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Navigating identity development and community belonging when “there are only two boxes to check”: An exploratory study of nonbinary trans college students

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Abstract

Within the small research literature on transgender college students, little work has focused on nonbinary trans students. Findings from focus groups with seven nonbinary trans students revealed that participants explored and found support for their nonbinary trans identities online and offline, valuing in particular the support of other nonbinary people and the opportunities afforded in a college setting. Participants often felt compelled to be educators regarding gender and experienced tension between wanting recognition of their authentic gender and wishing to avoid the scrutiny that came with self-advocacy. Participant-generated recommendations for improving the campus experiences of nonbinary trans students are provided.

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... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. Kuvalanka, 2018;Pryor, 2015) or when they experience high levels of internalized transphobia. In a study of 552 trans adults (ages 18 -71), Breslow et al. (2015) found that individuals who reported high levels of internalized transphobia and who also engaged in high levels of collective action were the most distressed, suggesting that activism may not function in the same way for all trans individuals. ...
... At times, campus activism and advocacy are formal (i.e., collaborative, organized), such as resisting a policy or pushing for trans-affirming educational programming-activities that may be facilitated on college campuses in the context of LGBTQ groups, which provide opportunities for political engagement, and support (Case et al., 2012). At other times, activism and advocacy are informal (i.e., self-initiated, spontaneous), such as correcting professors who use the wrong pronoun for oneself or other trans students (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Pryor, 2015). Ultimately, both forms of activism/advocacy may be valuable in promoting social change, and have the potential to benefit trans students' well-being. ...
... We also include whether students identified exclusively with what are sometimes termed binary (i.e., trans man/woman) identities or with what are termed nonbinary (e.g., genderqueer) identities, while acknowledging that this division is overly simplistic and externally imposed (e.g., some trans women/men identify as nonbinary). We include this given that nonbinary students often face resistance and a lack of understanding of their gender identities from both cis and binary trans people (Beemyn & Rankin, 2011;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Pfeffer, 2014). As a result, they may struggle to be recognized as "legitimate" trans people, which may limit their connection to and comfort with campus trans communities (Catalano, 2015;Nicolazzo, 2016aNicolazzo, , 2016b. ...
... The implementation of such policies is crucial because institutions of higher education that are not trans-inclusive put TNG students at greater risk for prejudice, discrimination, and bullying (e.g., Grant et al., 2011;Krum et al., 2013;Singh et al., 2013). Additionally, TNG individuals are particularly vulnerable to violence when they enter gendered restrooms (e.g., Buck & Obzud, 2018;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Krum et al., 2013), resulting in increased rates of depression and suicidal ideation (Grant et al., 2011;Testa et al., 2012). ...
... Almost half of the participants also reported attempting suicide at least once. Research has demonstrated that TNG students feel safer, report higher levels of belongingness, and positive mental health outcomes when gender-inclusive restrooms are available, which may work as a protective factor against negative health outcomes such as suicide attempts (e.g., Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Porta et al., 2017;Wernick et al., 2017). ...
... It is also important to examine the impact of perceived campus norms on levels of acceptance of TNG students using restrooms by staff and faculty. Many studies have found that TNG students often report that they want faculty and staff to be more educated on TNG issues and how to properly interact with this population without being offensive Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Singh et al., 2013). Indeed, TNG students, like their cisgender peers, rely on faculty for letters of recommendation, professional development, and help with courses they are taking, and thus need to feel supported by and comfortable with faculty. ...
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Transgender college students report higher rates of discrimination in gendered restrooms than do their cisgender peers. It is critical to understand factors that promote greater acceptance of transgender students using restrooms that align with their gender identity. The current experiment examined the impact of perceived social norms on both acceptance of transgender individuals using various locations and transphobia. Participants were 133 cisgender college students recruited on a college campus that had recently added all-gender restrooms to all campus buildings. Participants completed a prescreening measure of transphobia. During the experimental session, participants read results from a fictional study in which the social norm of their college campus was described as either in favor of (supportive norm) or against (unsupportive norm) the installation of all-gender restrooms on campus. Then participants completed measures of acceptance of transgender individuals in various spaces and transphobia. Supporting the primary hypothesis, relative to those in the unsupportive norm condition, participants in the supportive social norm condition were more accepting of transgender individuals using restrooms that aligned with their gender identity. However, the norm manipulation did not impact personal levels of transphobia between prescreen and post experimental manipulation. Implications and future directions will be discussed.
... 538). More specifically, because cisgender LGB students may perform anti-trans microaggressions, trans students report a desire for both trans-only spaces on campus and also greater inclusion in LGB spaces (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Most campuses do little to facilitate trans community, even in LGBTQ centers that profess to fulfill this role. ...
... 615). To be "taken seriously" as a binary or nonbinary trans person, people often feel pressured to present themselves in a particular way, and to especially avoid clothing associated with their assigned gender (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Similarly, trans men feel they must perform masculinity, and trans women, femininity, at the risk of invalidating their social legibility (Catalano, 2014;Nordmarken, 2014). ...
... 7 Not all nonbinary trans people have the same relationship with gender or gender pronouns. As such, for many using the correct pronouns is a necessary component of affirming their nonbinary gender identity, while others might say that they are no "correct" pronouns or that pronouns are not the primary way through which their gender is affirmed(Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018).8 In addition to the affective labor of diversity work (and the expectation that scholars from marginalized communities are most responsible for this work), more service work takes away time from research and other career opportunities. ...
Article
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While categories like “campus climate” highlight variation across institutions, trans people's experiences also vary within an institutional context. By studying trans people's experiences in higher education, however, we can better understand and respond to the differentiated and changing needs of transgender people in other arenas. In this paper, I review key qualitative and quantitative findings along several themes: (a) disclosing trans identities, (b) trans communities, and (c) resources and career‐level support. Specifically, I use the concept of microclimates to explain how trans people encounter various forms of support and discrimination on campus. For example, someone might receive support from particular individuals, such as an advisor, or spaces, like a gender studies classroom, but not others. Researchers also report both similarities and differences between binary and nonbinary trans people, as well as between transgender men and transgender women, suggesting that there is no universal trans experience, nor a one‐size‐fits‐all approach to supporting trans students and faculty members. Challenging interpersonal and systemic transphobia requires context‐specific interventions.
... In Storrie and Rohleder's (2018) study, trans students identified attending university as being a key point in their gender transition; a place where they could make a 'new start' as a trans person, amongst people who had not known them in their previous gender presentation. Goldberg and Kuvalanka (2018) noted how students felt that college offered a place where they could explore their gender identity more fully than they were able to at school, as well as providing them with a community of peers who had shared experiences of questioning gender identity. ...
... The same research also suggested that trans students are frequently "objectified and othered", describing examples of students being asked inappropriate questions about being trans, but noted that some trans students also related a need to answer these questions, however inappropriate, as they felt responsible for educating others about trans issues (Storrie and Rohleder, 2018, p. 7). Similarly, research in the USA using grounded theory and an inductive analysis of transcripts from focus groups with seven non-binary trans students (Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018), suggested that non-binary participants were often burdened with having to explain gender identity to cisgender peers, educating others about both trans identities and non-binary identities. ...
... However, as with the research by discussed earlier, although the article was written in2014 it was based on survey data from 2008/09. Concerns specific to the experiences of trans college students in the USA also identified lack of clarity in how to change names and pronouns on university computer systems, as well as knowing that until a name had been changed legally, their birth name would be used on legal documentation such as degree certificates (Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018). ...
Thesis
Negotiating the university environment can be difficult for many students but for transgender students there can be additional hurdles. With university often being the first experience of real independence for young people it may also be a place where young trans people feel they can be themselves for the first time, as they navigate an environment away from family and friendship ties from the past. Transgender studies is a growing field, yet there is very little published research into the experiences of trans students in higher education (HE) in the UK. This study employed a transformative paradigm and used qualitative methods to increase understanding of trans students’ experiences in this area. An online survey of 164 trans students investigated the breadth of experiences across different higher education institutions (HEIs), and remote one-to-one interviews with seven students allowed for in-depth exploration of trans students' perspectives and voices. The study explored the challenges that these students faced around themes of harassment, bullying and transphobia; inclusion/exclusion; representation in the curriculum; and institutional facilities and administration. The study also investigated eight HEI transgender student policies to identify how/whether the needs of this student group are being met. Feelings of segregation and otherness were illustrated by difficulties changing names and/or gender markers on HEI systems and insufficient gender-neutral facilities on campus. A lack of trans representation in the curriculum was clear and particular issues were identified regarding professional health science courses. Obstacles accessing mental health support services were also revealed. Key findings were that there is a disconnect between what policies say and what trans students experience, and exclusion of this student group as a result of institutional cisnormativity. The research provided insights into the effect of this disconnect and suggested areas of improvement for professional practice, provision of support, and policy and procedure implementation.
... Among the growing global body of literature assessing discrimination facing gender diverse students on college campuses, several studies have indicated that gender diverse students regularly experience discriminatory behaviors during their collegiate career (Effrig, Bieschke, & Locke, 2011;Garvey, Taylor, & Rankin, 2015;Goldberg, 2018;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Griner et al., 2017;McKinney, 2005;Nicolazzo, 2016;Pryor, 2015). In a study of over 27,000 transgender adults, the U.S. Transgender Survey found that nearly a quarter (24%) of trans students in college reported experience with abuse or harassment (including sexual, verbal, or physical abuse) (James et al., 2016). ...
