Supporting Young Artists in Making Connections: Moving from Mere Recognition to Perceptive Art Experiences

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... Gambar dibuat oleh individu tertentu dalam ruang dan waktu tertentu (Eldén, 2013;Richards, 2018;Theron et al., 2011). Ini adalah aspek penting dari makna yang dibangun dan dimiliki. ...
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Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas dan mensintesis konsep penting literasi visual pada Pendidikan guru pra-layanan/ calon guru. Alasan penting pada penelitian ini adalah masih terdapatnya ukuran standar prestasi verbal dan prestasi yang mencerminkan kemampuan linguistik dan matematis sehingga ukuran kemampuan visual jarang untuk dibahas. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kajian literatur dan survey kepada 148 mahasiswa pendidikan guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Universitas Islam Malang. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa terdapat kecenderungan mahasiswa untuk menggambar pemandangan dengan visual gunung dan rumah pada proses pendidikan dan lingkungan dikarenakan kurangnya referensi visual yang dimiliki. Dengan adanya ukuran kemampuan visual maka diharapkan mahasiswa dan calon guru memiliki referensi menggambar yang lebih variatif. Kata kunci: literasi visual, gambar, calon guru, gambar gunung, guru madrasah. Abstract This study aims to discuss and synthesize important concepts of visual literacy in pre-service teacher education / prospective teachers. An important reason for this research is that there are still measures of verbal achievement and achievement standards that reflect linguistic and mathematical abilities so that the measure of visual ability is rarely discussed. This study used a literature review method and a survey of 148 teacher education students at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Islamic University of Malang. The results showed that there was a tendency for students to draw visual views of mountains and houses in the educational and environmental process due to the lack of visual references they had. With the measure of visual ability, it is hoped that students and prospective teachers will have more varied drawing references.
... It is necessary to pay attention to the cultivation of practical ability in the ability cultivation, making the student have strong comprehensive innovation ability. As shown in Table 1 and figure 1, according to statistics, 750 colleges and universities have set up "Art Design Specialty" in our country, and the enrollment scale is very large and is expanding constantly [5][6][7]. Figure 1 The number of colleges and universities opening the undergraduate course of "Art Design Specialty" ...
The aim of this study was to examine the early childhood experiences of children visiting an art exhibition with their fathers and creating their own artwork. It was designed and conducted as a narrative study, which is a qualitative research methodology. Five children in early childhood (48–88 months old) and their fathers participated in the research carried out in a Contemporary Arts Centre in Ankara, Turkey. Each father and child dyad visited the exhibition at different times and their dialogues during these visits were recorded. The data obtained in the study were analysed through content analysis. It was shown in the results that the fathers and children expressed their thoughts about features of the exhibited works such as size, line, transparency and texture as well as other aspects such as the part‐whole relationship and the materials and techniques used in the artworks. It was also observed in the process of creating images, that the fathers and their children had experiences in planning and initiating the creation process, continuing the drawing/colouring process, associating their artwork with the exhibition, naming their artwork and creating a common symbol. In addition, it was found that the fathers created narratives stating that they learned more about the perspective of their children regarding art, got to better know their children’s interests due to the artistic experience and decided to have more frequent artistic experiences with their children in the future.
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This study aims to examine the visual artwork made by children as a result of the visual arts education practices of preschool teachers in institutions in terms of having tool- or art-oriented structures. The working group of the study consists of the visual artwork created by 763 children attending the lessons given by 61 teachers working at 18 independent kindergartens/nursery classes. The study used the general survey model. A “Personal Information Form” and “Form for Evaluating the Exhibited Visual Artwork of Children in Preschool Institutions in Terms of Artistic Structure” were used to collect data. In the study, the visual artwork made by children aged 48-60 months and over and displayed on the panels was collected using the "photograph recording method," one of the observation recording methods. To collect the data, a total of 18 schools were visited twice a week for five weeks with three to four days between both observations, and the visual artwork made by each class was observed. The two-step cluster method, which is formed by combining descriptive statistics with “k Means” (a non-hierarchical clustering technique from multiple statistics), and “Ward’s Minimum Variance” (a hierarchical technique), was used to analyze the data. As a result of the study, the first and second observations determined that there were two clusters, namely, tool-oriented structure and art-oriented structure and that the children’s mean scores in both clusters were low.
