Conference Paper

Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

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Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 – 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 – 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

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... It is suggested from previous study by Ling et al. (2021) that naringin contributes to the antioxidant activity of seed, and the herbicidal activity could be ascribed with limonoids. Antimicrobial analysis of the water: ethanol extract of pomelo seeds and pulp showed a growth inhibitory effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic (Sahlan et al. 2018). ...
Pomelo (Citrus grandis L.), well-known as Chinese grapefruit or shaddock, or chakotra (in Hindi) is belongs to the genus Rutaceae and originated from warm tropical climates in Southeast Asia. The fruit composed of yellowish or greenish skin, white, or pinkish flesh, so commonly classified as white or pink type. It tastes sweet, slight acidic and bitter. Pomelo fruit width ranges in between 10.00 and 30.00 cm and weight range from 1.00 to 2.00 kg dependent on the type of cultivars. The fruit is generally consumed as fruits, juice, as dip with salt mixture, preserved snacks, or used in salad. Major portion of fruit is water, and it is excellent source of amino acid, minerals (like K, P), folic acid, and vitamins like vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, and B12, and antioxidants like β-carotene, polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, β-sitosterol, flavonoids (mainly neohesperidin, naringenin, hesperidin, naringin) and essential oils. Citrus fruits, such as Pomelo, have shown enhanced antioxidant capabilities, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anticancer effects, additionally, it helps cure skin issues, diabetes, scurvy, and urinary disorders. There is a detailed description of the extraction and application of antioxidant components as well as the health benefits of pomelo juice, peel, and seeds in this section.
... The strong antimicrobial activity of GSE has become a topic of debate, since it has been shown that commercial GSE includes some chemical csompounds, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium compounds, which shows antimicrobial activity [19,20]. Nevertheless, it has also been reported that the pure ethanolic extract of GSE showed potent antimicrobial activity toward foodborne pathogens [21]. Due to its strong functional properties, recently, there is growing interest in GSE-added film and coatings. ...
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Recently, consumers have been increasingly inclined towards natural antimicrobials and antioxidants in food processing and packaging. Several bioactive compounds have originated from natural sources, and among them, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is widely accepted and generally safe to use in food. GSE is a very commonly used antimicrobial in food; lately, it has also been found very effective as a coating material or in edible packaging films. A lot of recent work reports the use of GSE in food packaging applications to ensure food quality and safety; therefore, this work intended to provide an up-to-date review of GSE-based packaging. This review discusses GSE, its extraction methods, and their use in manufacturing food packaging film/coatings. Various physical and functional properties of GSE-added film were also discussed. This review also provides the food preservation application of GSE-incorporated film and coating. Lastly, the opportunities, challenges, and perspectives in the GSE-added packaging film/coating are also debated.
... e ethanolic leaf extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [17]. e ethanolic pulp and seed extracts also exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli in the disc diffusion method [105]. In another study, the methanolic extracts of the leaves, seeds, fruits peel, and barks were tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
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Citrus maxima (Burm). Merr. (family Rutaceae), commonly known as Pomelo, is an ethnomedicinally, pharmacologically, and phytochemically valued species. Various ethnomedicinal reports have revealed the use of C. maxima for cough, fever, asthma, diarrhea, ulcer, and diabetes and as a sedative. Numerous phytochemicals have been reported from C. maxima such as polyphenols, terpenoids, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids. The plant possesses significant bioactivities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, insecticidal, anxiolytic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, and antiobesity. Extensive research is necessary to explore the detailed mechanism of action of extracts and compounds to design effective medicines, herbal products, and functional foods.
... Hence, a requirement, therefore, exists for the design of strategies to efectively reutilize these waste products, thus, creating new added value and minimizing their derived negative environmental impact as far as possible. Several bioactive efect of the extractions of pomelo, like antimicrobial [18], anti-obesity [19] and antioxidant activities [20] have been discussed, which suggested they could be applied as an herbal medicine for some disease. Given the abovementioned context of the ish liver injury and the widely reported therapeutic potential of the plant polysaccharide, we assumed that the polysaccharide extraction from the pomelo waste may be used to be an efectual medicine for the liver injury. ...
