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The impact of Safety & Health on Employee`s Retention.



The topic for research study "The impact of safety and health on employee's retention". This study verifies the old theories and the use of quantitative technique. Data is collected through questionnaires from two hundred people. SPSS software is used for data analysis and results. To compile the whole data which I collected from 200 persons was entered into SPSS for analysis. Several tests were applied on data, and significant findings were present. After this analysis I found the relationship between safety, health, and job satisfaction and employee retention. Detailed of analysis is included in this report. The reliability and validity is already checking. For this study the population size is only limited to Lahore.
Management and Administrative Sciences Review
e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X
Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Pages: 960-967 (September 2014)
© Academy of Business & Scientific Research
**Corresponding author: Majid Ali MBA, M, Phil (HRM)
Lecturer, College of Commerce and Accountancy, Lahore Leads University, Pakistan
Research Paper
The Impact of Safety and Health on Employee’s Retention
Majid Ali
Lecturer, College of Commerce and Accountancy, Lahore Leads University, Pakistan
The topic for research study “The impact of safety and health on employee’s retention”. This
study verifies the old theories and the use of quantitative technique. Data is collected through
questionnaires from two hundred people. SPSS software is used for data analysis and
results. To compile the whole data which I collected from 200 persons was entered into SPSS
for analysis. Several tests were applied on data, and significant findings were present. After
this analysis I found the relationship between safety, health, and job satisfaction and
employee retention. Detailed of analysis is included in this report. The reliability and
validity is already checking. For this study the population size is only limited to Lahore.
Keywords: Safety, Health, Job Satisfaction, and Employee’s retention.
This study investigated the effects of
implementing or improving occupational health
and safety management on the work environment,
health and safety behavior and health of workers
in small and medium-sized companies. There are
great concerns about occupational health and
safety in Pakistan. According to Pakistan’s Factory
Act, 1934, all companies are required to have an
occupational health and safety management
system. A potential followers study, using
Quantitative Research method, was performed
among the managers and manual workers in
different organizations. Workers and managers
were asked to participate in this study.
When top management makes a decision that it
wants to take steps to obtain a safe organization, it
must decide just how future wants to go and what
it wants to achieve. Does it want to have a
company that position with the best in its industry
in terms of low injury incidence and harshness? Or
does it simply want a security effort that will
reduce workers’ retention to an acceptable level. Is
it willing to invest sufficient change to achieve a
really no unsafe place?
Industrial Health and Safety Top management set
the safety objectives and policies in the first place
and top management prefers to support and
implement its own policies to the usefulness of
these policies. The particular most important
element in the success or failure of any
companywide program, whether it is safety,
training, satisfaction or motivation, is the
importance given to that program by top
management (Palmatier et al. 2006).
The organizational arrangements that created are
conditioned by the size of the firm and the nature
of its safety problems. In small firms, a full-time
safety director is acceptable; the job may be given
to the personnel director, to the plant
superintendent, or to the head of industrial
engineering. In medium sized firms, a company
usually employs a full time safety specialist. He is
The Impact of Safety and Health on Employee’s Retention Research Paper
Majid Ali
the part of the personnel department. Large firms,
especially those in harmful industries, will employ
a whole staff of safety engineers, safety inspectors,
and industrial hygienists.
Some industrialists think that with the
appointment of a safety director they can ―wash
their hands‖ of all responsibility for safety and get
on with their main business of obtaining high
production, low costs, and sufficient quality.
Nothing could be more from the truth. The only
way to achieve and maintain a safe plant is to
place responsibility of safety on equal status with
responsibility for production, cost control, quality,
and profit making. (Crosby et al.1990;DeWulf et al.
Industrial Health and Safety Proper business to
remove work danger is basic to any organized
safety efforts. Today technology has advanced to
the point where many dangerous conditions have
simply been designed out of the equipment and
processes and most of the remaining ones have
been sufficiently secured. The first way of business
for safety is simply to remove the hazard from the
machine, process, or structure. If it is not possible
then take out a basic redesign of the production
process to remove the hazard, then the next stage
is to design and install a security to check workers
from coming in contact with moving parts or point
of operation elements. In the last, it is not possible
to remove the danger or to security the equipment
itself, it may be possible to have the workers wear
and use protective clothing and
equipment(Palmatier et al. 2006).