... LGBTQ centers) or lack of knowledge displayed by the staff/faculty at their institution. In another study by Goldberg and Kuvalanka (2018), nonbinary transgender students identified challenges such as feeling as though they must constantly advocate for the transgender community, being misgendered or not feeling as though they can express their gender authentically, and difficulties navigating the university system (e.g., changing their birth name to their chosen name). This is consistent with qualitative research that assessed the classroom experiences of four U.S. transgender college students (Pryor, 2015) all of whom experienced marginalization from both instructors and peers, including harassment and bullying. ...
... Furthermore, according to a nonpeer-reviewed literature review on transgender students' experiences in higher education (Goldberg, 2018), students identifying as transgender report more negative perceptions of campus climate than do cisgender students. In fact, based on a study conducted by Goldberg and Kuvalanka (2018), it was noted that students regularly conduct "cost-benefit analyses" between the benefits of freely expressing their gender with the risks of physical/psychological discomfort and public scrutiny while on campus. This review noted that the negative perceptions of campus climate were particularly salient in the classroom, such that classes instructed by inflexible faculty members (i.e., those unwilling to use students' preferred names and pronouns) often produced anxiety. ...
Article
The current study examined gender diverse students’ (students who identify as a gender other than cisgender) perceptions of campus climate, experiences with discriminatory behaviors, and the extent to which discriminatory experiences were reported at one Midwestern university in the U.S. Data were obtained from a campus climate survey involving 1848 students (70% cisgender women, 28% cisgender men, and 2% gender diverse). Although the results revealed that gender diverse students reported significantly less favorable perceptions of climate and more experience with discriminatory behaviors than did cisgender students, gender diverse students were less likely to officially report these experiences. These results have implications for university personnel developing programs promoting inclusivity and administrators looking to improve discrimination/harassment reporting procedures.
... Nonbinary students may find it difficult to socially transition due to a lack of societal understanding around non-binary identities, in the context of media positioning of such identities as 'other' (Frohard-Dourlent, 2018;Richards et al., 2016). Research with non-binary US college students has highlighted the burden on non-binary students to be a 'gender educator' in the face of this misunderstanding (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Alongside the mixed findings on the experiences of non-binary adolescents, there is no research examining the potentially unique experiences of gender-questioning adolescents at school. ...
... It is important to recognize that 'binary-trans', 'non-binary' and 'gender-questioning' are not static or discrete categories; their meanings change across time and context. However, they can be seen as conceptual tools with which to explore adolescents' experiences of the gender binary (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Equally, creating additional categories under the 'gender-diverse' umbrella overcomes issues with previous research, where non-binary and gender-questioning individuals have been neglected. ...
... Some participants were therefore able to undertake activism within the school, in order to protect both themselves and other LGBTQ þ students. However, for some participants the burden of being a 'gender educator' (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018) was especially heavy: ...
Article
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A growing number of adolescents are using a number of different identities to describe their gender. Schools have been noted for their uninclusive environments and high levels of discrimination for LGBTQ + individuals, yet research has neglected the school experiences of UK gender-diverse adolescents. This article explores the school experiences and navigation strategies of gender-diverse adolescents in the UK, examining the experiences of binary-trans, non-binary and gender-questioning adolescents separately. The data presented in this article come from a large survey of LGBTQ + young people’s social experiences; a subsample of 74 adolescents’ (25 binary-trans, 25 non-binary, and 24 gender-questioning) open-ended responses were selected for qualitative thematic analysis. Findings highlight that gender-diverse adolescents experience discrimination within the school environment from the curriculum, space, peers and teachers, and a number of strategies, including disclosure negotiation, cognitive restructuring and proactive protection, are used to navigate this environment. Findings shed light on the school experiences of gender-diverse adolescents, and suggest that the British school system is fundamentally unsuitable for non-binary and gender-questioning identities.
... There is currently little research that focuses specifically on young people with non-binary genders, as they are often encompassed within wider transgender ("trans") or LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer) studies (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). This grouping of non-binary, trans and LGBTQ+ is problematic as it assumes homogeneity for all young people who are not cisgender and/or heterosexual (Formby, 2017). ...
... The current climate for gender diversity has been presented with considerations about difficulties that non-binary young people may face. These have been presented through the 'TERF wars' (Pearce et al., 2020), the non-recognition of non-binary identities (McQueen, 2015), and subsequent difficulties around becoming visible (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). ...
... Common milestones have been identified for gender non-conforming youth generally, however, as non-binary, transgender and non-conforming identities have been grouped, there is a concern for normative accounts to be privileged (D'Augelli, 1994). Given the recognition of the unique challenges that non-binary young people face, such as recognition, there is a need for research to focus specifically on these lived experiences (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;McQueen, 2015). ...
Preprint
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Young people often feel social pressure to conform to binary masculine/feminine roles, which are assumed to be 'normal', and may adopt binary gender identities without exploring other gender expressions (Richards, et al., 2016). This can be challenging for young people who do not clearly identify with a binary gender identity to navigate (Vincent, 2020). The aim of this research was to explore how young people make sense of and experience their non-binary gender identities. A focus group was conducted with four 16-to 18-year-old people who identified as non-binary. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), to focus on their lived experiences (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009). The analysis highlighted the difficulties that 'everyday' cisnormative experiences presented for the young people, as well as the young people's 'gender journeys' of (re)negotiating expectations of linear gender development.
... In addition, given the complex and iterative nature of gender identity over the life course (Fausto-Sterling 2012), education itself, especially college attendance, has the potential to influence gender identity. College, through coursework and participation in student organizations, provides access to new ways of understanding, conceptualizing, and expressing gender, including exposure to diverse gender identities (Beemyn and Rankin 2011;Goldberg and Kuvalanka 2018). ...
... For example, if parental and school SES account for nonbinary youth's educational advantages, what specific elements of SES shape their educational experiences and their gender identity? Previous research indicates that college, through student organizations and coursework, for example, provides affirming spaces and opportunities for emergent gender and sexual identities (Beemyn and Rankin 2011;Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018). Future research should continue to explore the rapid increase in nonbinary identities among younger cohorts of youth (Barbee and Schrock 2019;Meerwijk and Sevelius 2017). ...
Article
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Despite the growing population of youth identifying with a transgender or nonbinary gender identity, research on gender-diverse individuals’ educational outcomes is limited. This study takes advantage of the first nationally representative, population-based data set that includes measures of gender identity and educational outcomes: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Using minority stress and structural symbolic interactionist frameworks, we examine the association between gender identity and high school and college educational outcomes. We compare the educational outcomes of gender-diverse youth—binary transgender, nonbinary, and gender unsure—with those of cisgender youth, and also examine differences within the gender-diverse population. Given the strong link between minority stress and educational experiences among gender-diverse youth, we examine differences in outcomes before and after accounting for school belonging and emotional distress. We also account for individuals’ social-structural location, arguing that social positionality shapes both gender identity and educational outcomes. Results indicate important differences in educational outcomes within the gender-diverse population: Whereas binary transgender and gender-unsure youth exhibit educational disadvantage, relative to cisgender youth, nonbinary youth do not. The gender-unsure disadvantage remains even after accounting for differences in social-structural location and social-psychological factors associated with minority stress.
... Research within the US has found that non-binary college students reported difficulties with navigating the binary system and feeling compelled to be a 'gender educator' to others (A. Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). These findings highlight a need to further explore the potential differences between binary-trans and non-binary youth's school experiences from a qualitative perspective, particularly in the UK context, where a different legal framework is in operation. ...
... Echoing the findings of Davy and Cordoba (2020), for some participants the burden of being a 'gender educator' (A. Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018) was felt to be especially heavy: ...
