weight of caeca (p < 0.01) and increasing those of colon (p < 0.01), rectum and cloaca (p < 0.05). Villus height in the AG group was higher (p < 0.01) than the control for the duodenum and jejunum, while for the ileum, the control group showed the highest values (p < 0.01). The submucosa thickness was higher (p < 0.01) in the control group for the duodenum and ileum, while the jejunum for the AG group showed the highest (p < 0.05) submucosa thickness. The crypts depth was higher (p < 0.01) in the control group for the duodenum and ileum. Enzyme activity was enhanced by AGs (p < 0.01) in the duodenum. Regarding the jejunum, sucrase-isomaltase and alkaline phosphatase had higher activity (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) in the AG group. In the ileum, sucrase-isomaltase showed higher activity (p < 0.01) in the control group, while alkaline phosphatase showed the highest values (p < 0.05) in the AG group. Overall, results suggested that the dietary inclusion of AGs exerted positive effects in hens, showing an improved intestinal function.
... Cell viability was expressed as a percentage of the total cell number. -Cell viability was assessed using AlamarBlue® Cell Viability Reagent (Life Technologies Ltd.; Paisley, UK) and the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with slight modifications (Di Nunzio et al., 2013;Valli, Taccari, Di Nunzio, Danesi, & Bordoni, 2018). Cell viability was expressed as a percentage of the viability in control cells, assigned as 100%. ...
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Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2). The effect on the cell metabolome and the anti-inflammatory potential were then evaluated. Modification in the metabolome induced by supplementation clearly evidenced a metabolic shift toward a “glucose saving/accumulation” strategy that could have a role in maintaining anorexigenic hormone secretion and could explain the reported appetite-suppressing effect of the administration of polyphenol-rich food. In both basal and inflamed condition, supplementation significantly reduced the secretion of the main pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8. Thus, our data confirm the therapeutic potential of polyphenols, and specifically of olive pomace in intestinal bowel diseases. Although intervention studies are needed to confirm the clinical significance of our findings, the herein reported results pave the road for exploitation of olive pomace in the formulation of new, value-added foods. In addition, the application of a foodomics approach allowed observing a not hypothesized modulation of glucose metabolism.
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The present work aimed to assess flour properties and bread-making quality of “old” Italian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum.) cultivars (n = 7) by combining physicochemical evaluation and consumers’ perception. Old cultivars-flours and deriving bread had interesting physicochemical features when compared to a new one (Aquilante). Notably, bread derived from Abbondanza (old wheat cultivar) had the highest specific volume and bread made with Verna (old wheat cultivar) flour had comparable textural properties to Aquilante-based bread. These results suggested relevant impact of breeding on bread properties, but no trend was observed as function of the release year. For sensory evaluation, acceptability test revealed that bread made with Abbondanza cultivar gave the most appreciated bread similar to that made by the new cultivar. Check-all-that-apply test showed that none of the old cultivars-based breads directly matched the ideal product, but bread made with Abbondanza flour was the closest. Overall, physicochemical and sensory evaluations were aligned in their main outputs enabling the identification of some old cultivars with interesting bread-making quality that can be potentially used and further improved with an optimized breadmaking process for advanced breeding programs.
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Questo libro nasce dalla passione e dalla volontà di condividere, con una platea più ampia possibile, le conoscenze riguardo l’importantissima arte della macinazione. Non è rivolto soltanto a mugnai, panificatori, studiosi ed esperti del settore, ma bensì a tutti gli appassionati che desiderino approfondire o esplorare il fantastico mondo della macinazione. L’obiettivo non è soltanto quello di fornire una fotografia aggiornata sul funzionamento e degli effetti su farina, impasti e pane generati dall’operazione unitaria di macinazione; la volontà aggiuntiva è quella di suggerire strategie di miglioramento, in modo da fornire soluzioni pratiche, pronte e “su misura” per il lettore direttamente implicato nella produzione, con il secondo fine di stimolare la curiosità e la voglia d’innovazione in tutti quanti. Nonostante il cuore pulsante di questo testo rimanga l’operazione unitaria di macinazione, tanti spunti di riflessione riguardanti argomenti di grande attualità, come ad esempio la biodiversità, la sostenibilità, l’evoluzione delle varietà di frumento e il concetto di grani antichi, vengono proposti nella sezione introduttiva. Sperando che questo libro possa rappresentare una buona base di partenza per incitare e motivare gli innovatori di domani, vi ringrazio augurandovi buona lettura. links: Chiriotti Editori: https://shop.chiriottieditori.it/l'arte_della_macinazione Amazon: https://www.amazon.it/Larte-della-macinazione-Alessio-Cappelli/dp/8896027519/ref=sr_1_3?__mk_it_IT=%C3%85M%C3%85%C5%BD%C3%95%C3%91&dchild=1&keywords=cappelli+alessio&qid=1603895254&sr=8-3