Job-safety analysis is very useful for hazard
remove and for designing safe work methods. By
such study the safety influence may note that a
change in workplace arrangement, in the operating
controls of the machine, or in work procedures
may eliminate or reduce the possibility of injury to
the operator. Through this workers feel safety in
workplace and they retention about job.
Safety education for all levels of management and
for employees is a very important element for any
successful safety program. Top and middle
management require education in the essentials of
safety and the need for effective accidents, both
human and financial costs, must be brought to the
attention of line management. Top management
does not need to worry itself with the detailed
mechanics of accident obstacle, but it must obtain
sufficient awareness of safety essentials.(Bolton et
al. 2004).
The research of safety and health relate to the job
satisfaction and job satisfaction relate with the
employee`s retention especially in the country like
Pakistan. As a result the model provide a reliable
guide in employee`s retention. The safety and
health directly relate the job satisfaction and the
job satisfaction directly relate to employee`s
retention. This study or research is to check the
importance of safety and health of employees in
the organizations.
The purpose of this prospective and academic
study will be understand the impacts of
implementing or improving Occupational Safety
and Health management in the organizations in
The primary purpose of this study is to determine
the impact of Safety and Health on job satisfaction
and the employee`s retention in the organizations
in Pakistan using Quantitative Research method.
Furthermore, the secondary purpose of this study
is replicate the existing studies related with ―The
Impact of Safety And Health On Employee`s
Retention‖. In order to check the applicability of
Western concept n Eastern setting like Pakistan.
Now a days the employee`s job satisfaction is the
burning issue in the corporate sector. In some
organizations turnover ratio of employees increase
due to lack of job satisfaction.
This study will check the impact of health and
safety measures on employee`s retention. This
study is replicate the existing studies related with
―The impact of maintenance on Employee`s
Retention‖. In order to check the applicability of
Western concept in Eastern setting like Pakistan. In
the developing countries like Pakistan there is no
proper system of job satisfaction of employees in
the some organizations. So it helps to investigate
The impact of safety and health on the
employee`s retention.
The importance of safety and health of
employees in the organizations.
Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev.
e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X
Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Pages: 960-967
• The employees and employers of the importance
of this issue.
H1: There is relationship between safety and job
H2: There is significant relationship between
health & employee job satisfaction
H3: There is significant relationship between job
satisfaction and employee’s retention.
Qualitative methodology used for collection
information in this study. Quantitative methods
used to verify the previous research.This provides
an overview related to the research in this study. It
concentrates ondetailedsubject such as Paradigm,
Research Approach, Research Design, Research
Site, and population/sample, Strategy of inquiry,
data collection method, data analysis, Validity,
Reliability and analysis Procedure.A survey study
conducted through questionnaires. In this study
questionnaire techniqueis used for quantitative
research.Questionnaire also have a number of
strengths (200) like, it is good for measuring
attitude and survey other content from research
participants. And another important thing is that it
is not more expensive. It can be administered to
probability samples and has a quick turnaround.In
this study used the quantitative method for
collection the data. For collection the data used the
questionnaire. For the survey take the
questionnaire from website. So that’s why this data
is valid or reliable. There is no need to check
validity or reliability.Data collected through
questionnaire. Then distribute the questionnaires
among the employees of university sector which
are under study. Then also observe the employees
of university sector about how they respond to
evaluate their answer, after observing these. Then
data entered in the SPSS Software for analysis of
the variables.
This chapter is all about the data results which
collect from University Sector and all these results
calculate by putting the data in SPSS software. The
data in different form and table such as
inDescriptive Summary, statistic summary that’s
shows the overall data of collection and
respondents.Histogram checks the graphic
representation of data.Scatter plot diagram, and
multiple regressions. To analyze each type and
draw the results by calculate from this data. These
results tell us about the relationship of each
independent variable on the dependent variable.
Descriptive summary table1 show the whole
illustration of all the five variables. In this table
show the frequency and percentage of
demographic Variables. Frequency and percent
shows the values of respondent. In the gender
demographic has male or female. In which male
frequency are 165 and female are 35. It means that
female is less than male more respondent in the
university sector. In this table shows frequency
and percent of the gender, marital status, and job
title. This shows the how many respondents for
supportive data collection.
The above given table of correlation, in which the
value of job satisfaction Significance is 0.000, which
shows there is a relationship among the health &
safety and job satisfaction. The value of Pearson
Correlation is .405; it means the relationship
between these variables is moderate. So accept the
alternative hypothesis (H1).