Thesis
Individuals who are trans and/or non-binary (TNB) – especially those in the life stages of adolescence and parenthood – occupy a marginalised social position and are often the focus of political and public debate. Each of these life stages involves interactions between individuals and institutions: adolescents must attend school daily, and parents must engage with institutions both on the journey to parenthood (e.g. fertility, pregnancy and adoption services) and after becoming a parent (e.g. play groups, nursery and their child(ren)’s school). These experiences are therefore worthy of study from sociological and social psychological perspectives, but such research is limited. This thesis aims to address these gaps by qualitatively exploring the experiences and identities of TNB individuals during adolescence and parenthood. Underpinned by the theoretical framework of structural symbolic interactionism, it is composed of two studies; one that examines the experiences of gender-diverse adolescents (Study 1), and the other that focuses on the experiences of trans and/or non-binary parents (Study 2). The thesis aims to increase understanding of the experiences of adolescents and parents, to explore the way in which inequalities are manifested at individual, interactional and institutional levels for TNB individuals at these two life stages, and to develop recommendations for policy and practice. Study 1 examines the school experiences and identity processes of gender-diverse adolescents (i.e. adolescents whose gender identity does not correspond with the sex category they were assigned at birth), examining the experiences of binary-trans, non-binary and gender-questioning adolescents separately. The data come from a large survey of LGBTQ + young people’s social experiences within the UK. A subsample of 74 adolescents’ (25 binary-trans, 25 non-binary, and 24 gender-questioning) open-ended responses were selected for reflexive thematic analysis. The findings demonstrate gender-diverse adolescents experience discrimination at school from a number of sources, and that a range of strategies, including disclosure negotiation, cognitive structuring and proactive protection, are used to navigate this environment. The findings shed light on the school experiences of gender-diverse adolescents, and suggest that the British school system is not fit for purpose with regards to the educational experiences of non-binary and gender-questioning adolescents. Study 2 explores the experiences of trans and/or non-binary parents in the UK within different parenting spaces, both during and after the transition to parenthood, using an intersectional framework. This study is based upon interviews with 13 TNB parents, and interview data were analysed according to the principles of reflexive thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified, reflecting participants’ experiences within the ‘highly normative world’ of parenting, and the strategies of ‘being a pragmatic parent’ and ‘being a pioneering parent’ used to navigate this. The findings suggest that parenting spaces are not inclusive of TNB identities, and that this is particularly impactful when individuals are being judged on their suitability as parents (e.g. in encounters with fertility clinics and adoption services). The findings of this study increase understanding of the way in which navigation strategies are related to parents’ multiple identities, highlighting the usefulness of an intersectional approach for research on this topic. The findings also have a number of practical implications for increasing the inclusivity of parenting spaces. Taken together, Study 1 and Study 2 make a unique contribution to scholarly understanding of the experiences and identities of TNB individuals within the UK. Theoretically, the thesis points to the usefulness of structural symbolic interactionism as a framework for exploring TNB experiences, and the findings illustrate that extant theoretical frameworks do not adequately attend to the experiences of TNB individuals. There are a number of theoretical, practical and empirical gains from this thesis. Theoretically, several extensions are suggested, for instance, to interactionist theorisations of gender and social psychological conceptualisations of resistance. Practically, implications relate to the need for schools and parenting spaces to assume gender diversity. Empirically, this thesis adds to our understanding of the creative ways in which TNB individuals navigate a normative social world.
... Given, the importance of peer connections and the role that social comparison plays in developing an understanding of self, it is perhaps unsurprising that for many transgender people, connecting with other trans individuals and communities can serve as an important identity development milestone (Rankin & Beemyn, 2012). For those that have a non-binary gender, "realizing that genderqueer is a viable identity" (Rankin & Beemyn, 2012, p. 4) is a significant moment on the trajectory of gender identity development (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Rankin & Beemyn, 2012). Despite the importance of connection that is emphasized by such findings, many nonbinary people report a sense of exclusion, disconnection and rejection from other LGBTQ people and communities (Budge et al., 2014;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Losty & O'Connor, 2018;Rankin & Beemyn, 2012). ...
... For those that have a non-binary gender, "realizing that genderqueer is a viable identity" (Rankin & Beemyn, 2012, p. 4) is a significant moment on the trajectory of gender identity development (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Rankin & Beemyn, 2012). Despite the importance of connection that is emphasized by such findings, many nonbinary people report a sense of exclusion, disconnection and rejection from other LGBTQ people and communities (Budge et al., 2014;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Losty & O'Connor, 2018;Rankin & Beemyn, 2012). ...
Article
Social work researchers have increasingly focused on the needs of transgender communities and clients, which has resulted in the advancement of transgender-affirming practice and services; however, there has been relatively little research devoted to the experiences and needs of non-binary people. This article describes a participatory action research study that utilized photovoice methodology to understand the identity-based experiences of a group of non-binary young adult participants. Members of the group explored their individual and collective processes of coming to understand, construct and express genders that fall outside of the binary expectations they experienced on a daily basis. Findings highlight the pervasive nature of binary gender constructs and note the ways in which participant co-researchers navigate invisibility and erasure in order to reclaim their gender and build community. Implications for social work practice, policy and research are discussed.
... Instead of resisting, resenting, or repelling uncomfortable feelings, many parents reevaluated metanarratives of gender, rejected negative feelings that no longer served a purpose, and then moved forward with a stronger commitment to social justice. In doing so, they expanded their conceptions of gender (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018) and began the process of queering Western gender metanarratives. ...
... No longer interested in "passing", those who identify as non-binary visualize the world where gender lines and social categories are blurred. Indeed, a steady increase of individuals who identify as non-binary have come out in recent years and are living authentically, and the gender spectrum is thickening at the midpoint (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Meadow, 2016). The fact that freedom from the constrictions of gender categories enables more people to live authentically in the middle of the spectrum suggests that gender variance may be underdocumented in traditional gender identity development theories. ...
Thesis
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Although studies have been conducted on the experiences of transgender and non-binary children, limited research has looked at the parents of these children. This qualitative study explored the transformative learning (Mezirow, 1978) of the parents of transgender and non- binary children by employing the concepts of biographical learning (Alheit, 1994) and holistic learning (Illeris, 2003) as its conceptual framework. The research questions asked: to what extent the parents experienced transformative learning, how they made the cognitive-affective shift in learning, how their own gender identity development informed their interpretations of their child’s gender transition, and how they navigated any tensions created within a family. Applying life history methods and methodology, I conducted 2 to 3 interviews with 16 parents of children aged 6 to 29, most of whom recorded their thoughts in journals, and I wrote an autoethnography as a parent of a non-binary child myself. The findings showed that for many parents, holistic learning took place in two phases. First, parents experienced a private phase of transformative learning through a cognitive reframing of the meaning of gender and a relinquishing of the emotions that were attached to gender (such as losing your daughter). Then began a public phase where parents learned to advocate for their children in schools, medical offices, or courtrooms. Parents of non-binary children may take longer working through these stages and many participants benefitted from lingering at a particular place of learning as they processed their thoughts or emotions. Furthermore, a parent’s personal sense of gender identity did not play a salient role for most parents; rather, their value in authenticity or the ability to be yourself influenced their commitment to their child. A parent’s gender identity did play a notable role for two mothers who identified as feminist who found it necessary to revisit their definition of woman at the time of their children’s transition. These findings provide a better understanding of the transformative learning of parents of transgender and non-binary children who often need support on this personal and public journey towards championing their children, challenging societal norms, and promoting inclusivity.
... The identity development and self-exploration that gender expansive people experience and that sensitizes them to power dynamics, gendered privilege, and marginalization is one possible reason for why nonbinary young adults in our sample reported more optimal consent processes. For example, a qualitative study with multiple focus groups with nonbinary participants was conducted to better understand their personal experiences with gender identity development (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Thematic analyses revealed that these participants shared a nuanced and complex understanding of gender identity and the intersection of gender and sexual minority identities. ...
... Thematic analyses revealed that these participants shared a nuanced and complex understanding of gender identity and the intersection of gender and sexual minority identities. Participants also spoke about their willingness to be educators regarding gender and their first-hand experiences feeling disempowered at times by cisgender individuals (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Given gender has been emphasized as an important factor in consent processes (see Muehlenhard et al., 2016), it is possible that having a deepened awareness of and having likely experienced marginalization related to gender translates to a better understanding of the importance of consent. ...
Article
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Sexual assault is a major public health concern in the United States that disproportionately affects sexual minority cisgender and nonbinary young adults. Although sexual assault is influenced by a myriad of societal and interpersonal factors, misunderstandings during the communication and interpretation of sexual consent signals likely contribute to this public health crisis. Unfortunately, research on sexual consent miscommunication has been heavily informed by heteronormative theories and conducted primarily with cisgender heterosexual men and women. The present study attempted to help address this gap in the literature by exploring factors that contribute to sexual consent attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in a sample of 251 cisgender and nonbinary sexual minority young adults. Nonbinary participants reported more proactive sexual consent attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors than cisgender participants. Sexual assertiveness was also a robust and unique predictor of adaptive sexual consent, particularly among those who identified as more traditionally masculine. Findings from the current study may help guide the development of more inclusive, research-informed sexual consent and sexual violence prevention programs.
... Through everyday repetition, gender norms are entrenched in institutional settings to the point that they appear commonsensical, factual, and natural (Butler, 1999). This process of institutionalization leads school policies, practices, norms and cultures to unintentionally promote rigid adherence to the cisgender binary roles and render trans lives invisible (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Sansfaçon, Robichaud, & Dumais-Michaud, 2015). Institutionalized cisnormativity within schools encourages educator bias against trans youth and situates trans youth at the margins of school life (Meyer et al., 2016). ...
... Across national contexts, the review showed that the majority of trans youth's secondary schooling is marred by structural erasures and interpersonal invalidations as well as purposeful violence. These findings affirm the view that cisnormativity is institutionalized within secondary school environments (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018) and that regimes of institutionalized cisnormativity expose trans youth to educational inequalities and personal harm (Martino & Cumming-Potvin, 2018;Miller, 2016). ...
Article
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In this article I review 83 empirical studies that provide insight into the secondary school experiences of trans youth. The studies show that while some trans youth have affirming experiences, the majority are exposed to institutionalized cisnormativity that makes them vulnerable to macroaggressions, microaggressions and violence within school settings. Trans youth’s exposure to institutionalized cisnormativity was found to intersect with multiple vectors of social power, which subject some trans youth to multiple forms of disadvantage, while affording others degrees of privilege. In conclusion, the findings show that trans youth’s educational experiences reflect broader structural inequalities yet defy essentialising explanations.