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Ever-increasingly Citrus wastes have been generating during the industrial processing, which is troublesome to dispose them for the considerations of economic feasibility and environmental protection. Meanwhile, liver disease, which causes liver damage, is the one of the major threats for the further development of aquaculture, especially in marine fish. The present study explored the hepatoprotective effect of PSCP, a polysaccharide extracted from the pomelo seed coat, in the primary hepatocytes of hybrid grouper ( Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♂ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♀). PSCP displayed considerably scavenging effect to the free radicals and strong inhibitive effect to the erythrocyte hemolysis. In vitro, we added PSCP (0, 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) to the primary hepatocytes before incubation with Acetaminophen (APAP) (12 mM). The CKK-8 experiment displayed the administration of PSCP (100 and 200 μg/mL) substantially mitigated the reduction of hepatocyte viability inflicted by APAP. Moreover, we found that PSCP effectively alleviated APAP-induced oxidative stress, as shown by the significantly reduced level of reactive oxygen species and the elevated enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, which indicated its anti-liver injury effect (P<0.05). The more direct signs associating with the hepatoprotection of PSCP are reflected in the results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, as evident by the morphological recovery following the addition of PSCP. In brief, these findings showed that the therapeutic potential of PSCP on APAP-induced fish liver injury, which not only provided a now prospect in treating the liver impairment in aquatic animals, but to also improve the utilization of pomelo fruitlets.
... Diantara tanaman yang berpotensi sebagai bahan herbal antara lain adalah jeruk pamelo (Citrus maxima). Ekstrak etanol jeruk pamelo telah diketahui memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, dan Bacillus subtilis 5 . Kulit buah C. maxima pernah diteliti di Thailand mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6 . ...
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Pomelo Citrus (Citrus maxima) is one of the potential natural sources for traditional medicine. The citrus contains potential metabolite compounds such as tannins, polyphenol and flavonoids. Some researches had already proved the potential pomelo citrus as antimicrobial to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purpose of this study was to find out the antifungal activity of pomelo citrus leaf and pericarp extract on Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Leaf and fruit skin of pomelo citrus were extracted using maceration methods in 70% ethanol. Antifungal testing method was using paper disc diffusion method. The result showed that pomelo citrus leaf and pericarp extract could inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes fungi. The best antifungal activity was shown by the concentration of 30% of each leaf and pericarp extract, with inhibition zone diameter were 12,43 mm and 12,15 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the extract of leaf and pericarp pomelo citrus showed a great antifungal potential against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abstrak Jeruk pamelo (Citrus maxima) merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang berpotensi dalam pengobatan tradisional. Senyawa metabolit sekunder yang banyak terkandung dalam jeruk pomelo antara lain tanin, polifenol dan flavonoid. Beberapa penelitian sebelumnya telah membuktikan potensi jeruk pomelo sebagai antimikroba terhadap Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tujuan penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk menguji aktivitas antifungi ekstrak daun dan kulit buah jeruk pamelo terhadap jamur Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Simplisia daun dan kulit buah jeruk pamelo yang telah dijadikan serbuk, diekstraksi menggunakan metode maserasi dalam etanol 70%. Metode yang digunakan untuk pengujian antifungi ialah teknik difusi kertas cakram. Hasilnya menunjukkan ekstrak daun dan ekstrak kulit jeruk pamelo mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Kemampuan antifungi terbaik diperlihatkan oleh ekstrak daun dan kulit jeruk pomelo pada konsentrasi 30%, dengan diameter daya penghambatan masing-masing yaitu 12,43 mm dan 12,15 mm. Untuk kesimpulan, ekstrak daun dan kulit jeruk pamelo berpotensi sebagai antifungi terhadap Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Kata kunci: antifungi, dermatofitosis, difusi cakram, jeruk pamelo, maserasi.
... The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of aqueous and ethanolic grapefruit seed extracts were confirmed against S. aureus, E. faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans (Eryilmaz et al., 2018). The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds also gives positive results with growth-inhibition effect on Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, and E. coli (Sahlan et al., 2018). Oil extracted from lemon, lime, and bitter orange seeds possessed different antimicrobial potential. ...
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Citrus is the most produced tree fruit crop in the world and occupies a place of considerable importance in the country's economy. Almost 33% of the Citrus fruits are processed for juice production, however, a great amount of wastes including peels, segment membrane and seeds are produced. Indeed, Citrus fruits consist of 45% juice, 26% pulp, 27% peels and 2% seeds. Pruning, a cultural practice involving the removal of tree branches and limbs, were applied in order to improve the fruit's quality. From pruning a large amount of leaves are also produced. These agri-food matrices contained a higher wide range of bioactive phytochemicals compared to fruits. The present review article covered the last five years of research on chemistry, healthy properties, applications in food and nutraceutical industries, of all portions of Citrus fruit and its major bioactive compound. Additionally, the patents are included.
... The extract of starfruit's leaves contains flavonoids compound such as terpenoids, tannins, glycosides, and alkaloids (Mewara et al., 2017). These contents reduced bacterial growth as bioactive and polyphenolic compounds can damage cell wall structures (i.e., an antibacterial activity; Sahlan et al., 2018;Bora et al., 2020). ...