In this above table the value of Significance is0
.000, which shows there is relationship among the
health & safety and employee retention. The value
of Pearson Correlation is .486 it means the
moderate relationship between these variables. So
accept the Null hypothesis (Ho) and the value of
job satisfaction Significance is0 .000, which shows
Job Satisfaction
Safety &
Employee`s Retention
The Impact of Safety and Health on Employee’s Retention Research Paper
Majid Ali
there is a relationship among the job satisfaction
and employee retention. The value of Pearson
Correlation is .710; it means the strong relationship
between these variables. So accept the alternative
hypothesis (H1).
Regression analysis used to measure the
relationship between two or more variables. One
variable is dependent or another is independent
variables. It is used to check the effect of
independent variables to dependent variable.
Regression Equation is
Y= .169 +.388x1 + .671x2
In this research study used the multiple
regressions. There’s 3 variables, in which 2afety
and health is independent variable & another is
employee retention is dependent variable. By
using these variables analyze the multiple
regressions to check the relationship. In the Model
Summary, the value of R2 is .544. This explains
that there is relationship between independent
variables to dependent variable. That analysis
shows that there is correlation between
independent variables and dependent variable. In
the regression model summary, the Adjusted R2
value is .547. Its means, that there is 55 % impact of
relationship in safety and health on employee’s
retention. There is positive relationship. The value
of adjusted R2 shows that 55% employees retain by
impact of safety and health on employee retention.
The table of coefficient analysis shows the final
result of regression analysis. In this research
study, the aim of using the regression analysis is to
understand the regression equation. There will be
used or not in this study. In this research topic The
Impact of Safety and Health on employee retention
used the regression equation.
This study identifiesthe relationship between
Safety and health of employee and employee’s
retention. The purpose of the study is to
investigate the impact of safety & health on
employee’s retention. To summarize reported
increased satisfaction with the health and safety
activities at work; improved support from
management and colleagues; improved health-
related support and control; and increased
participation in health and safety activities. In this
used the structured questionnaires for collecting
the data and our sample size consist of200
Then used literature review & model is proposed
which include that how employees retain with
safety, and health. For collecting the information
on these variables used the questionnaires. Then
SPSS used for fitting the data to structural
equation. Maintain the compute the variable.
Descriptive analysis used to describe the data by
using descriptive summary and Scatter plot used
to check the relationship of independent variables
to dependent variable.
Scatter plot check the correlation among the
variables. In the relationship of variables is less
than 0.05 that’s means there is strong relationship
among variables.Regression used to check the
positive relationship in the model of theoretical
framework. With the help of SPSS first of all find
the reliability of our variables.Regression analysis
used to explain the relationship between variables
by checking the acceptance or rejection of
hypothesis and observe the nature of relationship
between variables.
A reason is concluding that if the offered records
showed positive guidance practices to be more
important than others effects on worker safety and
health.This study also investigate the safety, &
health how many effect on the positive impact on
employee retention. This research focuses on
employee retention and motivation in the
industry. More importantly, this research reflects
that one of the key scopes for effective guidance in
the workplace that results in retention is support
and motivating others to encourage superior
performance. After the analysis, the result found
that relationship among the variables. The
variables of our study have positive impact on
employee retention.
Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev.
e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X
Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Pages: 960-967
In this study its recommend that employee’s
security can help to make the retention of
employee positive behavior. Free and helpful
atmosphere enhance the positive impact on
working strength.There are great linked with
occupational health and safety in Pakistan.
According to Pakistan’s Factory Act, 1934, all
companies are required to have an occupational
health and safety management system. But this Act
not use in the university sectors. I recommend that
university sector also follow this rules of Act. This
research can also implement in the other
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Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev.
e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X
Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Pages: 960-967
Valid Male
Marital Status
Valid Single
Your Age
Valid Below 25 years
25 to 35
35 to 45
45 to 55
Above 55 years
Job Title Valid Professor
Senior Lecturer
Assistant Lecturer
The Impact of Safety and Health on Employee’s Retention Research Paper
Majid Ali
Health and safety
Employee retention
Health and safety
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Employee retention
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Variables Entered/Removed
Variables Entered
Variables Removed
Job satisfaction 2, Health and Safety a
a. All requested variables entered.
b. Dependent Variable: employee retention
Unstandardized Coefficients
Std. Error
Health and Safety
Job Satisfaction 2
a. Dependent Variable: employee retention
... Salman et al. (2016) affirm that employee retention is significantly affected by the safety and health conditions for the Pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Majid (2014) found that employee health and safety have an association with employee retention for the education sector of Pakistan. Umer & Naseem (2011) examine the effect of factors (work-life balance, career development, supervisor support, and work environment) on employee retention. ...