... Otro aspecto importante que señalar es que en este artículo se incluyen bajo la sombrilla trans a las personas que se identifican bajo el binario hombre-mujer y las personas no-binarias. La literatura científica señala estos dos grupos tengan necesidades y experiencias particulares que no deben ser generalizadas (Cheung et al, 2020;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). El no diferenciar o separar estos dos grupos pudo haber sido producto de la falta de información en artículos publicados en el tema al momento que esta revisión de literatura fue realizada. ...
Article
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Reseña para el Boletín Diversidad Vol 11(1) de CDSGOS
... Using the aforementioned baseline model to predict gender on our test set assembled by inclusive database and non-binary database (3000 images), the overall accuracy dropped to 51.67%. Our baseline model failed to predict gender on non-binary people whose physical presentation do not t into the stereotypical male and female categories [25]. e identities of non-binary people were rendered as neither legible nor authentic under the baseline's binary system. ...
Preprint
Gender classification algorithms have important applications in many domains today such as demographic research, law enforcement, as well as human-computer interaction. Recent research showed that algorithms trained on biased benchmark databases could result in algorithmic bias. However, to date, little research has been carried out on gender classification algorithms' bias towards gender minorities subgroups, such as the LGBTQ and the non-binary population, who have distinct characteristics in gender expression. In this paper, we began by conducting surveys on existing benchmark databases for facial recognition and gender classification tasks. We discovered that the current benchmark databases lack representation of gender minority subgroups. We worked on extending the current binary gender classifier to include a non-binary gender class. We did that by assembling two new facial image databases: 1) a racially balanced inclusive database with a subset of LGBTQ population 2) an inclusive-gender database that consists of people with non-binary gender. We worked to increase classification accuracy and mitigate algorithmic biases on our baseline model trained on the augmented benchmark database. Our ensemble model has achieved an overall accuracy score of 90.39%, which is a 38.72% increase from the baseline binary gender classifier trained on Adience. While this is an initial attempt towards mitigating bias in gender classification, more work is needed in modeling gender as a continuum by assembling more inclusive databases.
... Today Americans, especially those who live on either coast, seem increasingly accepting of gender fluidity (Aitken et al., 2015;Travers, 2018). But while overtly accepting of new norms, many individuals still harbor old prejudices (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Goldberg et al., 2019). And prejudiced or not, many people acknowledge an uncomfortable lack of knowledge and a galling confusion about terminology. ...
Book
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Undoing the Gender Binary - by Charlotte Chucky Tate
... An emerging body of research has examined the developmental trajectories of GQNB individuals (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Matsuno & Budge, 2017). This is typically explored through the use of gender milestones, defined as specific experiences or tasks, which further someone in transition, defined as moving away from an identity determined by one's sex assigned at birth into one that feels more internally congruent with the individual's experience. ...
... Tui: Yeah, yeah I do… [But] that's the confusing thing about it too, I don't how that part works [being non-binary in the gay community] or where I sit with that.The literature on non-binary people is scant but burgeoning. The majority of this work appears to be cursory and focuses on giving a presentation and description of non-binary as part of the trans cannon, analysing the health of non-binary people, and engaging in theoretical analyses of the identity (e.g.Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Matsuno & Budge, 2017;Richards et al., 2016). The lacuna Tui described has been raised by some.Stewart (2017) raises how nonbinary and genderqueer identities represent a 'demilitarized zone' in the gender continuum: these identities disrupt and break social structures which rely on gender like biological essentialism, heteronormative and patriarchal family structures, and capitalist-imperialism among others. ...
Thesis
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Gay and queer men tend to experience higher rates of mental health issues, STIs/HIV, suicide, substance dependency, and poor well-being than other demographics. Despite sustained public health efforts internationally, many of these issues continue to disproportionately affect members of the gay community. This thesis presents a new approach to the health issues gay and queer men face. It examines how 'risky' health-related practices including condomless sex and the use of illicit drugs might be legitimate ways of performing self-care and pursuing well-being. In order to address this aim, I conducted 16 interviews over a 12-month period in New Zealand and Australia using a constructionist grounded theory approach and a theoretical framework that draws upon the work of Judith Butler, Elizabeth Grosz, Michel Foucault, Homi Bhabha, Kane Race, Nikolas Rose, and Pierre Bourdieu. My participants and I explore a wide range of topics including the performative nature of sex and the notion of 'play', how pleasure and the emotional significance of sex might be related to self-care, the ways in which space might influence sexual practices and experiences, and to what extent having sex outside the home might be a form of self-care. I also cover safer sex practices and the experience of disease, how PrEP has radically changed the way gay men approach sex, the way drugs are bound up in self-care practices, and the relationships between self-care and community. The concept of 'wild self-care' emerged from these interviews and describes how practices or behaviours which appear risky, dangerous, or unhealthy can also be seen as legitimate ways of caring for the body and the self. I demonstrate how my participants used creative, unexpected, ii and alternative methods of caring for themselves using substances or 'risky' forms of sex and describe the way self-care is communal nature rather than a solitary practice. I also present the notion of health-as-process. This concept allows researchers to approach health as an ongoing process rather than a state of being that might be achieved. This speaks to the emotional and personal way that risk is constructed and experienced. All these facets come together to articulate the deeply complicated ways that people care for themselves.
... One potential explanation for this is that sexual scripts for nonbinary people are especially unclear and so this population must therefore rely on clearer forms of communication during consent negotiation to avoid miscommunications inherent in less direct approaches. Another possible explanation is that the identity development and self-exploration required of nonbinary people inherently sensitizes them to power dynamics, gendered privilege, and marginalization (e.g., Cousin, 2019;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). Having a deepened awareness of gender-based marginalization and how this can impact consent may translate to a better understanding of the importance of consent and using more direct approaches in sexual situations. ...
Article
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Cisgender and nonbinary sexual minorities are at increased risk for being the victim of sexual assault. While sexual assault is influenced by a multitude of societal and interpersonal factors, misunderstandings during the external communication and interpretation of sexual consent signals likely contribute to this public health crisis. Unfortunately, initiatives aimed at educating young adults about consent negotiation draw from theory and research conducted almost exclusively with cisgender heterosexual young adults. The present study attempts to address this significant gap in the literature by exploring factors that predict consent strategies used during a first-time penetrative sexual encounter with a new partner using a sample of 228 cisgender and nonbinary sexual minority young adults. Results indicated that nonbinary status significantly predicted the use of direct verbal communication (although this association was not significant when adjusting for false discovery rate) and that sexual assertiveness was associated with more use of affirmative, direct verbal communication and less use of indirect and passive forms of consent signaling. Based on these findings, recommendations are made to improve inclusivity of sexual consent campaigns.
... Trans students can face open hostility and violence, especially if they do not 'pass' as cis (Nicolazzo, 2017). Curricula, administrative procedures, and gendered spaces such as toilets and changing rooms typically fail to take trans people into account, creating systemic barriers (Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018). This can lead to high dropout rates among students (Lawrence and Mckendry, 2018;Nicolazzo, 2017), a phenomenon I informally observed among postgraduate trans peers while undertaking my PhD. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article proposes that survival may be considered a research method for social researchers, especially if they are undertaking fieldwork within marginalised communities of which they are a part. Drawing on an autoethnographic account of conducting research while trans, it shows how marginalised researchers may encounter both challenges common within the neoliberal university, and troubles specific to the researcher’s social identity, touching on experiences of casualisation, distressing fieldwork, trauma, and suicide. The article concludes that marginalised researchers should not be held individually responsible for their own survival; rather, they require the active support of research communities and institutional frameworks.
... Research in the United States has shown that 25-33% of queer undergraduate students experience LGBTQ-specific harassment, with 75% of undergraduates describing campus climates as homophobic, and one-third of trans and genderqueer students experiencing harassment and violence on campus (Rankin, 2005;Rankin et al., 2010). Trans and gender-nonconforming students face additional harassment on campuses for failing to conform to gender norms (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). ...
Article
Students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ+) are at high risk of being harassed and discriminated. As such, they are in need of a welcoming and inclusive campus environment, and specific resources to support them. A review of the current literature describes how heavily campus environment is linked to LGBTQ+ student mental health, and the importance of the availability of resources. Current literature is analysed for specific issues facing LGBTQ+ students, demonstrating their need for positive environments and LGBTQ+ specific resources. Whereas many institutions may claim that they support LGBTQ+ students, enactment of this support is examined by describing the way universities speak about LGBTQ+ students and communities, the resources made available to them, and how easily accessible those resources are to their students, specifically online. This study reveals that there are few ongoing, accessible resources for LGBTQ+ students in Ontario, Canada, and that there is a profound lack of focus on resources for mental health, which are very much needed. The results of the study uncover the need for institutions to provide more ongoing resources to students, and to make those resources clearly accessible through website searches.
... There is a strong focus embedded within the book of an intersectional perspective which Travers refers to frequently and gives some personal reflection on towards the end. Current research around transgender identities argues for the importance of an intersectional framework (Vincent, 2018;de Vries, 2015) and this book certainly adds to the considerations around class and race for trans youth as well as issues around visibility that is, being visibly non-conforming and 'passing' (Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018). Travers also makes some concluding comments and focuses on the recommendation that any movement for social change must start from and be inclusive of the most precarious trans youth. ...
... Otro aspecto importante que señalar es que en este artículo se incluyen bajo la sombrilla trans a las personas que se identifican bajo el binario hombre-mujer y las personas no-binarias. La literatura científica señala estos dos grupos tengan necesidades y experiencias particulares que no deben ser generalizadas (Cheung et al, 2020;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). El no diferenciar o separar estos dos grupos pudo haber sido producto de la falta de información en artículos publicados en el tema al momento que esta revisión de literatura fue realizada. ...