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Anti-atherosclerosis herbs are extracted from a simplicia mixture of tanjung leaf (Mimusops elengi L.), starfruit leaf (Averrhoa carambola), and curcuma (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) by using water as a solvent. The contamination of microorganisms during the storage of these herbs should be considered as it can decrease the quality of the herbs and become poisoning food. The aim of this study was to examine the shelf life of anti-atherosclerosis herbs. The study tested the herbs for pH stability and bacterial count using the total plate count (pour plate) method by varying the temperature and duration storage for 48 hours. The results showed that the pH value of the anti-atherosclerosis herbs was constant (pH 5.7–5.6) for 48 hours in the refrigerator and 6 hours at room temperature. The bacterial count was 1.24×108 CFU/ml and 2.36×103 CFU/ml for 48 hours at room and refrigerator temperatures, respectively. Therefore, 48-hour refrigerator storage was an acceptable shelf life according to National Agency of Drug and Food Control (BPOM) Regulation Number 12 (2014) concerning the quality requirements of traditional medicine, which dictate that microorganisms in liquid herbs may not exceed 104 CFU/ml.
... It is very challenging for the researcher to come up with an improvised formulation against such pathogens which can give a long-lasting solution [110]. Medicinal plants rich in phytochemical compounds are often found to have antibacterial and antifungal properties apart from commercial insecticides and have negligible side effects [111]. Researches conducted for antibacterial activity from CEOs have given a positive response among plant-based antibiotic discoveries. ...
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Citrus is a genus belonging to the Rutaceae family and includes important crops like orange, lemons, pummelos, grapefruits, limes, etc. Citrus essential oils (CEOs) consist of some major biologically active compounds like α-/β-pinene, sabinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, linalool, α-humulene, and α-terpineol belonging to the monoterpenes, monoterpene aldehyde/alcohol, and sesquiterpenes group, respectively. These compounds possess several health beneficial properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, etc., in addition to antimicrobial properties, which have immense potential for food applications. Therefore, this review focused on the extraction, purification, and detection methods of CEOs along with their applications for food safety, packaging, and preservation. Further, the concerns of optimum dose and safe limits, their interaction effects with various food matrices and packaging materials, and possible allergic reactions associated with the use of CEOs in food applications were briefly discussed, which needs to be addressed in future research along with efficient, affordable, and "green" extraction methods to ensure CEOs as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and natural alternative to synthetic chemical preservatives.
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Biodeterioration of cultural heritage is caused by different organisms capable of inducing complex alteration processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Rosmarinus officinalis hydro-alcoholic extract to inhibit the growth of deteriogenic microbial strains. For this, the physico-chemical characterization of the vegetal extract by UHPLC–MS/MS, its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity on a representative number of biodeteriogenic microbial strains, as well as the antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP, TEAC methods, were performed. The extract had a total phenol content of 15.62 ± 0.97 mg GAE/mL of which approximately 8.53% were flavonoids. The polyphenolic profile included carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and hesperidin as major components. The extract exhibited good and wide spectrum antimicrobial activity, with low MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) values against fungal strains such as Aspergillus clavatus (MIC = 1.2 mg/mL) and bacterial strains such as Arthrobacter globiformis (MIC = 0.78 mg/mL) or Bacillus cereus (MIC = 1.56 mg/mL). The rosemary extract inhibited the adherence capacity to the inert substrate of Penicillium chrysogenum strains isolated from wooden objects or textiles and B. thuringiensis strains. A potential mechanism of R. officinalis antimicrobial activity could be represented by the release of nitric oxide (NO), a universal signalling molecule for stress management. Moreover, the treatment of microbial cultures with subinhibitory concentrations has modulated the production of microbial enzymes and organic acids involved in biodeterioration, with the effect depending on the studied microbial strain, isolation source and the tested soluble factor. This paper reports for the first time the potential of R. officinalis hydro-alcoholic extract for the development of eco-friendly solutions dedicated to the conservation/safeguarding of tangible cultural heritage.
To improve the stability of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) and prolong its antibacterial effect, a GSE nanoemulsion (GNE) was prepared by high energy emulsifying method. The particle size and PDI of fresh GNE were 173.9 nm and 0.105, respectively. TEM images showed that uniform and closely distributed GNE droplets. The MIC of GNE against S. aureus and E. coli were 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively, 25% and 14% improved compared to GSE. Besides, the GNE was proved to be more effective to destroy the cell wall of E. coli than that of S. aureus through measuring the concentration of alkaline phosphatase after treatment. The increase of conductivity, nucleic acid and protein releasing from the cells indicated that the bacteria cell membrane have been severely damaged after GNE treatment. TEM results further illustrated that the internal microstructure of bacteria cells was significantly changed with GNE treatment.
