Chess to improve life quality of hearing-impaired individuals

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Objective of the study was to assess benefits of the chess education, competitions and recreational chess practices with their educational and heuristic aspects as innovative and multifactor toolkit for the integrated social adaptation of hearing-impaired individuals. The authors offered standard and experimental training models applicable in the adaptive chess sport for the hearing-impaired individuals. The study was designed to facilitate training of this group by an inclusive education environment supported by the Chess Planet website; Chess Lessons from Anatoliy Karpov software; Schematic Thinking electronic database; special chess software tools and manuals; plus a special roadmap. The relevant communication technology was applied under the chess education model to combine mimics with verbal and written communication tools. The adaptive chess education model designed based on the relevant verbal and gesture communication experience plus sign language translations is considered an important link in transition from the Russian language of gestures to a verbal communication based on the "come and see" principle. Practical implementation of the theoretical adaptive chess education, competition and recreation model may facilitate due social, economic and emotional adaptation and wellbeing of the hearing-impaired individuals.

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In the present paper the authors provide the theoretical and methodological substantiation of chess as a full, but a specific type of adaptive physical culture. The components of chess as a form of adaptive physical culture were classified: adaptive chess education and sport, psychophysical chess recreation and rehabilitation, creative knowledge oriented chess practice and extreme types of psychophysical chess activity. In the study, the program of additional vocational training "Fundamentals of adaptive chess sport, education and recreation" was developed. Growth takes place in the process of adaptive chess education of 997 students within an academic year, professionally important psychophysical qualities being developed step up to 30%. The intelligence quotient IQ increases to 115 120 units on the average, confirming the positive trend of development of intellectual and motor potential of an individual. Similarity of general and specific competences of chess players and experts, including objective assessment and forecasting, advance knowledge of performance results, self discipline, critical self analysis, volitional powers contributes to development of professionally important for future work qualities.