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The study investigates rheological properties of dough and baking process made from flour obtained by milling grains from ancient varieties of wheat (einkorn, emmer and spelt), compared to common wheat flour dough (Arkadia variety). The findings show that einkorn flour dough and emmer flour dough present poor tolerance to mechanical processing and prolonged fermentation. These types of dough should be mixed through relatively short, and fermentation time should not exceed 80 minutes for einkorn dough and 45 minutes in the case of emmer dough. In the case of spelt flour dough, the optimum duration of mechanical processing and fermentation amounted to 10 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively. In terms of technological and baking parameters, spelt flour was most similar to the flour obtained by milling conventional wheat, and the superiority of the former was in fact identified in the case of selected factors. A one-stage method was used in the baking process and the bread was then subjected to organoleptic and physicochemical assessments and to texture profile analysis (TPA). Measurements were also performed to determine the indicators reflecting the quality of the baking processes, including dough yield, baking loss and bread yield. The physical parameters of the bread produced were significantly related to the wheat variety. The loaves made from einkorn and spelt flour were of good quality, comparable to the bread made from the conventional wheat, while their baking quality indicators were satisfying. Bread dough made from emmer flour did not meet the required parameters mainly related to the organoleptic assessment and selected physical properties of the bread crumb. However, the one-stage production method should not be applied to doughs made from emmer flour. Given the specific characteristics of the breads produced from the ancient wheat varieties, including their pleasant taste and aroma, as well as attractive colour in the case of einkorn bread, these baked products may be an interesting addition to the assortment of breads on offer from bakeries, restaurants and agritourist farms.
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Gut microbial fermentation of soluble dietary fibers promotes general and substrate-specific health benefits. In this study, the fermentation characteristics of two soluble branched-dietary fibers, namely, agavin (a type of agave fructans) and digestion-resistant maltodextrin (RD) were investigated against cellulose, using a simulated colonic fermenter apparatus employing a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria. After 48 h of complete fermentation period, the microbial composition was different among all groups, where Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. dominated the agavin treatment, while the members of the families Lachnospiraceae and Prevotellaceae dominated the RD treatment. Agavin treatment exhibited a clearly segregated two-phased prolonged fermentation trend compared to RD treatment as manifested by the fermentation rates. Further, the highest short-chain fatty acids production even at the end of the fermentation cycle, acidic pH, and the negligible concentration of ammonia accumulation demonstrated favorable fermentation attributes of agavin compared to RD. Therefore, agavin might be an effective and desirable substrate for the colonic microbiota than RD with reference to the expressed microbial taxa and fermentation attributes. This study revealed a notable significance of the structural differences of fermentable fibers on the subsequent fermentation characteristics.
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The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion of three kinds of fermented kiwifruit pulps with different lactobacillus (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei). The changes of bioactive substances (total phenolic acid, total flavonoid, Vitamin C and the viable count), anti‐oxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity) and phenolic profiles (protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p‐coumaric acid) were detected. The result showed compared to non‐fermented kiwifruit pulp, fermentation with LP and LA had higher content of TPA, TF and VC, as well as anti‐oxidant capacity. Fermentation with LP, the content of protocatechualdehyde, p‐coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid were increased. However, after digestion, LP showed more effect in maintaining the content of anti‐oxidants, anti‐oxidant capacity and the viable count rather than LA. During digestion, the content of protocatechualdehyde and p‐coumaric acid were increased in fermented samples compared with non‐fermented samples. Overall, comparing with LA and LC, LP more suitable for the fermentation of kiwifruit pulp.
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Nivalenol (NIV), a type B trichothecenes commonly found in cereal crops, can cause growth impairment in animals. However, limited information about its mechanisms is available. Trichothecenes have been characterized as an inhibitor of protein synthesis and induce apoptosis in cells. Oxidative stress is considered an underlying mechanism. However, whether NIV can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat pituitary cells line GH3 is unclear. The present study showed that NIV significantly reduced the viability of cells and caused oxidative stress in GH3 cells. Further experiments showed that nitric oxide (NO), but not ROS, mediated NIV-induced oxidative stress. Additionally, NIV induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. However, NIV-induced caspase activation, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis were partially alleviated by Z-VAD-FMK or NO scavenger hemoglobin. Finally, NIV changed the expression of growth-associated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. NIV also reduced the GH secretion in GH3 cells, which was reversed by hemoglobin. Taken together, these results suggested that NIV induced apoptosis in caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in GH3 cells, which might be an underlying mechanism of NIV-induced GH deficiency. Importantly, NO played a critical role in the induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis and GH deficiency in NIV-treated GH3 cells.