Pomelo seeds (PS) are important by‐product of pomelo fruits (Citrus grandis Osbeck). The value‐added utilization of PS remains highly challenged. This study aimed to investigate the utilization potential of PS as natural antioxidant, antibacterial, herbicidal agents, and their functional components. The ethanolic extract (EE) of PS and its four fractions as PEE (petroleum ether extract), EtOAcE (ethyl acetate extract), BTE (n‐butanol extract), and WE (water extract), were prepared and biologically evaluated. BTE exhibited the best antioxidant activity among all these extracts, in both ABTS (2,2‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. EtOAcE was superior to other extracts in herbicidal assay against both Festuca elata Keng (IC50 of 0.48 mg mL‐1) and Amaranthus retroflexus L. (IC50 of 0.94 mg mL‐1). Meanwhile, both EtOAcE and BTE demonstrated inhibitory effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, with MIC ranging 2.5‐5.0 mg mL‐1. Furthermore, the primary chemical components involving naringin, deacetylnomilin, limonin, nomilin, and obacunone, were quantified in all these extracts. PCA (principal component analysis) suggested that naringin might highly contribute to the antioxidant activity of PS, and the herbicidal activity should be ascribed to limonoids. This study successfully identified EtOAcE and BTE as naturally occurring antioxidant, antibacterial, and herbicidal agents, showing application potential in food and cosmetics industries, and organic farming agriculture.
The North-eastern region of India is the citrus depository of our country and is reported to be the centre of origin of many Citrus species. The genus Citrus L., the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce, includes some of the most commercially important fruits. As many as 17 Citrus species, their 52 cultivars and 7 probable natural hybrids are reported to have originated in the North-eastern region of India. Northeast India falls under the “Indo-Burma Region” of hot spot of biodiversity, which is the richest and one of the most threatened places for plant life on the earth. Several Citrus species and their natural hybrids have been reported to originate and exist in this area. However, this vast indigenous Citrus diversity of India has not been used to its full potential for Citrus improvement programs. Sustainable in situ and on farm conservation is possible with active synergies with farmers, communities and national institutions. Role of farmers as active partners, conservator, promoter and custodian of local Citrus diversity are needed to be recognized. The proposed seminar will provide a platform for the scientists, researchers, policy maker, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders like state government officials and farmers for cross learning with an approach towards Citrus biodiversity conservation and its commercialization so that it enable the farmers to reap more economic gain or profit from the Citrus farming.
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Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of grapefruit (Citrus Paradisi Rutaceae) seeds. Materials and Methods: Aqueous and alcoholic (ethanol) extracts of grapefruit seeds "GSE" in 20% (w/v) concentration were investigated for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and a mixed oral flora. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using in vitro disc diffusion method. Their antibacterial and antifungal activity was compared to the activity of Chlorhexidine (CHX) solution in two concentrations (0.12 and 0.2%) as a control. Results: The aqueous GSE (20%) solution used in this study gave positive results with lethal effect on the tested organisms with zones of inhibition ranging from 10mm-18mm in diameter, which is comparable to that of chlorhexidine (7mm - 22mm) and (13mm - 20mm) for 0.12% and 0.2% solutions respectively. Ethanolic GSE did not show any antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: Aqueous GSE has a good antimicrobial effect, which makes it a good natural preparation for use as antiseptic or disinfectant.
We surveyed the research activity on antibiotic screening over the last 10 years using data published in the Journal of Antibiotics (1984∼1993) and the Japan Kokai Patent (1983∼1992). Research on new antibiotic screening is very active in Japan, and we considered a survey of these data to be helpful in grasping domestic and international research trends in this field. In this report, we use the term “antibiotics” not in the narrow sense of antimicrobial antibiotics, but rather to mean bioactive microbial products.
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids except for the absence of tannins in S. acuta and flavonoids in S. cayennsis respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in Nigeria.