... Despite progress in multiple LGBTQIA+ (a term encompassing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, ally, pansexual, and two-spirit) fronts, there is still widespread discrimination and violence directed at TGD people, including on college campuses (Beemyn and Rankin, 2011;Nicolazzo, 2016;Mizock and Hopwood, 2018;Rankin et al., 2019). Several studies have highlighted the marginalization experienced by TGD students, including the inability to obtain housing or bathrooms congruent with their gender, chilly academic environments, and outright physical violence (Goldberg and Kuvalanka, 2018;Denton, 2020;Griner et al., 2020). It is therefore unsurprising that TGD students report high rates of mental health issues and general difficulty graduating from postsecondary institutions (Messman and Leslie, 2019). ...
Article
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The financial health of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) college students is an understudied topic despite prior research showing significant financial distress in this population. Utilizing Brüggen et al.’s (2017) financial well‐being framework and the 2017 and 2020 waves of the Study on Collegiate Financial Wellness dataset, this study examines factors related to financial strain for TGD college students. Results indicate that TGD college students experience significant indirect impacts of their gender identity on financial strain. TGD students had significantly lower financial optimism, financial self‐efficacy, and financial socialization than their cisgender peers; they also engaged in behaviors associated with poor financial management significantly more frequently. These differences between TGD students and cisgender students each lead directly to significant increases in financial strain. This means that the average financial strain for TGD students is higher than for cisgender students, because of the way gender identity impacts other factors related to their financial well‐being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Given the large portion of the sample who identified as nonbinary (57%), this suggests that peer support may be of particular need to overcome an added sense of isolation among this group. Some literature suggests that nonbinary individuals do not feel included in TGD communities for not fitting within the binary or medicalized model or the umbrella model of traditional transgender identity (Darwin, 2020;Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Vincent, 2016). It is also worth noting here that the nonbinary sample may have played a role in the nonsignificant finding regarding community connectedness as a moderator, given that the sample may not have been representative of the broader TGD population in this way. ...
... These experiences and stressors are often dismissed or overlooked by those in the majority group in relation to that minority. An example of this for nonbinary individuals would be the myriad of forms people have to navigate for medical intake, school applications, or even signing up for websites that require picking male or female, man or woman, or similarly gendered labels (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018). For those who are within the nonbinary continuum, this choice can cause additional stress that accumulates over time as these stressor events occur. ...
Article
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As more nonbinary and genderqueer people are coming out, the number of openly nonbinary and genderqueer people seeking mental health care is increasing. Thus it becomes increasingly important to understand how the diagnoses used by clinicians impact those who are nonbinary and genderqueer. This critical commentary piece references the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition and Fourth Edition in relation to Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, its masculine counterpart of Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, and the previous non-gendered Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and other relevant literature to these diagnoses and nonbinary and genderqueer individuals. A look at this literature results in concerns that the sexual interest and arousal disorders in the current iteration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders relate to nonbinary and other genderqueer identities negatively. This commentary posits that negative interaction occurs in relation to accessibility to diagnosis, restricting research support of nonbinary and genderqueer individuals, and increasing the probability of marginalization and minority stress.
... Such negative reactions are sometimes subtle, as in this example from an interview study with 15 trans/gender non-conforming adults: "she said she was accepting, but the tone of her voice or change in speech, her body language told me otherwise" (Fiani & Han, 2019, p. 187). Nonbinary individuals sometimes experience multiple sources of stigmatization: by being gender non-41 conforming they are stigmatized by cisgender men and women but they also may feel disconnected from and rejected by the broader LGBT community because those spaces tend to prioritize the concerns of sexual minorities rather than gender minorities or because they're not "doing" trans appropriately (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Losty & O'Connor, 2018). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we juxtapose a queer theory formulation of gender with theories and research in the psychology and sociology of gender. Our discussion focuses on ideas from Judith Butler’s foundational book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. We discuss three key ideas found in Butler’s early work. The first key idea is Butler’s rejection of a distinction between sex as “natural” and gender as “cultural” which connects to their development of a performativity theory of gender. The second key idea is Butler’s formulation of the heterosexual matrix and its inherent instability, in which heterosexuality is dependent for its identity on the rejection of homosexuality. The third idea we discuss is Butler’s insight that a reconfiguration and proliferation of gender identities can be effectively used to dismantle gender and sexual binaries. We draw connections between each of these postulations and empirical research: on the relationship between biology and genders, on the internalization of gender schemas, and on the development of masculine heterosexual identity. We conclude with a review of psychological research on gender nonbinary and agender identities, and gender fluidity.
... A strength of this study was the concrete strategies offered by nonbinary individuals to execute the recommendations. As frustratingly expressed in Chapter 4, many of the recommendations have been echoed for years, especially creating trans-inclusive care spaces (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;Gridley et al., 2016;Kcomt, 2019;Lacombe-Duncan et al., 2020;Rider et al., 2019) and reducing gatekeeping (Budge, 2015;Collazo et al., 2013;Vincent, 2020 Advocacy was discussed among nonbinary individuals as both self-advocacy and ally advocacy, advocating for the nonbinary community. It is possible that advocacy is a form of resilience as folx are empowered to improve their environment and that of others like them. ...
Thesis
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Traditionally, gender has been viewed through an essentialist lens with fixed biology-based traits or polarized gender norms between women and men. As awareness of gender diversity grows, increasingly more people identify as nonbinary – or not exclusively a man or woman. Despite a growing literature on the experiences of binary transgender individuals, little has been explored regarding experiences unique to nonbinary individuals. The research that does include nonbinary individuals focuses primarily on adverse risks and outcomes. As such, a dearth of empirical research exists to understand the unique experiences of nonbinary people and how they relate to wellbeing. A qualitative participatory action study using PhotoVoice was conducted virtually to address the identified gaps in the literature on nonbinary individuals concerning gendered experiences and wellbeing. Prevailing theories of wellbeing informed the study along with minority stress theory and the resilience literature to account for environmental factors of oppression and individual and community resilience. A sample of 17 nonbinary adults in the Midwestern United States was recruited using convenience sampling and participated in online group discussions and individual interviews. The findings were reported in sections corresponding with the three study aims: 1) Explore core dimensions of wellbeing as defined by nonbinary individuals, 2) Identify promotive and corrosive factors of that wellbeing, and 3) Provide recommendations to bolster nonbinary wellbeing. The findings provided a thorough description of how nonbinary individuals perceive their wellbeing concerning their gender and as part of a marginalized population. Thematic analysis identified nine wellbeing themes for how participants conceptualized their wellbeing (e.g., Exploring gender identity and expression, Being connected to community, etc.), seven themes of promotive and corrosive factors of wellbeing (e.g., Positive, accurate, and nuanced representation, Coping skills to manage minority stressors, etc.), and three themes of recommendations (e.g., personal, interpersonal, and professional) with eighteen strategies to bolster wellbeing among nonbinary individuals and communities. The significance of the findings to social work was discussed, including practice application and advocacy. This study contributes to PhotoVoice methodology, wellbeing literature, and trans literature.
... Such negative reactions are sometimes subtle, as in this example from an interview study with 15 trans/gender non-conforming adults: "she said she was accepting, but the tone of her voice or change in speech, her body language told me otherwise" (Fiani & Han, 2019, p. 187). Nonbinary individuals sometimes experience multiple sources of stigmatization: by being gender non-conforming they are stigmatized by cisgender men and women but they also may feel disconnected from and rejected by the broader LGBT community because those spaces tend to prioritize the concerns of sexual minorities rather than gender minorities or because they're not "doing" trans appropriately (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;. ...
Chapter
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In this concluding chapter we discuss some of the insights gained from juxtaposing three eclectic fields of knowledge: queer studies, transgender theory, and psychological research. Because the queer and transgender projects are political projects, in this conclusion we focus on understanding the processes that may lead to fragmentation within the queer and transgender movement as well as processes that are associated with continued solidarity activism among an increasing number of queer and transgender identities. To examine processes of intragroup conflict and solidarity activism we juxtapose research in social psychology, Black psychology, and contributions by queer thinkers in promoting community norms that support activism, dialogue, and solidarity.
... The researchers proposed a public opinion propagation model with an incubation period that is continuously contagious in social networks [13]. Through the analysis of the model, the noninfection balance reaches a local stable state, and the geometric method of ordinary differential equations demonstrates the global stability of the noninfection balance [14]. Related scholars have discussed the role of cognitive beliefs in influencing online users' decision to share online hot events [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Network interaction has evolved into a grouping paradigm as civilization has progressed and artificial intelligence technology has advanced. This network group model has quickly extended communication space, improved communication content, and tailored to the demands of netizens. The fast growth of the network community on campus can assist students in meeting a variety of communication needs and serve as a vital platform for their studies and daily lives. It is investigated how to extract opinion material from comment text. A strategy for extracting opinion attitude words and network opinion characteristic words from a single comment text is offered at a finer level. The development of a semiautonomous domain emotion dictionary generating technique improves the accuracy of opinion and attitude word extraction. This paper proposes a window-constrained Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model that improves the accuracy of extracting network opinion feature words and ensures that network opinion feature words and opinion attitude words are synchronized by using the location information of opinion attitude words. The two-stage opinion leader mining approach and the linear threshold model based on user roles are the subjects of model simulation tests in this study. It is demonstrated that the two-stage opinion leader mining method suggested in this study can greatly reduce the running time while properly finding opinion leaders with stronger leadership by comparing the results with existing models. It also shows that the linear threshold model based on user roles proposed in this paper can effectively limit the total number of active users who are activated multiple times during the information diffusion process by distinguishing the effects of different user roles on the information diffusion process.