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A number of studies have suggested that ancient wheats have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat. However, the mechanisms are unclear and many of the studies lack confirmation in independent laboratories. Furthermore, limited numbers of genotypes have been studied, with a particular focus on Kamut® (Khorasan wheat). This limited range of genotypes is important because published analyses have shown wide variation in composition between wheat genotypes, with further effects of growth conditions. The present article therefore critically reviews published comparisons of the health benefits of ancient and modern wheats in relation to the selection and growth of the lines, including dietary interventions and comparisons of adverse effects (allergy, intolerance, sensitivity). It is concluded that further studies are urgently required, particularly from a wider range of research groups, but also on a wider range of genotypes of ancient and modern wheat species. Furthermore, although most published studies have made efforts to ensure the comparability of material in terms of growth conditions and processing, it is essential that these are standardised in future studies and this should perhaps be a condition of publication.
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Background Foodstuffs of both plant and animal origin contain a wide range of bioactive compounds. Although human intervention studies are mandatory to assess the health effects of bioactives, the in vitro approach is often used to select the most promising molecules to be studied in vivo. To avoid misleading results, concentration and chemical form, exposure time, and potential cytotoxicity of the tested bioactives should be carefully set prior to any other experiments. Methods In this study the possible cytotoxicity of different bioactives (docosahexaenoic acid, propionate, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, protocatechuic acid), was investigated in HepG2 cells using different methods. Bioactives were supplemented to cells at different concentrations within the physiological range in human blood, alone or in combination, considering two different exposure times. Results Reported data clearly evidence that in vitro cytotoxicity is tightly related to the exposure time, and it varies among bioactives, which could exert a cytotoxic effect even at a concentration within the in vivo physiological blood concentration range. Furthermore, co-supplementation of different bioactives can increase the cytotoxic effect. Conclusions Our results underline the importance of in vitro cytotoxicity screening that should be considered mandatory before performing studies aimed to evaluate the effect of bioactives on other cellular parameters. Although this study is far from the demonstration of a toxic effect of the tested bioactives when administered to humans, it represents a starting point for future research aimed at verifying the existence of a potential hazard due to the wide use of high doses of multiple bioactives.
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Background: Cytokines and chemokines (CC) play a central role in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Neutralising antibodies for single proinflammatory cytokines have developed into a powerful, though expensive and not always curative therapeutic strategy for severe diseases. Considering the redundancy of CC functions, network (N) rather than single target approaches are essential. Phytopharmaceuticals, common adjuvant therapies, are known modulators of a broad spectrum of CCs, but as complex mixtures with multiple targets they have not been systematically investigated. We investigated the effect of clinically established salicylate-based phytopharmaceuticals alone or in combination on CCNs under non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions, using fibroblasts being a major source of cytokines in connective tissue diseases. Methods: Synchronised human skin fibroblasts (HSKF) were treated for 6 h with standardised fluid plant extracts (E) of Populus tremula L. [end concentration: 0.06%, 0.1%], Solidago virgaurea L. [0.02%, 0.1%], Fraxinus excelsior L. [0.02%, 0.1%], an established combination of the three extracts-STW1 [0.05, 0.1%] and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) [30 µg/ml], individually or in the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) [10 µg/ml]. Cell lysates were profiled for 23 cytokines. Supernatants were investigated for IL-6 and IL-8 release (ELISA). Total RNA was isolated for gene-expression profiling. Results: Under non-inflammatory conditions P. tremula E and ASA increased cellular proteins (P) IL-8 and IL-10; S. virgaurea E modulated IL-1α, IL-10, IL-15 and Groα (P). F. excelsior decreased IL-1α and IL-15 (P). The combination of the three extracts (STW1) modulated IL-1α, IL-3 and TNF-ß (P). LPS stimulation increased cellular IL-8, Groα, MCP-1 and RANTES (P) and increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 into the medium. Under these inflammatory conditions F. excelsior reduced GMCSF, GCSF and RANTES. STW1 reduced IL-1α, IL-8, Groα, and MCP-1(P). Secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 was reduced by STW1 and ASA. Gene expression profiles supported non-additive CCN profiles. Conclusion: Salicylate based phytopharmaceuticals provoke cellular pro-and anti-inflammatory CCN responses under non-stress conditions, which adapt to anti-inflammatory responses after LPS-stimulation. CCN-profiles of the single extracts are not additives in combination. A simultaneous activation of cellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might heighten the immunological reactivity status of a cell.
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After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT® trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT® khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.
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The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3.