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YOUNG CHILDREN'S MEANING-MAKING is a multifaceted, complex experience, where thought, body and emotion unite. Rich and intricate creations are brought to life through children's formation, communication and interpretation of ‘signs’ which stand for or represent something else. The term drawing-telling is used to describe children's use of a range of signs when depicting imaginary worlds on paper, on the topic of what they think the future might be like. Such depictions include an expansive range of signs—narration, gesture, graphic depiction, onomatopoeia—often used in highly interactive ways. This paper illustrates, through examples of young children's drawings and transcripts of their ‘tellings’, the intertextual nature of their work. It foregrounds how adults must be sensitive to children's shifts between various subject positionings and the multiple functions that may be assigned to their depicted objects and events. Similarities between drawing-telling and filmic textual features are featured to assist adults in understanding children's meaning-making.
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This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential activities and within dominant school art discourses that have constructed early school art as ‘process over product’ and that have understood culture as heritage. Suggesting that all novices — adults and children — make meaning from complex cultural values intertwined with the arts in some similar ways, she presents a description of a personal encounter with a Japanese tea garden and ceremony in order to (a) explore notions of art, development, and school art as cultural sensibilities, and (b) illustrate a cyclical process of direct perception, personal-contextual meaning-making, and discursive analysis. She concludes by arguing that encounters with the unfamiliar present unrealized educative possibilities for aesthetic experience in early schooling and by discussing new directions for an aesthetic early childhood education.
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This paper explores concepts of desire and rhizomatic working through a series of intergenerational collaborative drawing episodes. Particularly, mother/daughter relationships are examined via drawings created by the author and her young daughter. Drawings hold on their surface unpredictable connections to things experienced, known, conceptualized and imagined. In the context of this paper desire is seen to drive adults and children into expressing and making a mark, to make an imprint. Here, the prompts that inform a drawing are regarded as a rhizomatic network of chaotic actions and thoughts that connect each drawer to the tools, the paper and each other in unpredictable and mutable ways. The paper concludes by discussing how these intergenerational collaborative drawing episodes offer opportunities to re-imagine relationships, communications and learning in early childhood education.
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For many years, researchers have tried to comprehend the meaning of children's drawings (Kindler, 2010). They assumed that children express their emotions and their personality in their pictures, including conscious and unconscious fears, hopes, trauma, conflicts, and fantasies, opening a window to a child's mind and soul (Cox, 1992; Di Leo, 1983; Kavanagh, 1998; Kolbe, 2005; Krenz, 2004; Malchiodi, 1998). However, as Rubin (1984) observed: "deciphering a child's symbolic art messages is a complex, shifting and variable one" (74). The aim of this research was to critically analyse relevant interpretations of children's art, to find commonalities in various methods and to determine their effectiveness in particular for the analysis of children's drawings. Further, it aimed to find a workable method for educators to interpret children's drawings. The research employed a qualitative approach, using comparative document analysis to critically examine methods for analysing children's drawings. Several methods of analysing children's drawings have been suggested, including looking at drawings in relation to a child's development, classifying the content of the artworks, and trying to understand children's art from various other perspectives and interpretations. This resulted in the identification of three method categories for analysing children's art: developmental analysis, content analysis, and interpretive analysis, with three approaches from each method selected and trialled with children's drawings. The research question was: "How can we, as educators, make sense of children's drawings?" Findings from this study demonstrate a need to move from monopolistic to holistic methods of interpreting children's drawings, from a content-dominated analysis to one that includes interpretive and developmental methods. By combining existing methods into an easier-to-apply form, teachers will be better equipped to take on the task of interpreting children's drawings. The content-interpretive-developmental (CID) method of analysing children's drawings was created as an outcome of this study, with suggestions for approaches within this method to get a rich understanding. Further, this research suggests that children's art provides great insight into children's learning and development; and that children need to be guided beyond stereotypical drawing. The arts, often overlooked in schools, need to be seen as important components of curriculum, as they offer great benefits for the developing child. Educators would be interested in the meanings and messages of the child's artwork as a way of understanding the whole child and as a way to support the child's learning in an individual and personalised way.