... Such negative reactions are sometimes subtle, as in this example from an interview study with 15 trans/gender non-conforming adults: "she said she was accepting, but the tone of her voice or change in speech, her body language told me otherwise" (Fiani & Han, 2019, p. 187). Nonbinary individuals sometimes experience multiple sources of stigmatization: by being gender non-conforming they are stigmatized by cisgender men and women but they also may feel disconnected from and rejected by the broader LGBT community because those spaces tend to prioritize the concerns of sexual minorities rather than gender minorities or because they're not "doing" trans appropriately (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter on sexuality, we examine three foundational postulations from queer theory. The first postulation is that the historical construction of sexuality, and same-sex desire in particular, tends to be based on binary thinking that positions same-sex desire as either universal (a “universalizing” view of same-sex sexuality) or as a disposition common to a minority of the population (a “minoritizing” view of same-sex sexuality). In contrast, queer theory moves away from a binary view of sexuality to conceptualize it as fluid. The second postulation is that people’s sexuality is shaped by interlocking forms of oppression such as colonialism, racism, sexism, and class oppression. The intersections of interlocking forms of oppression configure sexual identities and desires in unique ways. The third postulation is the rejection of a hierarchy of sexual practices and a focus on the proliferation of sexual categories to disrupt that hierarchy. We juxtapose these three key ideas with a review of critical psychology research, showing how psychological studies moved from a universalizing to a minoritizing view of same-sex desire, with a recent turn back towards the universalizing approach. We describe psychological contributions on the manner in which LGBTQ identities are different among people of color compared to white people as well as research that examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on sexual agency. We explore recent psychological studies related to BDSM and kink, polyamory, and asexuality. Assessing the convergence and divergence between psychology and queer thought leads us to critique the notion that a proliferation of sexual identities is necessarily libratory; instead, we argue for a more intersectional approach to sexual identities.
... Such negative reactions are sometimes subtle, as in this example from an interview study with 15 trans/gender non-conforming adults: "she said she was accepting, but the tone of her voice or change in speech, her body language told me otherwise" (Fiani & Han, 2019, p. 187). Nonbinary individuals sometimes experience multiple sources of stigmatization: by being gender non-conforming they are stigmatized by cisgender men and women but they also may feel disconnected from and rejected by the broader LGBT community because those spaces tend to prioritize the concerns of sexual minorities rather than gender minorities or because they're not "doing" trans appropriately (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;. ...
... Such negative reactions are sometimes subtle, as in this example from an interview study with 15 trans/gender non-conforming adults: "she said she was accepting, but the tone of her voice or change in speech, her body language told me otherwise" (Fiani & Han, 2019, p. 187). Nonbinary individuals sometimes experience multiple sources of stigmatization: by being gender non-conforming they are stigmatized by cisgender men and women but they also may feel disconnected from and rejected by the broader LGBT community because those spaces tend to prioritize the concerns of sexual minorities rather than gender minorities or because they're not "doing" trans appropriately (Goldberg & Kuvalanka, 2018;. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we delineate some of the key themes in foundational transgender studies texts including: the rejection of the traditional male/female binary as prescribed by the medical model of transgender identity, the endorsement of a self-deterministic approach to gender identity, and the emphasis on the polyvocality of the transgender experience. Juxtaposing these themes with psychological research we describe the shift from a medical model of transgender identity to an affirmative paradigm in transgender care. We describe emerging research that documents the polyvocality of the transgender experience. Juxtaposing transgender studies with psychological research on transgender identity suggests interesting psychological differences between different identities under a transgender umbrella as well the importance of sustaining an understanding of transgender identity that is not constricted but that frame trans as a broad and inclusive space.
... Goldberg, et al., 2018 209 Woodford, et al., 2017, p. 102 210 Goldberg, 2018 211 Singh, et al., 2013 212 Goldberg, 2018 213 Singh, et al., 2013 214 Goldberg, et al., 2019 ...
... Previous data-centric approaches, such as Counterfactual Data Augmentation (CDA) [12,13], have already proven useful for mitigating gender stereotypes. Still, CDA is dependent on manually curated lists of words that largely only support binary gender, which can prove exclusionary to trans and non-binary people [7]. ...
Research Proposal
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Language models are becoming increasingly central to artificial intelligence through their use in online search, recommendation engines and language generation technologies. However, concepts of gender can be deeply embedded in textual datasets that are used to train language models, which can have a profound influence on societal conceptions of gender. There is therefore an urgent need for scalable methods to enable the evaluation of how gender is represented in large-scale text datasets and language models. We propose a framework founded in feminist theory and feminist linguistics for the assessment of gender ideology embedded in textual datasets and language models, and propose strategies to mitigate bias.
Article
Testosterone, deemed the ‘male hormone’, is a central method used by transgender men to enact gendered bodily changes. Testosterone is framed as a means for transgender men to align their external ‘female’ bodies with their internal male genders because it is positioned by medical and social logics as a kind of distilled masculinity. While recognising both the ways that trans men always already subvert and usurp these logics, the coherence of these logics is further undercut when assigned female at birth non-binary people, who do not feel themselves to be men, are, in increasing numbers, using exogenous testosterone. Using qualitative interviews with seven non-binary people, this article grapples with the desire of these participants to use testosterone, without being tied to masculinity, maleness or men. In this article, I first focus on how these participants re-formed testosterone as a substance that can unmake, rather than confirm gender. Secondly, I look at how their use of testosterone rejects the centrality of an alignment between an internal gender and an external body. And finally, in turning to the process of ‘coming out as a testosterone user’ I explore how one participant asserted themselves not as a concrete and clear identity, but rather as a self in action. All three negotiations point to new logics of what testosterone is and could be, how it arises and moves with gender, and how these selves may begin to exist in new and novel ways.
Chapter
This chapter illustrates that how one thinks about communication must shape how one approaches conflict, and vice versa. Individuals hoping to transform conflict not only must apply the tools and strategies of their field but must do so in the context of communicating to specific and often widely divergent audiences. Likewise, not only must communicators create documents to help ensure that work is accomplished effectively, efficiently, and safely, but they must deal with their own and others’ conflicts. This chapter highlights research and practice in a range of contexts, including the roles of social media in war, of gender in alternative dispute resolution, and of genre during times of industrial crisis.
Article
Transgender and gender diverse youth (TGDY) experience modifiable health disparities and difficulty accessing the physical and mental health care systems. Providers and staff should understand the unique needs of this population and provide affirming spaces where these resilient young people can thrive. In addition to addressing social, setting, and system level barriers to access, providers should consider offering comprehensive gender care because this reduces barriers to medical services and can improve health outcomes. This article educates providers about TGDY, reviews the role of mental health care, and provides an overview of medical interventions for gender affirmation.
Article
Alcohol is involved in most sexual assaults on U.S. college campuses. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) students are at higher risk of both sexual assault victimization and substance abuse than their cisgender, heterosexual peers. Through a larger participation action study alongside Campus Advocacy and Prevention Professionals Association, findings emerged on how U.S. campus-based prevention educators are addressing alcohol’s role in campus sexual assault specifically with LGBTQ+ students. Eleven semi-structured interview participants highlighted limitations to existing prevention efforts and the importance of affirming LGBTQ+ students. Prominent themes include hetero-cisnormativity, stigmatization, and tokenization and lack of representation. Strategies to overcome these limitations are discussed.
Article
The authors explore trans-spectrum student financial experiences through a holistic model of financial wellness. Responses from the 2017 Study on Collegiate Financial Wellness were used to compare the financial wellness of trans-spectrum students to a sample of cisgender students, as well as to explore how students with diverse trans-spectrum identities may have varying financial experiences. Results indicated that trans-spectrum students have lower average scores than their cisgender peers on several financial wellness measures, including financial optimism and financial self-efficacy, but had higher scores than cisgender students on the financial strain measure. However, there were no significant differences between trans-spectrum students and cisgender students on the negative and positive financial management measures or sources of educational funding. Limited differences were found between trans-spectrum students with different gender identities. These findings indicate that the harmful effects of genderism on trans-spectrum students’ physical and mental wellness may also extend to financial wellbeing, but that trans-spectrum students also show evidence of coping to manage their financial resources.
Article
The term “transgender” (trans) has no singular or fixed meaning; instead, it represents a broad umbrella of non-traditional gender identities. Although the term is useful in the sense of inclusion, outsider recognition, and social activism, individuals and groups under the trans umbrella are not without internal ideological differences and contention about the boundaries of their collective identity. Taking a cyber-ethnographic approach with a transgender forum on the popular website Reddit, I offer insights into the complex membership debates that occur under this broad umbrella. In doing so, I present three distinct identity membership strategies, entitled “unbounded,” “socio-biological,” and “medically-based.” Each identity strategy showcases a mix of social and biological considerations that underlie trans-identity formations while highlighting differences in authenticity claims used within and between each group. My findings show a unique interplay between cultural definitions of trans-identities, lived experiences, and the explicit expulsion of some members in developing and maintaining internal symbolic boundaries of what constitutes a “trans enough” identity. More broadly, I generate new theoretical insights into the intracommunity “policing” strategies, shifting identity politics, and power dynamics that shape and inform interactions within the evolving category of transgender.