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Hulled, or ancient, wheats were the earliest domesticated wheats by mankind and the ancestors of current wheats. Their cultivation drastically decreased during the 1960s; however, the increasing demand for a healthy and equilibrated diet led to rediscovering these grains. Our aim was to use a non-targeted metabolomic approach to discriminate and characterize similarities and differences between ancient Triticum varieties. For this purpose, 77 hulled wheat samples from three different varieties were collected: Garfagnana T. turgidum var. dicoccum L. (emmer), ID331 T. monococcum L. (einkorn) and Rouquin T. spelta L. (spelt). The ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) metabolomics approach highlighted a pronounced sample clustering according to the wheat variety, with an excellent predictability (Q²), for all the models built. Fifteen metabolites were tentatively identified based on accurate masses, isotopic pattern, and product ion spectra. Among these, alkylresorcinols (ARs) were found to be significantly higher in spelt and emmer, showing different homologue composition. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholines (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC) levels were higher in einkorn variety. The results obtained in this study confirmed the importance of ARs as markers to distinguish between Triticum species and revealed their values as cultivar markers, being not affected by the environmental influences.
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It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF- κ B, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca 2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System.
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There is an increased amount of evidence showing that consumption of whole grains and whole-grain-based products is associated with a reduction of the risk of developing many diseases, due mainly to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of their components.In this study, cookies, baked using different types of flours and fermentation methods, were digested in vitro and supplemented to cultured liver cells. Three different flours (ancient KAMUT® khorasan wheat grown in North America, ancient khorasan wheat grown in Italy, and modern durum wheat) and two different types of fermentation (standard and lactic fermentation) were used. This experimental design allowed us to supplement cells with a real food part of the human diet, and to consider possible differences related to the food matrix (types of flour) and processing (methods of fermentation). Cells were supplemented with the bioaccessible fractions derived from cookies in vitro digestion. Although results herein reported highlight the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of all the supplementations, cookies made with khorasan flours appeared the most effective, particularly when the ancient grain was grown in North America under the KAMUT® brand. In light of the attempts to produce healthier food, this study underlines the importance of the type of grain to obtain baked products with an increased nutritional and functional value.
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A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.
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This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated.
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Pigments are essential to the life of all living organisms. Animals and plants have been the subjects of basic and applied research with the aim of determining the basis of the accumulation and physiological roles of pigments. In crop species, the edible organs show large variations in colour. In durum wheat grain, which is a staple food for humans, the colour is mainly due to two natural classes of pigment: carotenoids and anthocyanins. The carotenoids provide the yellow pigmentation of the durum wheat endosperm, and consequently of the semolina, which has important implications for the marketing of end products based on durum wheat. Anthocyanins accumulate in the aleurone or pericarp of durum wheat and provide the blue, purple and red colours of the grain. Both the carotenoids and the anthocyanins are known to provide benefits for human health, in terms of decreased risks of certain diseases. Therefore, accumulation of these pigments in the grain represents an important trait in breeding programs aimed at improving the nutritional value of durum wheat grain and its end products. This review focuses on the biochemical and genetic bases of pigment accumulation in durum wheat grain, and on the breeding strategies aimed at modifying grain colour.
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Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems. Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents). Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free) content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed. Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.
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Wholegrain consumption is associated with several health benefits, in contrast to the consumption of refined grains. This can partly be related to the antioxidant compounds in the outer parts of the grain kernel. The bioaccessibility of these antioxidant compounds from the wholegrain matrix during gastrointestinal digestion is crucial for their absorption and bioavailability. In the current study, the bioaccessible compounds from aleurone, bran and flour were obtained from a dynamic in vitro model of the upper gastrointestinal tract. They were collected at 1 h time intervals to assess their antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay) and also their anti-inflammatory effect (TNF-α reduction in U937 macrophages stimulated with LPS). The bioaccessible compounds from aleurone had the highest antioxidant capacity and provided a prolonged anti-inflammatory effect, shown by the TNF-α reduction of a relatively late time-interval (3–4 h after start of digestion). The contribution of ferulic acid to those effects was minor due to its low bioaccessibility. Aleurone seems a promising wheat fraction for cereal products with a healthy added value.
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In order to assess the effect of genotype, location and their interaction on total phenolic content (TPC) of chemical extracts, the whole grains of durum and soft wheat, oat, barley and triticale were evaluated. Data showed differences in phenolic content of chemical extracts among cereal species and the analysis of variance confirmed the key role of location. Besides TPC and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values assessed by chemical extraction were compared with those obtained with an in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction. Differences were found between methanolic and enzymatic extracts, and data confirmed that enzymatic technique enhanced extraction of antioxidants but pointed out lesser differences among cereal types. The breads obtained by flours enriched with different levels of bran were also evaluated. Chemical extracts highlighted the increasing levels of antioxidants according to bran enrichments, without pointing out changes caused by baking. The enzymatic extraction instead did not show differences regarding to bran enrichments, but documented a loss in antioxidant properties of breads in respect to corresponding flours. On the other hand the scarce differences between flours and corresponding breads did not allow asserting that baking modified the TPC and TEAC, independently of the extraction methods used. Indeed, during baking process, also the observed phenolic acids profile variations did not vary the antioxidant properties of breads.