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employee retention have a significant negative relationship. The study also found that there is no mediating role of employee commitment between health and safety, and employee retention. This research recommended performing a similar study on a large sample size and in different sectors. Managers must ensure the implementation of approved policies and guidelines regarding health and safety so that this basic requirement of the employees must be fulfilled. Abstract The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between Healthy and Safe Environment (HSE) and employee retention, keeping the mediating effect of employees' commitment. Data for the study was gathered through a close-ended questionnaire, which was filled by 200 employees of four major textile companies in Pakistan. The relationship between variables was tested through Partial Least Square (PLS) modeling by using Smart PLS v3.2.8. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between health and safety dimensions and employee commitment, except for one i.e. emergency information. However, employee commitment and
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Abstract Introduction Job Satisfaction, as a crucial factor in organizations’ accomplishment, has long been in the core of organizational studies. According to the existing definitions, job satisfaction is regarded as multidimensional (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) psychological responses to one's job (Hullin and et al., 2003) and is defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences (Locke and et al, 1976, cited in Judge and et al, 2003: 26). Undoubtedly, maintenance and productivity of human resources is one of the most challenging tasks of any organization in modern times, and job satisfaction plays a pivotal role in accomplishment of this task. One of the main factors, (among others), which can affect the level of job satisfaction, is social well-being or social health. Although many variables have been identified as determinants of job satisfaction in the literature, however, little attention has been paid to the effects of social health, despite of long standing theoretical stances on the relationship. Three main theoretical frameworks exist in the literature for explaining the existence or level of job satisfaction, namely; situational approaches, dispositional approaches, and interactive approaches. Situational theories hypothesize that job satisfaction results from the nature of one’s job or other aspects of the environment; dispositional approaches assume that job satisfaction is rooted in the personological make-up of the individual; and interactive theories, trying to combine situational and dispositional approaches, propose that job satisfaction results from the interplay of the situation and personality (Judge and et al., 2001: 28). As a development for dispositional approaches, Judge and et al., (1997) have introduced ‘Core Evaluations’ concept, which relates to main personality characteristics that can influence people’s general satisfaction with life, including job satisfaction. Core evaluations could be related to oneself, to others, and to the world that one lives in. Those core evaluations which related to one's evaluation about other people and about the world, have many in common with the concept of Social Well-being that developed and operationalized by Keyes. According to Keyes, social well-being, which is the appraisal of one’s circumstance and functioning in society, has five different dimensions, including; social integration (the evaluation of the quality of one’s relationship to society and community), social acceptance (construal of society through the character and qualities of other people as a generalized category), social contribution (evaluation of one’s social value), social actualization (evaluation of the potential and the trajectory of society), and social coherence (perception of the quality, organization, and operation of the social world, and it includes a concern for knowing about the world) (1998: 122-3). By the use of employed theoretical framework, the effects of five dimensions of social well-being, beside of some background variables (such as employee’s age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, job experience, and income) on job satisfaction have been investigated in present study. Material and Methods Present study has been done by the use of survey method among all employees of Golsanbaft Corporation in Tabriz city, which has 523 employees. Needed data are gathered by the use of two standard questionnaires, namely; Abridged Job Descriptive Index (Bowling Green State University, 2009) for job satisfaction and Social well-being questionnaire developed by Keyes (1998). Although, questionnaires were standardized, however, all estimated Cronbach's Alphas for total indices and their dimensions were at acceptable level (>0.6), confirming the reliability of the indices have been used. Discussion of Results and Conclusions Descriptive statistics for background variables show that from 523 respondents, 459 (around 88 percent) were men, and 360 (about 69 percent) were married. Average age of respondents was 30.4 (min= 18 and max=57); average job experience in months was 37.7 (min= 1 and max=192); mean completed years of schooling was 11.3 years (min=1 and max 18); and average stated income was about 6640000 Rials (min= 4000000 and max= 14000000). According to findings, both social well-being (i.e., social health; min= 1.58, mean= 3.24, and max= 4.8) and job satisfaction (min= 1.8, mean= 3.22, and max= 