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Supporting Young Artists in Making Connections: Moving from Mere Recognition to Perceptive Art Experiences

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... Gambar dibuat oleh individu tertentu dalam ruang dan waktu tertentu (Eldén, 2013;Richards, 2018;Theron et al., 2011). Ini adalah aspek penting dari makna yang dibangun dan dimiliki. ...
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Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas dan mensintesis konsep penting literasi visual pada Pendidikan guru pra-layanan/ calon guru. Alasan penting pada penelitian ini adalah masih terdapatnya ukuran standar prestasi verbal dan prestasi yang mencerminkan kemampuan linguistik dan matematis sehingga ukuran kemampuan visual jarang untuk dibahas. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kajian literatur dan survey kepada 148 mahasiswa pendidikan guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Universitas Islam Malang. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa terdapat kecenderungan mahasiswa untuk menggambar pemandangan dengan visual gunung dan rumah pada proses pendidikan dan lingkungan dikarenakan kurangnya referensi visual yang dimiliki. Dengan adanya ukuran kemampuan visual maka diharapkan mahasiswa dan calon guru memiliki referensi menggambar yang lebih variatif. Kata kunci: literasi visual, gambar, calon guru, gambar gunung, guru madrasah. Abstract This study aims to discuss and synthesize important concepts of visual literacy in pre-service teacher education / prospective teachers. An important reason for this research is that there are still measures of verbal achievement and achievement standards that reflect linguistic and mathematical abilities so that the measure of visual ability is rarely discussed. This study used a literature review method and a survey of 148 teacher education students at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Islamic University of Malang. The results showed that there was a tendency for students to draw visual views of mountains and houses in the educational and environmental process due to the lack of visual references they had. With the measure of visual ability, it is hoped that students and prospective teachers will have more varied drawing references.
... It is necessary to pay attention to the cultivation of practical ability in the ability cultivation, making the student have strong comprehensive innovation ability. As shown in Table 1 and figure 1, according to statistics, 750 colleges and universities have set up "Art Design Specialty" in our country, and the enrollment scale is very large and is expanding constantly [5][6][7]. Figure 1 The number of colleges and universities opening the undergraduate course of "Art Design Specialty" ...
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For many years, researchers have tried to comprehend the meaning of children's drawings (Kindler, 2010). They assumed that children express their emotions and their personality in their pictures, including conscious and unconscious fears, hopes, trauma, conflicts, and fantasies, opening a window to a child's mind and soul (Cox, 1992; Di Leo, 1983; Kavanagh, 1998; Kolbe, 2005; Krenz, 2004; Malchiodi, 1998). However, as Rubin (1984) observed: "deciphering a child's symbolic art messages is a complex, shifting and variable one" (74). The aim of this research was to critically analyse relevant interpretations of children's art, to find commonalities in various methods and to determine their effectiveness in particular for the analysis of children's drawings. Further, it aimed to find a workable method for educators to interpret children's drawings. The research employed a qualitative approach, using comparative document analysis to critically examine methods for analysing children's drawings. Several methods of analysing children's drawings have been suggested, including looking at drawings in relation to a child's development, classifying the content of the artworks, and trying to understand children's art from various other perspectives and interpretations. This resulted in the identification of three method categories for analysing children's art: developmental analysis, content analysis, and interpretive analysis, with three approaches from each method selected and trialled with children's drawings. The research question was: "How can we, as educators, make sense of children's drawings?" Findings from this study demonstrate a need to move from monopolistic to holistic methods of interpreting children's drawings, from a content-dominated analysis to one that includes interpretive and developmental methods. By combining existing methods into an easier-to-apply form, teachers will be better equipped to take on the task of interpreting children's drawings. The content-interpretive-developmental (CID) method of analysing children's drawings was created as an outcome of this study, with suggestions for approaches within this method to get a rich understanding. Further, this research suggests that children's art provides great insight into children's learning and development; and that children need to be guided beyond stereotypical drawing. The arts, often overlooked in schools, need to be seen as important components of curriculum, as they offer great benefits for the developing child. Educators would be interested in the meanings and messages of the child's artwork as a way of understanding the whole child and as a way to support the child's learning in an individual and personalised way.
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Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice in art education, because their artistic experiences and motivations determine how they will engage in and respond to art making activities. This study used ethnographic methods to learn about the art making that took place over the course of one year in an elementary school art room, and to gain insight into the students' experiences and perceptions of art‐making activity. Data were analysed using a socio‐cultural framework. By asking children why they made art and exploring children's own explanations of their art making, this study reveals some of the important intentions that children bring to their artistic activity, and some of the ways that children make meaning through art making.
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A/r/tography's conceptual framework is overwhelming postmodern, and within the scholarship referenced, John Dewey's Art as Experience is seldom cited. This essay argues for the relevancy of Art as Experience to a/r/tography. The structure of this essay follows the lines of argument within Dewey's first three chapters: "The Live Creature," "Ethereal Things," and "Having an Experience." These chapters offer significant insight into the close links Dewey saw between science, aesthetics, and inquiry, and help to show how a/r/tography not only resonates with Dewey's aesthetics, but to other significant traditions within Western thought as well.
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Young children bring a wide repertoire of visitor behaviours to traditional art museums, using their minds, senses, and bodies to respond to and interpret artworks. When given opportunities for self-expression, choice, and control during an art museum visit, children are empowered in this environment. Allowing children to take a leading role as tour guides for their peers or adult partners is one way to engender such empowerment. This kind of experience shows them they have a valuable contribution to make and allows them to learn actively from artworks, through self-directed inquiry. This article outlines a number of art museum programs that have encouraged children as guides during school and family visits, and discusses the benefits of these programs — for both the children and their adult companions. The author also notes the importance of a supportive, responsive adult, who can extend children's conversations to introduce the language and concepts of the visual arts during child-led tours.