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Wheat is the major staple food in many diets. Based on the increase in worldwide mortality attributable to diet-related chronic diseases, there is an increasing interest in identifying wheat species with greater health potential, more specifically for improved anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties. In particular, ancient varieties (defined as those species that have remained unchanged over the last hundred years) are gaining interest since several studies suggested that they present a healthier nutritional profile than modern wheats. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of ancient wheats varieties, providing a summary of all in vitro, ex vivo, animal and human studies that have thus far been published. Differences in chemical composition, and biochemical and clinical implications of emmer, einkorn, spelt, khorasan and various regional Italian varieties are discussed. Although many studies based on in vitro analyses of grain components provide support to the premise of a healthier nutritional and functional potential of ancient wheat, other in vitro studies performed are not in support of an improved potential of ancient varieties. In the light of existing evidence derived from in vivo experiments, the ancient wheat varieties have shown convincing beneficial effects on various parameters linked to cardio-metabolic diseases such as lipid and glycaemic profiles, as well as the inflammatory and oxidative status. However, given the limited number of human trials, it is not possible to definitively conclude that ancient wheat varieties are superior to all modern counterparts in reducing chronic disease risk.
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Introduction: Acrylamide (AA), a well-known food neo-contamination, can be produced during food preparing at high temperature. The immunotoxicity of AA have been revealed in the experimental animals. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for the immunotoxicity of AA. Methods: The mice splenocytes exposed to AA concentrations (0,5,10 and 25 mM) and apoptosis cell death was measured through Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining by flow cytometry method. The role of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways were evaluated respectively by activity of caspase-8 and-9. Furthermore, the spleen mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation from mice and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints were determined after AA exposure. Results: Exposure of splenocytes to AA increased the splenocytes' apoptotic cell death. Also, increased activation of both caspase-8 and-9 were observed in mice splenocytes after AA exposure. Treatment of isolated mitochondria with AA lead to disturbance in activity of complex I and III of mitochondrial electron transfer chain that result in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. These events were accompanied by mitochondrial membrane swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and significant falling of mitochondrial activity. Conclusion: AA-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction along with mitochondrial oxidative damage seems to be critical events leading to activation of caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death in spleen that finally can attenuate immune system's function.
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Bread crust is one of the major contributors to the intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP). MRP improve the organoleptic properties of foods and can provide biological actions such as antioxidant properties. The transport and availability of Amadori compounds (measured as furosine) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)—early and intermediary MRP—from enzymatically digested bread crust (BC) and from its soluble low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions were investigated in the Caco-2 cell line. The absorption of the early and final MRP pool was tested by measuring the absorbance recovery (280 and 420 nm). The ability of soluble BC or its fractions to lessen the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined. Amadori compounds (furosine) were transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers from the soluble BC in percentages ranging between 40% and 56%; the lower amount of the compound supplied, the higher transport rate. However, HMF transport rate (35%) was unaffected by the initial amount of the compound. Amadori compounds and HMF contained in the LMW fraction were more efficiently transported than those present in the HMW fraction, suggesting improved absorption when supplied as free forms or linked to LMW compounds. Absorbance recovery at 280 nm was higher from the LMW fraction, whereas higher recovery was detected for the HMW fraction at 420 nm. The digested BC—but not its isolated fractions—was able to significantly reduce ROS production at basal conditions and after subjecting cells to an oxidant. A clear positive action of BC on the antioxidant defence is manifested, seemingly attributable to the combined presence of soluble LMW and HMW products.