4.83) were at medium level among Golsanbaft corporation’s personnel. Bivariate analyses show that the level of job satisfaction is not statistically different between men and women (mean for males= 3.21 and for females= 3.25) and married and non-married (mean for married= 3.20 and for non-married= 3.27) employees. Although weakly, however, both age (r= -0.13 and P < 0.01) and job experience (r= -0.14 and p <0.01) have negative, and statistically significant relationship with total job satisfaction index. Relationship between educational attainment and income with job satisfaction were negative, but non-significant at 0.05 level. Relationships between background variables and different dimensions of job satisfaction are generally negative, but non-significant. In comparison to background variables’ relationship, Pearson correlations between social well-being and job satisfaction is positive, strong, and highly significant from statistical point of view (being 0.71 and P<0.000). All of five dimensions of social well-being have shown positive relationship with total job satisfaction index and with all of its dimensions, which nearly all are statistically significant at 0.05 level. By the use of regression analysis, employee’s total job satisfaction index is regressed against all background variables along with five dimensions of social well-being, using stepwise method. According to the results, three dimensions of social well-being, including; social integration, social actualization, and social acceptance all positively affected employees’ job satisfaction. Besides, three background variables, including; sex (male=0 and female=1) positively, age and educational attainment negatively, effected job satisfaction index. According to the Beta coefficients, social actualization is the most important of six variables entered into the final fitted regression model. In this regard, variables; social coherence, social acceptance, sex, age and educational attainment stand at following ranks. Interestingly, the non-significant relationship of educational attainment in bivariate analysis becomes to be one of significant effects in regression model. These six variables, could explain around 55 percent of job satisfaction’s variance. Follow up checks regarding regression analysis’ assumptions confirmed the existence of main assumptions, including; normality, homoscedasticity, non-linearity, Linearity, and uncorrelated errors. Present study’s results are in line with those reviewed works in the literature review, although with some differences. Findings of the present study are confirmed with findings of Afjei et al (2010) in Iran, acknowledging the effect of social health on job satisfaction. However, estimated intensity of the relationships between three dimensions of social well-being (or social health) with job satisfaction was comparatively higher in the present study than Afjei and et al’s. Results also confirm the main theoretical framework used for the study. As Judge et al (1997) discussed positive core evaluations among employees under investigation about other people and about the whole world, can positively affect their job satisfaction. According to the finding, it could be proposed that at one hand, the corporation must select among those employment nominees who have higher levels of social health, and on the other hand, it is better to take practical steps to promote higher levels of social health among present employees. Keywords: Job satisfaction; Social Health; Core Evaluations; GolsanBaft; Tabriz.
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In a study of telecommunications services, the authors examine the effects of customer satisfaction, affective com- mitment, and calculative commitment on retention. The study further examines the potential for situational and reactional trigger conditions to moderate the satisfaction-retention relationship. The results support consistent effects of customer satisfaction, calculative commitment, and prior churn on retention. Prior churn also moderates the satisfaction-retention relationship. The results have implications for both customer relationship managers and researchers who use satisfaction surveys to predict behavior.
The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
Most people at the top of organizations are intellectually engaged in their business through computer printouts, marketing data, business strategies, and, of course, bottom-line results. One of the biggest shortcomings in industry today is management's failure to emotionally understand the needs of the workforce beyond a paycheck at the end of a week. This article is not supposed to be written. It could even be considered an insult But then again, there are plenty of articles written about food, dieting, exercise, and other basic needs of life. And many people still demonstrate a need for improvement in those areas. Recognition, plain and simple, is a need. A vital need, just like breathing, eating, and sleeping.
Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, and Sowa (1986) recently conducted a study focused on a measure of perceived employer commitment that they called the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the SPOS and to determine the distinctiveness of this construct from other similar constructs. Participants were 330 employees in a large corporation headquartered in the southeastern United States. The results support the SPOS as a unidimensional scale that is distinguishable from affective and continuance commitment. However, the data raise some question as to the empirical distinction between the SPOS and satisfaction.