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This article focuses on kindergartens and schools as art educational environments. They were explored from three points of view: the physical environment, the social environment and the pedagogical environment created by the thinking and activities of teachers and artists. A multidimensional evaluation is used to analyse the data. (Interviews of artists and teachers (n=18), final reports (n=9), follow-up material from an art project in Helsinki beginning in 2000.) The project targeted children in kindergarten (3–6 years old) and in the first grades in school (7-9 years old) and included visual art, environmental art, literary art, drama, circus and architectural elements. School, kindergarten and the immediate surroundings offered an opportunity for a diversified cooperative achievement. The children proved to be skilful and significant members of society in carrying out their art projects.
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This article philosophically reconstructs John Dewey's notion of'experi­ ence' and its implications for teaching in view of the changing nature of experience for today's society. Given that Dewey's notion of 'experience' suggests a holistic, archetypal structure for human experience, specific neither to time nor place, the article asks whether it can accommodate the types of experience not dreamed of in his day, or whether it needs read­ justment to suit our times. Dewey valued the 'shared experience' but saw the 'primary', personal or direct experience as the most lasting and of most educational value to the individual. Through his explication of'di­ rect' and 'real' experience, Dewey not only defined the educative experi­ ence but also promoted the reconciliation between progressive and tradi­ tional education. This study argues that Dewey's advocacy for real and di­ rect experiences in schools is ever more important in the light of the global crises of today and a world where we often seem to be disconnected from the environment, each other and ourselves.
This article describes a small, collaborative, arts-based research project conducted in two rural early childhood centres in regional Australia, where the children made large-scale collaborative paintings in partnership with teachers and researchers. Observation of young children's artistic practices, in order to inform the development of pre-service curriculum and pedagogy was a central aim of the project. The findings are framed with respect to pedagogy, practice and learning: the pedagogy that supports children's artmaking; the benefits of learning in and through the arts, and the notion of collective practice in early childhood settings. Findings suggest that collaborative and intergenerational artmaking in early childhood settings enable powerful learning opportunities. A combination of establishing a rich art environment, applying constraints, yet allowing for children's agency can create a rich and engaging art education, which is vital in any setting if children are to develop their aesthetic awareness, artistic skills, and critical, abstract, imaginative, collaborative and creative thinking. The role of the proactive art educator in children's development is crucial, which has implications for teacher preparation and in-service professional development. These project findings also have implications for ecologies of learning and communities of practice from early childhood to higher education.
Traditionally, the learning of arts in the Estonian primary school has meant completion of practical assignments given by the teacher. The new national curriculum for basic school adopted in 2010 sets out new requirements for art education where the emphasis, in addition to practical assignments, is on discussion and understanding of art. The teacher must introduce pupils to both art history and contemporary art. As a result, primary teachers would likely serve their pupils more effectively if they reconsidered their current understandings of art education and update their teaching correspondingly. The action research method seeks to answer the following question: how should one change the art education process in primary school so that in addition to practical activities pupils would have opportunities to talk about and understand contemporary art? The article discusses a framework for modernising art education in primary school. Research shows that primary school learners are open to innovation and thus discussion of contemporary art can become a natural part of primary school art classes. The balance between creating and responding is a key to planning the art education processes today.
This a/r/tographic inquiry delves into questions about participatory art museum practice, specifically seeking to understand the nature of invitations to participate. Utilising drawings, writing and mapping of embodied participation, questions of how individuals are invited to participate in various locations and how these invitations inform the work of art museums that engage in participatory practice are considered. Conditions for participation, including familiarity, personalisation, enthusiasm, playfulness, narrative, uniqueness, sociability and listening, as well as anti-invitations that contradict moves toward participation, are discussed in relation to examples from the study and scholarly writing. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to share research about participatory practice in various locations and its implications for art museums, and second, to explore the potential of arts-based research methodologies, particularly a/r/tography, for art museum education research.
How can art as experience or education build a more humanized world? What are the benefits of an artful education that extend beyond the art itself? This work examines how two scholars of education and proponents of the arts have responded through their writing. The title of this article derives from John Dewey’s foreword to the book The Unfolding of Artistic Activity ([1948] 1961), which is a unique collection of case studies on artistic growth written by art educator Henry Schaefer-Simmern. In this text, as in John Dewey’s Art as Experience (1934), there is an underlying implication that creative activity which is supported by the individual’s life experiences leads to wholeness of the person, and, by extension, contributes to a revitalized society. This article is a further exploration of these exemplars’ thinking on the topics of art and education. The intention is to highlight their consonance and consider ways that their theories broaden the meaning of art, experience and education.
Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice in art education, because their artistic experiences and motivations determine how they will engage in and respond to art making activities. This study used ethnographic methods to learn about the art making that took place over the course of one year in an elementary school art room, and to gain insight into the students' experiences and perceptions of art‐making activity. Data were analysed using a socio‐cultural framework. By asking children why they made art and exploring children's own explanations of their art making, this study reveals some of the important intentions that children bring to their artistic activity, and some of the ways that children make meaning through art making.
A/r/tography's conceptual framework is overwhelming postmodern, and within the scholarship referenced, John Dewey's Art as Experience is seldom cited. This essay argues for the relevancy of Art as Experience to a/r/tography. The structure of this essay follows the lines of argument within Dewey's first three chapters: "The Live Creature," "Ethereal Things," and "Having an Experience." These chapters offer significant insight into the close links Dewey saw between science, aesthetics, and inquiry, and help to show how a/r/tography not only resonates with Dewey's aesthetics, but to other significant traditions within Western thought as well.
The aims of this article are to explore the links between drawing and playing and to conceptualise drawings as spaces for intellectual play. The empirical research that supports this position is based on an interpretivist study involving 14 children aged four–six in a primary school in England. Over a one-year period, 882 drawings were collected from home and school contexts, with commentaries and interpretations given by the children, their parents and class teacher. Expanding on the main findings, three themes were identified that link play and drawing: playing at drawing, playing in drawings and playing with drawings. The study builds on contemporary interpretations of sociocultural theories in which drawings are theorised as intellectual play and as authoring spaces for children's identities. By playing at, in and with their drawings children reveal the complex imaginative and meditational processes that underpin their playful transformations of their social and cultural worlds, in which concepts of power, agency and identity are embedded. The findings propose that play and drawing should be seen as mutually constitutive sociocultural practices of young children, and as private and public spaces for imaginative and intellectual play. This theoretical position also contests narrow policy versions of play and drawing as servants to socially valued developmental and educational goals.
Young children bring a wide repertoire of visitor behaviours to traditional art museums, using their minds, senses, and bodies to respond to and interpret artworks. When given opportunities for self-expression, choice, and control during an art museum visit, children are empowered in this environment. Allowing children to take a leading role as tour guides for their peers or adult partners is one way to engender such empowerment. This kind of experience shows them they have a valuable contribution to make and allows them to learn actively from artworks, through self-directed inquiry. This article outlines a number of art museum programs that have encouraged children as guides during school and family visits, and discusses the benefits of these programs — for both the children and their adult companions. The author also notes the importance of a supportive, responsive adult, who can extend children's conversations to introduce the language and concepts of the visual arts during child-led tours.
This paper first describes how activities using photographs of an early childhood education centre, and children’s own photographs of that environment, were found to be effective ways of enabling young children (aged from two to four years old) to share their thoughts about their experiences. However, in reflecting on the data, it was recognised that two other features had contributed significantly to a deeper understanding of children’s perspectives. One was the prolonged and sustained data‐collection period, and the other was the intellectual process of ‘stepping back’ from the research agenda which allowed other, less overt, messages to be ‘heard’ in the data. The data were gathered as part of a wider ethnographic study investigating the scope and boundaries of curriculum in an early childhood education centre.
The paper focuses on children’s photographs as a method to use in research with children. Studies using photographs with children are reviewed and compared and a study conducted in one Icelandic playschool is described. The playschool was involved in a project where the purpose was to look at the ways children think about their early childhood educational setting and to develop methods for listening to children’s perspectives. The paper describes and compares two approaches where cameras were used. One group used digital cameras to take pictures in their playschool while they showed the researcher important places and things in the playschool. The other group was given disposable cameras that they could use unsupervised for a period of time. The results show that using cameras and children’s photos is a notable method to use when seeking children’s perspectives on their life in an early childhood setting.