Article
Supportive family members appear to be an important source of compassion and allyship for their transgender loved ones, and yet there is little research on the family members themselves. With growing recognition, researchers are increasingly focusing on these perspectives, yet there remains a dearth of literature that incorporates the perspectives of people with transgender parents. In this paper, I use 20 in‐depth, semi‐structured interviews to assess the empathetic self‐constructions of participants as they describe their love and support for their transgender parent, while examining potential dangers of support that is underpinned by traditional norms related to gender, sexuality, and family. I introduce cisnormative empathy to identify this phenomenon, acknowledging the importance of empathy as a precursor to support and acceptance, while exploring how empathetic self‐constructions combined with actions underpinned by cisnormativity may be counterproductive to the needs of transgender loved ones and the transgender community as a whole. I suggest that additional supports for transgender people’s loved ones are needed to help explore complicated emotions while also challenging cisnormative ideologies.
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth report hostile school climates and sexuality-based harassment, but scholarship has not clearly documented how these climates might be associated with college aspirations among this population. Given college has become a common aspiration for many high school youths, we sought to explore subgroup differences in college aspirations among LGBTQ youth, and whether or not LGBTQ-specific community factors, such as Gender Sexuality Alliances (GSA) presence and teacher support, were related to college aspirations. To do this, we analysed a large sample (N = 11,327, Mage = 15.57) of LGBTQ youth from across the United States. We compared college aspirations across subgroups of youth via bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models to explore how school factors (i.e., presence of GSAs and LGBTQ-specific teacher supportiveness) were associated with college aspirations among LGBTQ youth. We found that transgender youth were less likely to aspire to go to college compared to cisgender counterparts. Additionally, more common sexual minority subgroups (e.g., gay/lesbian) were less likely to aspire to go to college compared to their counterparts with more emergent identity labels (e.g., asexual, queer). The presence of GSAs and higher reports of LGBTQ-supportive teachers were associated with increased odds of aspiring to go to college across all LGBTQ youth in our sample. These findings have implications for how schools and teachers prepare sexual and gender minorities for college. The findings imply that LGBTQ populations should not be treated as monolithic in their college readiness, preparation, and aspirations.
Article
Chronic misgendering is the process of being repeatedly misgendered (referred to as another gender) after informing an individual of gender pronouns (e.g., “she,” “he,” “they”). Chronic misgendering is symbolic of larger institutional and disciplinary adherence to a paradigm that privileges cisgender people, referred to as a gender essentialist paradigm. In order to understand which disciplines in higher education have more pervasive chronic misgendering, we analyze results from the National Survey of Transgender Graduate Students (n = 245). Graduate students in the natural sciences experience more chronic misgendering compared to graduate students in the social sciences. Those in health and biological science fields (in and closely related to medicine) reported the highest level of chronic misgendering, accounting for the majority of all chronic misgendering in the natural sciences. We argue that not only do these incidents negatively impact transgender graduate students, but they also reflect and reproduce field-specific expectations for what is considered acceptable misgendering practice in post-graduate professional environments, such as community health and medicine. As such, chronic misgendering in graduate school functions as unofficial curricula and thus, training for workplace cultures that, to different degrees, devalue transgender people and contribute to structural inequalities.
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Given the long history of LGBTQ+ rights and the current evolving climate surrounding social justice for LGBTQ+ individuals, this chapter explores the idea of creating safe, affirming, educational environments for LGBTQ youth in K-12 and post-high-school educational settings. The authors delineate the unique concerns for the elementary, middle, high, and higher education levels separately. At each level, the authors identify the core obstacles that LGBTQ+ individuals face surrounding acceptance, developing autonomy, and gaining support. The authors delve deeply into the programs and interventions that are currently making a difference in school systems around the country and provide educators with specific ways in which they can create inclusive environments for their students. The important caveats to obtaining robust LGBTQ+ research are also discussed.
Article
Objective: To compare academic and mental health outcomes across diverse gender identities in the context of interpersonal violence and campus housing. Participants: 45,549 students from 124 self-selected post-secondary institutions. Methods: Various academic and health measures from the National College Health Assessment Spring 2017 dataset were analyzed for differences across five gender identities (cis women, cis men, transwomen, transmen, and genderqueer students), and two housing categories (university housing and non-university housing). Results: When compared to cisgender peers, gender diverse students reported greater experiences of interpersonal violence and higher levels of negative academic and mental health outcomes. Living in university housing was associated with an increase in these disparities. Conclusions: University housing, which usually reinforces fixed gender binaries, is associated with worse outcomes for gender diverse students. These data can help higher education institutions better understand and address problems that disproportionately impact transgender and gender diverse students, who represent a growing demographic.
Article
Young people are challenging gender to expand beyond a male/female binary, yet research practices still lag behind these conceptions. This call-to-action paper will review the traditional conceptualizations of gender as prevalent in peer relations research, contrasted with modern approaches from scholars studying gender and sexual orientation diversity, and outline how youth are challenging binary conceptualizations. We provide recommended best practices to sensitively bridge this gap, including: using open responses where possible, and two-step closed-ended question formats where necessary, to measure gender identity; considering the context and role that gender identity and each of its facets might play in the research design; and preserving underrepresented groups even though they may be small. We close by exploring the ways in which the power of peer socialization can be (and likely currently are being) harnessed to support the ever-changing, diverse gender identities emergent in today's youth, and provide questions for future research.
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Despite increasing attention on issues raised by trans students in higher education, almost no empirical research has examined the identities and experiences of trans students as a group, or of specific subsets of trans students. In this article, I draw on interviews with twenty-five trans-male undergraduate students to explore how their experiences of coming to understand their gender identities are shaped by their experiences in higher education. I show how participants' concerns about being " trans enough " highlight contradictions within identity discourses of and about trans men, and how their narratives often rely on a medical model or " wrong body " discourse, even while students critique that model. Participants described expending significant energy navigating conflicting demands from other trans men, from other peers, and from their undergraduate institutions, in ways that often overshadowed their own desires and internal senses of identity. Institutions should support further research to explore the experiences and needs of trans men and other trans students, while implementing known best practices to become more trans-inclusive campuses.
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Faculty and peer interactions are 2 of the most important relationships for college students to foster (Astin, 1993). Transgender college students have an increasing visible presence on college campuses (Pusch, 2005), yet limited research exists on their experiences and struggles in the classroom environment (Garvey & Rankin, 2015; Renn, 2010). This study sought to understand the experiences of transgender students in the context of the college classroom and their perceptions of faculty and peer support. The experiences of 5 transgender students from a large Midwest public institution are illustrated by 4 themes that emerged: coming out, instructor interaction, peer (non)support in the classroom, and campus and course context impact college environment. Overall, participants’ experiences varied, but all reported incidents of marginalization from instructors and peers. This study provides a necessary voice to the lived experiences of transgender college students within the context of the university classroom.
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Lack of training regarding transgender youth leaves K–12 educators unprepared to become allies to this disenfranchised community and attend to their needs. This article explores the pedagogical strategies of two professional workshop models (GLSEN Houston training and the Gender Infinity practitioner training), which provide skills and resources for educators and counselors in K–12 settings to become adult allies to gender-nonconforming youth. Discussion includes pedagogical approaches and implications regarding sessions that provide training, resources for counselors and teachers to develop skills to support transgender youth, and responses from participants about the outcomes associated with workshop training.
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Abstract This study utilized MANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationships between campus experiences and coming out decisions among trans- and queer-spectrum undergraduates. Findings revealed higher levels of outness/disclosure for cisgender LGBQ women, and more negative perceptions of campus climate, classroom climate, and curriculum inclusivity and higher use of campus resources for trans-spectrum students. Results also revealed that higher levels of outness significantly related to poorer perceptions of campus responses and campus resources. Implications address the need to foster an encouraging and supportive campus and classroom climate, and improve the relationships with LGBTQ resource centers for trans- and queer-spectrum students.
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Despite the abundance of published material on conducting focus groups, scant specific information exists on how to analyze focus group data in social science research. Thus, the authors provide a new qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing focus group data. First, they identify types of data that can be collected during focus groups. Second, they identify the qualitative data analysis techniques best suited for analyzing these data. Third, they introduce what they term as a micro-interlocutor analysis, wherein meticulous information about which participant responds to each question, the order in which each participant responds, response characteristics, the nonverbal communication used, and the like is collected, analyzed, and interpreted. They conceptualize how conversation analysis offers great potential for analyzing focus group data. They believe that their framework goes far beyond analyzing only the verbal communication of focus group participants, thereby increasing the rigor of focus group analyses in social science research.
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What do laboratory rats, men, and college students have in common? They have often been studied by psychologists as representatives of a larger group, such as nonhuman animals or people in general. More recently, psychologists have turned to studying the species-typical behavior of rats and the roles and behavior of men and boys with respect to their masculine gender. Likewise, college students have served psychologists as representatives of humanity in studies of cognition and social and emotional behavior, but they have been studied infrequently as occupying a distinct developmental period.