Problem: In response to the demands of competitiveness, there has been a proliferation of management delayering in order to move responsibility to those people carrying out the operations and to focus on working as a team. Teams can be managed in different ways: using supervisors, team leaders, or self-managed. The management of health and safety and other business risks is dependent on the way in which the team is managed. Method: This study has assessed, through the use of semistructured interviews, how UK manufacturing companies have addressed a range of health and safety management issues (i.e., the setting, communication, and measurement of company objectives, employee participation and empowerment, and risk assessment) in relation to different styles of group working (i.e., supervised groups, groups with team leaders, and self-managed groups). Discussion: Although the differences are not always significant, it is noticeable that within organizations using supervised work environments, there is a lack of communication of specific health and safety information, little involvement and participation in safety activities, and a greater reliance on the safety function. However, in organizations using team leaders and self-managed groups, there is evidence of greater management involvement, more open communication, and greater employee involvement in health and safety, although empowerment in its true sense was still limited in these organizations. Impact on industry: The results obtained illustrate the impact of different working groups on the management of health and safety in the UK manufacturing sector.
Recent literature reviews (Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw, & Denny, 1980; Locke & Schweiger, 1979) dealing with the impact of participation in decision making (PDM) on work outcomes have tended to cast doubt upon the relationship between PDM and job performance criteria. Results of cross-sectional research from six different U.S. military organizations are reported. Self-report measures of the degree of influence perceived by employees (i.e., PDM) were significantly correlated with job satisfaction ratings and with supervisory performance ratings in all six samples. Moderated regression analysis and partial correlation analysis indicated that PDM performance correlations were potentially confounded with the employee's self- ratings of task competence.
This study examines the relationships between components of organisational safety climate, including: employee attitudes to organisational and individual safety issues; perceptions of the physical work environment and perceptions of workplace hazards; and relates these to self-reported levels of safety activity. It also attempts to replicate the explicative model derived by Cheyne et al. in a similar study within the manufacturing sector. Data were collected from a large manufacturing organisation using a questionnaire. A total of 708 valid questionnaires were returned and formed the basis for the subsequent analyses. These data showed that a common structure of attitudes to safety issues and perceptions of the work environment can be constructed in line with the previous model, with a few differences, providing some evidence of a sector-wide safety culture. The strength of employees’ attitudes with regard to safety management and individual responsibility once again played central roles in the model and are consistent with earlier findings. Comparisons are made between the two organisations and mean scores on each of the model components show that there are differences between the two organisations in terms of individual responsibility and personal involvement, as well as levels of safety activity and perceived levels of workplace hazards. The results are discussed in terms of generating general models of attitudes to safety, which in turn may facilitate climate change.
Two studies report a positive relationship of employees' perception of being valued and cared about by the organization with (a) conscientiousness in carrying out conventional job responsibilities, (b) expressed affective and calculative involvements in the organization, and (c) innovation on behalf of the organization in the absence of anticipated direct reward or personal recognition. In Study 1, involving six occupations, positive relationships of perceived support with job attendance and performance were found. In Study 2, using manufacturing hourly employees and managers, perceived support was positively related to affective attachment, performance outcome expectancies, and the constructiveness of anonymous suggestions for helping the organization. These results favor the extension and integration of emotion-based and calculative theories of organizational commitment into a social-exchange approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
It is increasingly apparent that the financial value of a firm depends on off-balance-sheet intangible assets. In this article, the authors focus on the most critical aspect of a firm: its customers. Specifically, they demonstrate how valuing customers makes it feasible to value firms, including high growth firms with negative earnings. The authors define the value of a customer as the expected sum of discounted future earnings. They demonstrate their valuation method by using publicly available data for five firms. They find that a 1% improvement in retention, margin, or acquisition cost improves firm value by 5%, 1% and .1% respectively. They also find that a 1% improvement in retention has almost five times greater impact on firm value than a 1% change in discount rate or cost of capital. The results show that the linking of marketing concepts to shareholder value is both possible and insightful.
During 1980–1981, a study was conducted of worker training and education in occupational safety and health in Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United States. This article is the third in a four-part series of the findings of this study. Part one discussed the genesis of the study and the study design, reported on the training requirements of the occupational safety and health legislation in each of the six countries, and considered the implications of this legislation for worker training and education. Part one also included information on how each country is organized to carry out worker training and education in occupational safety and health. Part two discussed the role perceived for worker training and education as an occupational injury and illness countermeasure and identified and described the major components of the occupational safety and health training infrastructure in each country in the study. Part three reports on strategies for worker training including course design, construction, delivery, evaluation, and costs. Part four will provide synopses of worker training and education for selected subsets of the worker population, e.g., migrant workers, nonorganized workers, employees of small business establishments, and employees of the federal or central government. Worker training and education programs will also be discussed for the following industries: construction, marine cargo handling (longshoring), and petroleum refining and related industries.