A project is an in-depth study of a particular topic that one or more children undertake, and consists of exploring the topic or theme such as "building a house" over a period of days or weeks. This book introduces the project approach and suggests applications and examples of this approach in action. Chapters are: (1) "Profile of the Project Approach," defining the approach and describing how project work complements other parts of the preschool curriculum; (2) "Research and Principles of Practice," discussing the conceptual basis for a project approach; (3) "Project Work in Action," illustrating the variety of project work; (4) "Features of the Project Approach," presenting guidelines for project topic selection, types of project activities, choices children make in project work, the teacher's role, and the three phases of project work; (5) "Teacher Planning," focusing on selecting a topic, making a topic web, deciding on a project's scope, and using five criteria for selecting and focusing on project topics; (6) "Getting Projects Started: Phase I," detailing ways to engage children's interest, initiate the introductory discussion, organize activities for early stages of extended projects, and involve parents; (7) "Projects in Progress: Phase II," discussing ways to maximize children's learning, interest, and motivation; (8) "Consolidating Projects: Phase III," presenting various approaches to concluding a project, such as making presentations to other classes or evaluating the project; and (9) "The Project Approach in Perspective," identifying the project approach as a complement and supplement to other aspects of the curriculum while giving teachers the opportunity to attend equally to social and intellectual development. Appendices present project descriptions, project guidelines, and a checklist for recording Missouri State Competencies applied in the course of project work. Contains about 140 references. (KDFB)
Concept: Few empirical studies have investigated the influence of teachers, parents and children on children's drawing experience. The current study aims to examine the attitudes and practices of these three key players that shape children's drawing experience.Method: A survey methodology was used, as typically found in previous research in this area. Participants were 270 5–14 year old children, 44 of their teachers of the National Curriculum for Art and Design, and 146 of their parents. The teachers and children participated in individual interviews and the parents completed a postal survey. Responses to most interview questions were transcribed and content analysis used to identify salient themes. The other questions involved responses on five-point scales, these were analysed by reporting percentages.Results: The findings are discussed in five sections. First, the positive perceptions of children's drawing behaviour and attitudes. Second, the perceived importance and principal aims of the National Curriculum for Art and Design Education. Third, the numerous sources of encouragement and support for drawing development. Fourth, the differing perceptions of what constitutes a good and bad drawing. Fifth, issues surrounding an age-related decline in children's drawing activity.Conclusions: The findings are related to theories of drawing education, and implications for children's drawings and drawing pedagogy are discussed.
This article takes the subject of visual arts in Sweden as the point of departure in a discussion of how, with the help of portfolios, assessments may extend to include both the unpredictable and the ambiguous. The notion that assessments of learning outcomes must be either limited to superficial knowledge or completely arbitrary is shown to be a misconception. The author has made a study of the progression of young people's creativity in the visual arts from preschool to upper secondary school. The assessment was based on both product criteria and process criteria (investigative work, inventiveness, ability to use models, capacity for self-assessment). The materials assessed were portfolios of work containing sketches, drafts and finished works, log books, sources of inspiration and videotaped interviews with the students.Is there any progression in students' visual design, in their ability to work independently and assess their work? What is the degree of correlation in the assessments of different judges of student portfolios? These are some of the questions that this article attempts to answer, which concludes with a discussion of how schools can build a culture of learning that fosters the creative powers of young people.
In this article we argue that research into children's drawings should consider the context in which drawing occurs and that it is crucial to investigate the attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children themselves that shape children's drawing experience and the drawings which they produce. We review the findings of seven empirical studies reporting data collected through direct observations, interviews and questionnaires from the three main players (teachers, parents and children) on the attitudes and practices shaping children's drawing. Issues covered include teachers' perceptions of the purposes and importance of drawing, support offered by teachers, parents and children for children's drawing endeavours, and possible factors that may lead to an age-related decline in the amount of drawing children choose to do. We end the review by reporting some preliminary findings from our own large-scale interview and survey study of 270 5-14 year old children, their parents and teachers, that provides a comprehensive assessment of attitudes and practices influencing children's drawing experience at home and at school. The findings provide further insight into the aforementioned issues, particularly children's, teachers' and parent's explanations of why children's drawing behaviour might decline with age. It is hoped that by reporting these preliminary findings some additional understanding of the context in which children produce their drawings can be gained and new areas for debate opened up.
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