Conference Paper

Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

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Abstract

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 – 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 – 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

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... e ethanolic leaf extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [17]. e ethanolic pulp and seed extracts also exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli in the disc diffusion method [105]. In another study, the methanolic extracts of the leaves, seeds, fruits peel, and barks were tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
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Citrus maxima (Burm). Merr. (family Rutaceae), commonly known as Pomelo, is an ethnomedicinally, pharmacologically, and phytochemically valued species. Various ethnomedicinal reports have revealed the use of C. maxima for cough, fever, asthma, diarrhea, ulcer, and diabetes and as a sedative. Numerous phytochemicals have been reported from C. maxima such as polyphenols, terpenoids, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids. The plant possesses significant bioactivities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, insecticidal, anxiolytic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, and antiobesity. Extensive research is necessary to explore the detailed mechanism of action of extracts and compounds to design effective medicines, herbal products, and functional foods.
... Diantara tanaman yang berpotensi sebagai bahan herbal antara lain adalah jeruk pamelo (Citrus maxima). Ekstrak etanol jeruk pamelo telah diketahui memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, dan Bacillus subtilis 5 . Kulit buah C. maxima pernah diteliti di Thailand mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6 . ...
Article
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Pomelo Citrus (Citrus maxima) is one of the potential natural sources for traditional medicine. The citrus contains potential metabolite compounds such as tannins, polyphenol and flavonoids. Some researches had already proved the potential pomelo citrus as antimicrobial to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purpose of this study was to find out the antifungal activity of pomelo citrus leaf and pericarp extract on Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Leaf and fruit skin of pomelo citrus were extracted using maceration methods in 70% ethanol. Antifungal testing method was using paper disc diffusion method. The result showed that pomelo citrus leaf and pericarp extract could inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes fungi. The best antifungal activity was shown by the concentration of 30% of each leaf and pericarp extract, with inhibition zone diameter were 12,43 mm and 12,15 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the extract of leaf and pericarp pomelo citrus showed a great antifungal potential against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abstrak Jeruk pamelo (Citrus maxima) merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang berpotensi dalam pengobatan tradisional. Senyawa metabolit sekunder yang banyak terkandung dalam jeruk pomelo antara lain tanin, polifenol dan flavonoid. Beberapa penelitian sebelumnya telah membuktikan potensi jeruk pomelo sebagai antimikroba terhadap Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus dan Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tujuan penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk menguji aktivitas antifungi ekstrak daun dan kulit buah jeruk pamelo terhadap jamur Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Simplisia daun dan kulit buah jeruk pamelo yang telah dijadikan serbuk, diekstraksi menggunakan metode maserasi dalam etanol 70%. Metode yang digunakan untuk pengujian antifungi ialah teknik difusi kertas cakram. Hasilnya menunjukkan ekstrak daun dan ekstrak kulit jeruk pamelo mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Kemampuan antifungi terbaik diperlihatkan oleh ekstrak daun dan kulit jeruk pomelo pada konsentrasi 30%, dengan diameter daya penghambatan masing-masing yaitu 12,43 mm dan 12,15 mm. Untuk kesimpulan, ekstrak daun dan kulit jeruk pamelo berpotensi sebagai antifungi terhadap Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Kata kunci: antifungi, dermatofitosis, difusi cakram, jeruk pamelo, maserasi.
... The extract of starfruit's leaves contains flavonoids compound such as terpenoids, tannins, glycosides, and alkaloids (Mewara et al., 2017). These contents reduced bacterial growth as bioactive and polyphenolic compounds can damage cell wall structures (i.e., an antibacterial activity; Sahlan et al., 2018;Bora et al., 2020). ...
... It is very challenging for the researcher to come up with an improvised formulation against such pathogens which can give a long-lasting solution [110]. Medicinal plants rich in phytochemical compounds are often found to have antibacterial and antifungal properties apart from commercial insecticides and have negligible side effects [111]. Researches conducted for antibacterial activity from CEOs have given a positive response among plant-based antibiotic discoveries. ...
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