Seeds of the citrus fruits orange, mandarin, lime and grapefruit were analyzed. Petroleum ether-extracted oils of such seeds amounted to more than 40% of each. Physical and chemical properties of the extracted oils are presented. Samples of the extracted oils were saponified and the unsaponifiables and fatty acid fractions isolated. The isolated unsaponifiables and fatty acids were analyzed by GLC. GLC analysis of the unsaponifiables revealed compositional patterns differ-ent in number, type and relative concentration of fractions according to type of citrus seed oil, depending on the solvent system used for oil extraction and unsaponifiable matter isolation. The compositional patterns of the unsaponifiables were similar to that of cottonseed oil. Mandarin and grapefruit oils are free of cholesterol. The data demonstrate that the fatty acid compositional patterns of the oils differ; Mandarin seed oil contains the largest number of fatty acids, and grapefruit seed oil contains the lowest. The total amounts of volatile fatty acids in these oils are generally higher than those of other edible oils. Lime seed oil is similar, in the degree of unsaturation, to soybean oil. The orange oil pattern is similar to cottonseed oil. The amount of total essential fatty acids in lime seed oil is the highest of the oils studied.
The antioxidant activities (AA) of Sechium edule extracts were tested by three established in vitro methods, namely reducing power, β-carotene linoleate model and 1,1- diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging. Leaf ethanolic extracts and leaf and seed water extracts showed strong inhibitory activity by β-carotene bleaching (AA values of 90%). Furthermore, these extracts exerted hydrogen-donating ability in the presence of DDPH stable radical (IC50 2 μg/ml). These extracts also showed strong reducing power by the potassium ferricyanide reduction method. Leaf and seed extracts may be exploited as biopreservatives in food applications as well as for health supplements or functional food, to aleviate oxidative stress.
Recent testimonials report grapefruit-seed extract, or GSE (Citricidal) to be effective against more than 800 bacterial and viral strains, 100 strains of fungus, and a large number of single and multicelled parasites. This study investigated GSE for antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity at varying concentrations in an effort to determine if a concentration existed that was both microbicidal and nontoxic and in what period of time. Gram-negative and gram-positive isolates were introduced into graduated dilutions of GSE (twofold concentrations ranging from 1:1, through 1:512) for determination of bacterial activity. In vitro assays with human skin fibroblast cells were also performed at the same dilutions to determine toxicity. These tests indicated that from the 1:1 through the 1:128 concentrations, GSE remained toxic as well as bactericidal. However, test results indicated that at the 1:512 dilution, GSE remained bactericidal, but completely nontoxic. The initial data shows GSE to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms at dilutions found to be safe. With the aid of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the mechanism of GSE's antibacterial activity was revealed. It was evident that GSE disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations.
Many essential oils are extracted, analysed and their main components are identified, characterised and then published without any biological testing whatsoever. Their useful biological activities can remain unknown for years. Yet, the search for these activities often increases our knowledge of the potential use of oils in therapeutics. Therefore, there is a real need for a simple, reliable and reproducible methods to study the bioactivity of essential oils and their constituents which can detect a broad spectrum of action or specific pharmacological activities in aromatic plants. These methods can then be employed by natural product chemists, pharmacologists and biologists to conduct their scientific research and to valorize natural products. Standardisation of some of these methods is therefore desirable to permit more comprehensive evaluation of plant oils, and greater comparability of the results obtained by different investigators.
A HPLC method has been developed which permits the quantification of methyl paraben, benzethonium chloride and triclosan in various samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column using gradient mobile phase of water (0.1% acetic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL per minute. The detection wavelength was 254 nm for methyl paraben, and 275 nm for benzethonium chloride and triclosan. The main synthetic antimicrobial agent identified in commercial GSE samples was benzethonium chloride in concentrations from 0.29-21.84%. Positive ion electrospray MS of a commercial GSE sample showed a molecular ion at m/z 412 [M+], which matched that of a standard of benzethonium chloride. Triclosan was detected in two samples at 0.009 and 1.13%concentrations; while methyl paraben was not detected in the samples analyzed.
This toxicology update reviews research over the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the human body might originate from topical application of bodycare cosmetics. The presence of intact paraben esters in human body tissues has now been confirmed by independent measurements in human urine, and the ability of parabens to penetrate human skin intact without breakdown by esterases and to be absorbed systemically has been demonstrated through studies not only in vitro but also in vivo using healthy human subjects. Using a wide variety of assay systems in vitro and in vivo, the oestrogen agonist properties of parabens together with their common metabolite (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) have been extensively documented, and, in addition, the parabens have now also been shown to possess androgen antagonist activity, to act as inhibitors of sulfotransferase enzymes and to possess genotoxic activity. With the continued use of parabens in the majority of bodycare cosmetics, there is a need to carry out detailed evaluation of the potential for parabens, together with other oestrogenic and genotoxic co-formulants of bodycare cosmetics, to increase female breast cancer incidence, to interfere with male reproductive functions and to influence development of malignant melanoma which has also recently been shown to be influenced by oestrogenic stimulation.
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