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This paper first describes how activities using photographs of an early childhood education centre, and children’s own photographs of that environment, were found to be effective ways of enabling young children (aged from two to four years old) to share their thoughts about their experiences. However, in reflecting on the data, it was recognised that two other features had contributed significantly to a deeper understanding of children’s perspectives. One was the prolonged and sustained data‐collection period, and the other was the intellectual process of ‘stepping back’ from the research agenda which allowed other, less overt, messages to be ‘heard’ in the data. The data were gathered as part of a wider ethnographic study investigating the scope and boundaries of curriculum in an early childhood education centre.
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The paper focuses on children’s photographs as a method to use in research with children. Studies using photographs with children are reviewed and compared and a study conducted in one Icelandic playschool is described. The playschool was involved in a project where the purpose was to look at the ways children think about their early childhood educational setting and to develop methods for listening to children’s perspectives. The paper describes and compares two approaches where cameras were used. One group used digital cameras to take pictures in their playschool while they showed the researcher important places and things in the playschool. The other group was given disposable cameras that they could use unsupervised for a period of time. The results show that using cameras and children’s photos is a notable method to use when seeking children’s perspectives on their life in an early childhood setting.
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A project is an in-depth study of a particular topic that one or more children undertake, and consists of exploring the topic or theme such as "building a house" over a period of days or weeks. This book introduces the project approach and suggests applications and examples of this approach in action. Chapters are: (1) "Profile of the Project Approach," defining the approach and describing how project work complements other parts of the preschool curriculum; (2) "Research and Principles of Practice," discussing the conceptual basis for a project approach; (3) "Project Work in Action," illustrating the variety of project work; (4) "Features of the Project Approach," presenting guidelines for project topic selection, types of project activities, choices children make in project work, the teacher's role, and the three phases of project work; (5) "Teacher Planning," focusing on selecting a topic, making a topic web, deciding on a project's scope, and using five criteria for selecting and focusing on project topics; (6) "Getting Projects Started: Phase I," detailing ways to engage children's interest, initiate the introductory discussion, organize activities for early stages of extended projects, and involve parents; (7) "Projects in Progress: Phase II," discussing ways to maximize children's learning, interest, and motivation; (8) "Consolidating Projects: Phase III," presenting various approaches to concluding a project, such as making presentations to other classes or evaluating the project; and (9) "The Project Approach in Perspective," identifying the project approach as a complement and supplement to other aspects of the curriculum while giving teachers the opportunity to attend equally to social and intellectual development. Appendices present project descriptions, project guidelines, and a checklist for recording Missouri State Competencies applied in the course of project work. Contains about 140 references. (KDFB)
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Concept: Few empirical studies have investigated the influence of teachers, parents and children on children's drawing experience. The current study aims to examine the attitudes and practices of these three key players that shape children's drawing experience.Method: A survey methodology was used, as typically found in previous research in this area. Participants were 270 5–14 year old children, 44 of their teachers of the National Curriculum for Art and Design, and 146 of their parents. The teachers and children participated in individual interviews and the parents completed a postal survey. Responses to most interview questions were transcribed and content analysis used to identify salient themes. The other questions involved responses on five-point scales, these were analysed by reporting percentages.Results: The findings are discussed in five sections. First, the positive perceptions of children's drawing behaviour and attitudes. Second, the perceived importance and principal aims of the National Curriculum for Art and Design Education. Third, the numerous sources of encouragement and support for drawing development. Fourth, the differing perceptions of what constitutes a good and bad drawing. Fifth, issues surrounding an age-related decline in children's drawing activity.Conclusions: The findings are related to theories of drawing education, and implications for children's drawings and drawing pedagogy are discussed.
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This article takes the subject of visual arts in Sweden as the point of departure in a discussion of how, with the help of portfolios, assessments may extend to include both the unpredictable and the ambiguous. The notion that assessments of learning outcomes must be either limited to superficial knowledge or completely arbitrary is shown to be a misconception. The author has made a study of the progression of young people's creativity in the visual arts from preschool to upper secondary school. The assessment was based on both product criteria and process criteria (investigative work, inventiveness, ability to use models, capacity for self-assessment). The materials assessed were portfolios of work containing sketches, drafts and finished works, log books, sources of inspiration and videotaped interviews with the students.Is there any progression in students' visual design, in their ability to work independently and assess their work? What is the degree of correlation in the assessments of different judges of student portfolios? These are some of the questions that this article attempts to answer, which concludes with a discussion of how schools can build a culture of learning that fosters the creative powers of young people.
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In this article we argue that research into children's drawings should consider the context in which drawing occurs and that it is crucial to investigate the attitudes and practices of teachers, parents and children themselves that shape children's drawing experience and the drawings which they produce. We review the findings of seven empirical studies reporting data collected through direct observations, interviews and questionnaires from the three main players (teachers, parents and children) on the attitudes and practices shaping children's drawing. Issues covered include teachers' perceptions of the purposes and importance of drawing, support offered by teachers, parents and children for children's drawing endeavours, and possible factors that may lead to an age-related decline in the amount of drawing children choose to do. We end the review by reporting some preliminary findings from our own large-scale interview and survey study of 270 5-14 year old children, their parents and teachers, that provides a comprehensive assessment of attitudes and practices influencing children's drawing experience at home and at school. The findings provide further insight into the aforementioned issues, particularly children's, teachers' and parent's explanations of why children's drawing behaviour might decline with age. It is hoped that by reporting these preliminary findings some additional understanding of the context in which children produce their drawings can be gained and new areas for debate opened up.
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