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With the rapid advances in technology, virtual reality(VR) re-emerged as an affordable technology providing new potentials for virtual learning environments(VLE). Within the scope of this study, firstly a general perspective on potentials of VR to create an appropriate VLE is put forward regarding the potentials related with learning modalities. Then, VR as a VLE in architectural education is discussed and utilization of VR is revisited considering the fundamentals of education as how to enhance skills regarding creativity, furnish students to adopt future skills and how VR can be used to enhance design understanding as well as space perception and spatial relations. It is deliberated that instead of mirroring the real spaces, allowing students to understand the virtuality with its own constituents will broaden the understanding of space, spatial relations, scale, motion, and time both in physical and virtual. The dichotomy between physical and virtual materiality, the potentials and pitfalls in the process of transformation from real/physical to virtual-virtual to real/physical are discussed in relation with the student projects designed in the scope of Digital Design Studio course in Middle East Technical University. It is also shown that VR stimulates different learning modalities especially kinesthetic modality and helping students to develop creativity and metacognition about space and spatial relations.
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... Since the early developments on hardware and software, the use of VR tools have evolved from basic operations to advance solutions for the creation of virtual environments, which include components of 3D models, dynamic real-time renderings, closedloop interactions, and even enhanced sensory feedback (Wickens, 1992;Kalay, 2004;Schnabel, 2009;Sorguç et al., 2017). Further, design educators accommodate novelties of VR for reinforcing teaching methods that aim for developing cognitive abilities (Tokman and Yamacli, 2007;Schnabel and Howe, 2010;Gül and Simisic, 2014;Shih et al., 2017). ...
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With the advent of computer technology, Virtual Reality (VR) became an integral part of design studios in architecture education. Researchers have been exploring how VR-enhanced design studios can be assessed from a student-centered perspective. This paper illustrates the role of teaching architectural design for developing a novel and contextual curriculum based on an analysis of student feedback. The background focuses on the development of VR-based architectural design education. The methodology frames two digital design ecosystems which are experimented in four undergraduate courses. With an ecosystem-based approach discussed in this paper, a medium-oriented and a content-oriented curriculum are offered for testing students' reaction to teaching design in VR. In both ecosystems, students are engaged with advanced digital design methods and techniques, which include 3D form-finding, building information modeling, visual programming, coding, and real-time rendering. The study screens the usage of software solutions for the creation of complex virtual environments, covering Blender, Rhinoceros, Unity, Grasshopper, and Revit. The implementation of a User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) comparatively demonstrates the performative qualities of both digital design ecosystems. Results indicate that the intensity of interaction varied in two incomparable, but connate, levels of qualities. The findings suggest that the perspicuity aspects of student interaction bare the risk of "complicated" and "confusing" software. The results further demonstrate a conflict between task-related qualities and non-task related qualities. Additionally, interacting with VR tools in architecture design education is found attractive, stimulating, and original despite low scores on the pragmatic qualities of perspicuity, efficiency, and dependability. The data and results obtained from this study give insight into the planning of design studios in architecture education based on the use of VR and digital methods. Therefore, this study contributes to future research in the contextualization of the design teaching efforts.
This paper presents a systematic review of how extended reality technologies (XR-technologies) affect the learning outcomes and students' performance in architectural education. Based on a modified PICO-strategy and the framework analysis of the findings of previous researches on immersive environments, this paper elucidates the impact of XR-technologies, including virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR), on Bryan Lawson's five phases of the design process. Furthermore, this study investigates the applications of XR-technologies in different courses of architectural education. The results are categorized into four different course types that were derived from the reviewed article. The results show that XR-technologies, including VR, AR, and MR are capable of enhancing various stages of the design process and improving learning outcomes in educational courses among architecture students. Similarly, the application of such environments is also suitable for professional architectural design and inclusion of end-users in the design process.
Immersive technologies are not only gaining popularity in various fields but are also heralded as the obvious next step in architectural practice. Now that almost five years have passed since the release of more accurate and affordable headsets, a review focusing on immersive technology applications in the architectural field is needed to reflect the current fields investigated. This systematic literature review discusses the sample used in the 201 selected studies about immersive technologies published from 2015 to 2019. The study identifies gaps in the current literature. The results highlight that professional architects are almost never queried in searches conducted over the past five years in the selected database. It unveils the necessity to take into consideration the context of studies in order to develop tools truly dedicated to the real practices of professional architects. This paper constitutes a reference for further researches by facilitating their contextualization within the research landscape.
Conference Paper
Five components of the virtual reality (VR) concept are analytically defined: 3-D perspective, dynamic rendering, closed loop interaction, inside-out perspective, and enhanced sensory feedback. It is argued on the basis of empirical data from a variety of sources that those components that improve performance by reducing effort may actually inhibit learning or long term retention. Closed loop interaction in contrast, while not reducing effort, appears to have a beneficial effect on retention. The importance for learning of directing users attention to the link between the VR perspective and a more artificial perspective is also highlighted
The use of animation and multimedia for learning is now further extended by the provision of entire Virtual Reality Learning Environments (VRLE). This highlights a shift in Web-based learning from a conventional multimedia to a more immersive, interactive, intuitive and exciting VR learning environment. VRLEs simulate the real world through the application of 3D models that initiates interaction, immersion and trigger the imagination of the learner. The question of good pedagogy and use of technology innovations comes into focus once again. Educators attempt to find theoretical guidelines or instructional principles that could assist them in developing and applying a novel VR learning environment intelligently. This paper introduces the educational use of Web-based 3D technologies and highlights in particular VR features. It then identifies constructivist learning as the pedagogical engine driving the construction of VRLE and discusses five constructivist learning approaches. Furthermore, the authors provide two case studies to investigate VRLEs for learning purposes. The authors conclude with formulating some guidelines for the effective use of VRLEs, including discussion of the limitations and implications for the future study of VRLEs.
This paper explores educational uses of virtual learning environment (VLE) concerned with issues of learning, training and entertainment. We analyze the state-of-art research of VLE based on virtual reality and augmented reality. Some examples for the purpose of education and simulation are described. These applications show that VLE can be means of enhancing, motivating and stimulating learners’ understanding of certain events, especially those for which the traditional notion of instructional learning have proven inappropriate or difficult. Furthermore, the users can learn in a quick and happy mode by playing in the virtual environments.
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Kvan, T and Yunyan, J 2005, 'Students' learning styles and their correlation with performance in architectural design studio', Design Studie, 26(doi: 10.1016/S0142-694X(96)00024-5), pp. 19-34