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While much is known about the benefits of oat fiber, the relevance of phenolics from oat based food products remains unclear. To gain insight into the relevance of phenolics from consumer oat products, the content of phenolics and avenanthramides (AVEs) was followed in 10 oat cultivars as well as milled oat ingredients and ready to eat (RTE) consumer products (puffed cereals and snack bars). Free phenolic content ranged from 17.2 to 228.1 μg g(-1) DW with AVEs accounting for 57.3-90.6% of the total free phenolics. Bound phenolic content ranged from 141.4 to 680.9 μg g(-1) DW with ferulic acid accounting for 62-94% of the bound phenolics. Select oat groats were ground to flour and prepared as wet cooked porridges (∼20% oat flour in boiling water) or introduced as RTE products into a three stage in vitro digestion to determine phenolic bioaccessibility. The relative bioaccessibility for wet cooked porridges ranged from 0.3-2.6% and from 2.9-28.8% for individual phenolic acids and AVEs, respectively. Puffed oat cereal had significantly higher bioaccessibility compared to matching wet-cook porridge made from the same oat flour (e.g. 83.8% versus 19.1% for AVE A; p < 0.05). Intestinal uptake of bioaccessible oat phenolics from digesta was confirmed by experiments with Caco-2 human intestinal cells. The overall intestinal uptake of oat phenolics was low, ranging between 0.16% and 2.71% across digesta from all oat products. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrate that phenolics naturally present in whole grain oats are recovered well through traditional grain processing, milling and food processing. Furthermore, processing of oat cultivars into a RTE cereal may have a positive impact on the digestive release and bioaccessibility of oat phenolics in the upper GI tract.
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Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) contribute to the dietary intake of vitamin A and are associated with decreased risk of many chronic diseases. Besides their contents in foods, their bioaccessibility is of great interest since it represents the amount that will be absorbed in the gut. The aim of this study was to adopt, for the first time, the in vitro digestion model suitable for food, proposed in a consensus paper by Minekus et al. (2014), to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from the fruits that are the major contributors to the intake of β-cryptoxanthin in Spain (orange, tangerine, red pepper, peach, watermelon, and persimmon) and loquat. The highest β-cryptoxanthin content and the lowest bioaccessibility was found in mandarin and loquat (13331.6 and 929.2 μg per 100 g respectively), whereas the highest contents of β-carotene and α-carotene were recorded in red pepper (1135.3 and 90.4 μg per 100 g respectively). The bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin was similar to that of β-carotene (0.02-9.8% and 1-9.1%, respectively) and was higher than that of β-carotene in red pepper, watermelon and peach. α-Carotene bioaccessibility ranged between 0% and 4.6%. We discuss the critical factors for comparing our data: the form of the food being analyzed (raw/cooked/previously frozen, in the presence or absence of oil/fat) and the protocol for bioaccessibility assessment. Different food processing techniques may increase carotenoid bioaccessibility compared to raw food. However, given the difficulties encountered when comparing the results of studies on bioaccessibility, it seems logical to propose the application of the previously mentioned standardized in vitro protocol.
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The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads.
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Total alkylresorcinol (AR) content and homologue composition were assessed in whole grain flours of 15 varieties each of bread wheat, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn grown in four different environments. Bread wheat (761 ± 92 μg/g DM) and spelt (743 ± 57 μg/g) belonging to the hexaploid species showed higher AR concentrations than the tetraploid durum (654 ± 48 μg/g, p < 0.05), while the concentrations found in the diploid einkorn (737 ± 91 μg/g) and the tetraploid emmer (697 ± 94 μg/g) did not significantly differ from the other species. The AR content showed a remarkable heritability and, thus, seemed to be mainly determined by genetic factors. If ARs were assumed to be deposited within a specific AR-rich layer of the kernel, AR levels of all varieties would easily surpass their minimal inhibitory concentrations against fungal pathogens within this barrier layer. Although the AR carrying a C21:0 side chain was the main homologue in all species, the levels of all AR homologues and their relative composition significantly differed between hexaploid (bread wheat and spelt), tetraploid (durum and emmer) and diploid (einkorn) species. Consequently, a clear-cut differentiation of Triticum species and derived whole grain flours according to their degrees of ploidy was established based on concentrations of saturated C17-, C19-, C21-, C23-, and C25-substituted ARs.
Article
Aim: The main objective was to investigate the physiological effects of ancient wheat whole grain flour diets on the development and progression of type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, and specifically to look at the acute glycemic responses. Methods: An intervention study was conducted, involving 40 ZDF rats consuming one of 5 different diets (emmer, einkorn, spelt, rye and refined wheat) for 9 weeks. Refined wheat flour and whole grain rye flour were included as negative and positive controls, respectively. Results: After 9 weeks of intervention, a downregulation of the hepatic genes PPAR-α, GLUT2, and SREBP-1c was observed in the emmer group compared to the control wheat group. Likewise, expression of hepatic SREBP-2 was lower for emmer, einkorn, and rye compared with the control group. Furthermore, spelt and rye induced a low acute glycemic response. The wheat group had higher HDL- and total cholesterol levels. Conclusions: Ancient wheat diets caused a downregulation of key regulatory genes involved in glucose and fat metabolism, equivalent to a prevention or delay of diabetes development. Spelt and rye induced a low acute glycemic response compared to wheat.
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The liver is a unique organ in the body as it has significant roles in both metabolism and innate immune clearance. Hepatocytes in the liver carry a nearly complete complement of drug metabolizing enzymes, including numerous cytochrome P450s. While a majority of these enzymes effectively detoxify xenobiotics, or metabolize endobiotics, a subportion of these reactions result in accumulation of metabolites that can cause either direct liver injury or indirect liver injury through activation of inflammation. The liver also contains multiple populations of innate immune cells including the resident macrophages (Kupffer cells), a relatively large number of natural killer cells, and blood-derived neutrophils. While these cells are primarily responsible for clearance of pathogens, activation of these immune cells can result in significant tissue injury during periods of inflammation. When activated chronically, these inflammatory bouts can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, cancer, or death. This chapter will focus on interactions between how the liver processes xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds through the cytochrome P450 system, and how these processes can result in a response from the innate immune cells of the liver. A number of different clinically relevant diseases, as well as experimental models, are currently available to study mechanisms related to the interplay of innate immunity and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. A major focus of the chapter will be to evaluate currently understood mechanisms in the context of these diseases, as a way of outlining mechanisms that dictate the interactions between the P450 system and innate immunity.
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Acrylamide found in thermal-treated foods has led to an intensive and persistent research effort, since it is a neurotoxic, genotoxic and probable carcinogenic compound to humans. Plant polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet. Several researches indicated that the polyphenols affected the acrylamide formation during heating. However, the controversial effects of the polyphenols on acrylamide formation were related to their structure, concentrations, and antioxidant capacity, as well as reaction condition. Polyphenols can inhibit acrylamide formation through trapping of carbonyl compounds and preventing against lipid oxidation, while some special polyphenols can enhance the acrylamide content by providing carbonyl groups, accelerating the conversion from 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA) to acrylamide and inhibiting acrylamide elimination. This review concludes the effects of polyphenols in the Maillard reaction and food systems conducted so far, aimed to give an overview on the role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (7-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by pre-incubating Caco-2, HT-29 and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P<0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expression of 28 genes were enhanced (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity, and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethanol on the expression of caveolin‑1 (CAV‑1) in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Ethanol‑treated HepG2 cells were investigated using the in vitro model to determine whether ethanol can influence the expression of CAV‑1. Cell viability was measured using the colorimetric 3‑(4, 5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Expression of CAV‑1 was detected using western blot analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine CAV‑1 mRNA levels. The distribution of CAV‑1 in HepG2 cells was analyzed using immunofluorescence. The MTT assay results revealed that cell viability was not altered at ethanol concentrations of <1.0%, while ethanol concentrations >1.0% caused cell shedding, but not cell fragmentation. Western blot analysis showed significant differences in the levels of CAV‑1 expression between the control group and the 1.0% ethanol‑treated group at 6, 12 and 24 h (all P<0.05). qPCR showed significant differences in the expression levels of caveolin‑1 mRNA between the control group and the 1.0% ethanol‑treated group at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h (all P<0.05). Immunofluorescence demonstrated that CAV‑1 was distributed discontinuously at the boundaries of HepG2 cells. The results indicate that ethanol may increase the expression of CAV‑1 in HepG2 cells.
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Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a diverse group of compounds produced when reducing sugars react with proteins or other compounds to form glycosylated molecules. AGEs may form endogenously, and glycation of molecules may negatively affect their function. AGEs may also be consumed in food form with dietary AGEs reported to be particularly high in foods treated with high heat: baked, broiled, grilled, and fried foods. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed in significant quantities and whether they are harmful if absorbed is a question under current debate. The American Diabetes Association makes no recommendation regarding avoidance of these foods, but many researchers are concerned that they may be pro-inflammatory and way worsen cardiac function, kidney function, diabetes and its complications and may even contribute to obesity.
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A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
Grains of ten emmer and ten spelt accessions were evaluated for their mineral composition and compared to common (cvs Autonomia and Manital) and durum (cvs Norba, Simeto and Venusia) wheats grown in the same experimental field in Southern Italy. Calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sulfur and zinc contents of whole flour were determined. All tested minerals varied broadly within both hulled wheat species. K, Mg, P and S were the major mineral components. No significant correlations were found among the tested minerals in both species. Emmer and spelt accessions mainly differed from wheat cultivars for higher contents of Li, Mg, P, Se and Zn. The highest levels for all tested minerals were detected in spelt accessions, which suggests a different uptake in grains between the hulled what species.
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The hulled wheat einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum), staple food of early farmers for many thousand years, today is cropped only in small areas of the Mediterranean region and continental Europe. The increasing attention for the nutritional quality of foods has fostered a renewed interest for this low-impact crop. The reappraisal of einkorn quality evidenced that this ancient wheat has some dietary advantages over polyploid wheats. Einkorn whole meal is poor in dietary fibre, but rich in proteins, lipids (mostly unsaturated fatty acids), fructans and trace elements, including Zn and Fe. The good concentration of several antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, tocols, conjugated polyphenols, alkylresorcinols and phytosterols) and the low beta-amylase and lipoxygenase activities (which limit antioxidants degradation during food processing) contribute to the excellent nutritional properties of its flour, superior to those of other wheats. Conversely, einkorn has relatively low bound polyphenols content and high polyphenol oxidase activity. In spite of eliciting weaker toxic reactions than other Triticum ssp., einkorn is not suitable for coeliacs. Current trends towards the consumption of functional foods suggest that this cereal may still play a significant role in human consumption, especially in the development of new or special foods with superior nutritional quality.
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The nutritional characteristics of the Black Sea area (BSA) traditional foods are almost unknown, and they could be interesting sources of antioxidant compounds. In this study, carried out within the BaSeFood project, the in vitro total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and phenolic content of 39 BSA traditional foods were determined using different assays. An ample range of TAC and phenolics content was detected in the examined foods that were ranked according to their scavenging activity expressed per both weight unit and serving size. Based on serving size, the highest TAC was in the order blueberries > nettle soup > sunflower seeds, and the fruits/fruit based foods group was the one having the highest activity. Correlation analysis evidenced that the TAC is highly dependent on total phenolic content, while hydroxycinnamic acids and compounds having o-diphenolic structure did not showed specific prominent effects. Finally, correlations between the two methods used for measuring the TAC suggest that they are both suitable in a wide range of foods. Our data represent the first contribution to further researches on the health effects of BSA traditional foods. This could enhance the interest of consumers, with potential benefits on stakeholders at all levels of production chain.
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Cereal alkylresorcinols (AR), a group of phenolic lipids mainly found in the outer parts of wheat and rye kernels, are currently being studied for the possibility to use them as biomarkers for the intake of whole grain wheat and rye foods. In this work, AR were localised in grains by using light microscopy and gas chromatographic analysis of hand-dissected botanical and pearling fractions. GC-analysis of hand-dissected fractions showed that more than 99% of the total AR content was located in an intermediate layer of the caryopsis, including the hyaline layer, testa and inner pericarp. Microscopic examination showed that the outer cuticle of testa/inner cuticle of pericarp was the exact location, and that no AR were found in the endosperm or in the germ, suggesting that AR could be used as a selective marker of testa.
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BACKGROUND Pomegranate (Punica granatum) has gained widespread popularity as a potential functional food due to its high phenolics content. Although in different studies pomegranate juice has been shown to exert anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, the cultivar-related differences in phenolics content and antioxidant activity must be carefully taken into account when evaluating the health effects. The first aim of this study was to rank the juices of 15 different varieties of pomegranate according to their total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Then three juices were selected, better characterised and added to HepG2 cells as a supplement to evaluate the protective effect against induced oxidative stress. RESULTSThe cultivars Wonderful, Hicaz and G2 were chosen according to the ranking and the corresponding juices used at two different concentrations as a supplement to HepG2 cells. Overall, all juices were able to protect cells from oxidative damage, but differences that could be related to the different phenolics content and pattern were detected among the three juices. CONCLUSION Our results show the advantage of screening cultivars prior to efficacy studies. This approach can be useful for food companies that focus on the development of food that has added nutritional and health value. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
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Abstract For several decades, researchers have been investigating the relations between the consumption of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and biological activities, whether harmful or beneficial. Interest in this area is growing because the intake of these compounds has increased in parallel with the consumption of thermally processed foods. MRPs are bioavailable to some degree and, although there is little consensus about possible harmful effects or pathways of action, there are pathological implications regarding the progress and development of various degenerative disorders. Besides these considerations, it has been reported that some MRPs, particularly melanoidins, have beneficial effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or anti-aging factors, among others. Some interesting aspects of this dual nature of MRPs are addressed in the present review. In this context, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the physiological consequences resulting from MRPs intake, due to the diversity of compounds formed in the different food matrixes. Maintaining a balanced and varied diet, not only in the food consumed but also in how it is processed, is increasingly viewed as the best strategy to limit the negative effects and to preserve the positive actions of dietary MRPs. Much remains to be done to elucidate the chemical structures of these compounds and to relate it to specific physiologic actions. For that purpose, setting the chromatographic determinations as the most reliable analytical tools to measure them in foods and biological tissues/fluids seems essential. Moreover, designing more realistic and better controlled clinical studies, based on the real diet of the population, will be the only method to perform an effective health-risk assessment of MRPs consumption.
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Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity, and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to an oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable or even greater than α-tocopherol. Data herein reported underline the potential health effects of molasses and emphasize the possibility of using by-products for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price commodity, yet very nutritious.