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We explored transgender students' perceptions, engagement, and educational outcomes across 17 dimensions of the collegiate experience. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 91 transgender-identified college students as well as matching samples of nontransgender LGB and heterosexual peers for comparative purposes. Results suggest some variation within the transgender student population (i.e., male to female, female to male, intersexed) as well as significant differences in perceptions of campus climate and educational outcomes between transgender students and their nontransgender LGB and heterosexual peers.
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This paper draws on data from an on-going ESRC project on choice of higher education. It focuses primarily on the experiences of non-traditional applicants to higher education. Although these students are not typical of the entire university entry cohort, their narratives raise important issues in relation to race, class and higher education choice processes. These ‘success stories’ reveal important causes for concern as well as reasons for celebration. In particular, their experiences of the choice process are qualitatively different from those of their more privileged middle-class counterparts, highlighting key class and racial differences and inequalities.
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This case study focuses on policy change efforts to challenge gender-conforming privilege and gain protections for transgender individuals in higher education. This participatory action research centered on a faculty–student partnership in activism as the team worked to include the terms “gender identity and expression” in the university nondiscrimination policies to promote justice and equity for transgender students on campus. Using an approach we refer to as “critical liberatory feminist pedagogy,” this study examined the psychological, social, and institutional processes influencing student leadership for change and faculty pedagogical methods for encouraging student-initiated activism beyond the classroom. Student and faculty change agents described obstacles to change, action strategies, and the influence of privilege and power dynamics on the institutional change process. The insights gained from the collaborative faculty–student partnership are presented to inform others seeking innovative pedagogical practices and to create avenues for challenging privilege and power imbalances.
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This article explores the strategies transgender college students use to navigate gender-dichotomous collegiate environments. Using a critical collaborative ethnographic methodology (Bhattacharya, 2008), this 18-month ethnographic study alongside 9 transgender students elucidated how gender operates as a discourse to regulate the collegiate life as well as the various spaces through which the participants traversed. Study data also highlight the pervasive intersections of participants’ various social identities as well as speak to the importance of developing kinship networks among transgender students as a strategy to remain resilient and successful in college.
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Research on and about queer people and topics in higher education continues to evolve, expand, and push boundaries on identity, policy, and programming, increasingly informed by our narratives and experiences. Thus far, this work has done little to dismantle the imposed binary of researcher and subject(s), relegating queer research and practice as something that is done ‘on,’ ‘to,’ or ‘for’ queer people, rather than ‘with’ them. Collaborative ethnographic methodologies and communities of practice (CoP) provide alternative modes of scholarship and practice that build queer people’s agency through active involvement in research and social change processes. Situated in two of our own examples, our purpose is to explore big questions and raise even more. This article calls for a further queering of LGBTQ research in higher education by utilizing collaborative methodologies such as CoP and collaborative ethnography to improve the strategies, practices, and knowledge of campus queer communities and imagining new democratic and liberatory realities together.
Article
Being labeled as ‘abnormal, or deviant, or not being one of the rest of us’ has real effects for one’s life chances. Trans* people are one such group who have continually been codified as abnormal, abject, weird, deceptive, and social pariahs. The purpose of the following study was to explore how the concepts of passing, realness, and trans*-normativity influence the experiences of two black non-binary trans* collegians. Using queer and intersectional theoretical approaches to analysis, findings from this study highlight the various ways black non-binary trans* collegians view these concepts as both limiting and emancipatory.
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We utilized data from a multi-institutional longitudinal study to investigate the association between diversity-related coursework and moral development among students over 4 years of college. Our findings parallel the prior research, which support the positive effects of diversity on college students, by offering new evidence that diversity experiences positively impact moral development. Further, the findings revealed that students who enter college with lower precollege academic ability might experience greater gains relating to the impact of diversity coursework on their moral growth.
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The presence of a trans* family member can challenge existing theoretical notions about the development of gender in families. Emerging knowledge about trans* identities consolidates around 5 primary challenges to existing theoretical notions of gender: (a) non-dimorphic sex, (b) nonbinary gender, (c) the biological and social construction of gender, (d) gender identity development, and (e) family meaning making about transgender identity. These challenges structure an examination of hetero- and cisnormative expectations within family theory and help unpack long-standing tensions between essentialist and social constructionist views of gender development. This can play out in family theory through a recognition of the tension between upholding and decentering cisnormativity within families. This article pinpoints locations where current family theories require reexamination and expansion to accurately conceptualize the flexibility and variability of families with trans* members.
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This book is born of the conviction that feminist studies and transgender studies are intimately connected to one another in their endeavor to analyze epistemologies and practices that produce gender. Despite this connection, they are far from integrated. Transfeminist Perspectives in and beyond Transgender and Gender Studies seeks to highlight the productive and sometimes fraught potential of this relationship. Feminist, women's, and gender studies grew partly from Simone de Beauvoir's observation that "one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman."1 Transgender studies extends this foundation, emphasizing that there is no natural process by which anyone becomes woman, and also that everyone's gender is made: Gender, and also sex, are made through complex social and technical manipulations that naturalize some while abjecting others. In this, both feminist and transgender studies acknowledge the mutual imbrications of gender and class formations, dis/abilities, racializations, political economies, incarcerations, nationalisms, migrations and dislocations, and so forth. We share, perhaps, a certain delight and trepidation in the awareness that gender is trouble: Gender may trouble every imaginable social relation and fuel every imaginable social hierarchy; it may also threaten to undo itself and us with it, even as gender scholars simultaneously practice, undo, and reinvest in gender.
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If feminist studies and transgender studies are so intimately connected, why are they not more deeply integrated? Offering multidisciplinary models for this assimilation, the vibrant essays in Transfeminist Perspectives in and beyond Transgender and Gender Studies suggest timely and necessary changes for institutions of higher learning. Responding to the more visible presence of transgender persons as well as gender theories, the contributing essayists focus on how gender is practiced in academia, health care, social services, and even national border patrols. Working from the premise that transgender is both material and cultural, the contributors address such aspects of the university as administration, sports, curriculum, pedagogy, and the appropriate location for transgender studies. Combining feminist theory, transgender studies, and activism centered on social diversity and justice, these essays examine how institutions as lived contexts shape everyday life.
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Things change when a neologism moves from a social movement context to a classroom context. On one hand, our ability to keep classrooms relevant depends on this movement, this perspectival and practical exchange between academic and activist worlds. And theorizations that take place in the classroom can provide sustaining energy to social concerns. On the other hand, meanings do change when words cross from one medium to another. Academic contexts-perhaps a bit slow on the uptake-can simplify, ossify, and discipline otherwise queer terminologies while authorizing, legitimating, and institutionalizing their use.
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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans*, and Queer (LGBTQ) centers are increasingly prevalent on college and university campuses (see, e. g., Marine, 2011). However, there remain theoretical and pragmatic challenges that potentially threaten their ability to promote inclusive environments for the entire LGBTQ community. In particular, fragmentation of the contemporary movement for LGBT rights (mirrored on the college campus) has resulted in the potentiality for marginalization of trans* individuals' interests in these spaces. Findings from this study elucidate the tensions that exist regarding the efforts of LGBTQ center staff to recognize and meet the values, needs, and programmatic interests of trans* students, faculty, and staff on college campuses, and insights from Critical Trans Politics (Spade, 2011) are offered as a means to improve trans* inclusion.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to scholars regarding key aspects of writing qualitative manuscripts. The aim is to offer practical suggestions as opposed to examining epistemological or theoretical issues and debates related to qualitative family research. The authors begin by providing guideposts in writing the major sections of a qualitative article (Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion). In doing so, they address issues such as composing a literature review, providing sufficient details on the qualitative data analysis, and effectively communicating the contribution of the work. They end by providing some general suggestions for scholars seeking professional development in qualitative research methods and analysis.
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Transgender and gender nonconforming people face stigma and discrimination from a wide variety of sources and through numerous social realms. Stigma and discrimination originating from biomedicine and health care provision may impact this group's access to primary care. Such stigma and discrimination may originate not only from direct events and past negative experiences, but also through medicine's role in providing treatments of transitioning, the development of formal diagnoses to provide access to such treatments, and the medical language used to describe this diverse group. This paper examines the postponement of primary curative care among this marginalized group of people by drawing from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, one of the largest available datasets for this underserved group. This paper also proposes an innovate categorization system to account for differences in self-conceptualization and identity, which has been of considerable concern for transgender and gender nonconforming communities but remains underexplored in social and health research. Results suggest that experience, identity, state of transition, and disclosure of transgender or gender nonconforming status are associated with postponement due to discrimination. Other findings suggest that postponement associated with primary place of seeking care and health insurance has ties to both discrimination and affordability. These findings highlight the importance of combating stigma and discrimination generated from within or experienced at sites of biomedicine or health care provision in improving access to care for this group of people. Improving access to care for all gender variant people requires a critical evaluation of existing research practices and health care provision to ensure that care is tailored as needed to each person's perspective in relation to larger social processes.
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Sue Rankin and Genny Beemyn report on results from the first large-scale study of transgender diversity; they describe the gender identity development processes of transsexual, cross-dressing, and genderqueer individuals and suggest ways that colleges and universities can disrupt binary gender systems.
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This overview is intended to be a very general introduction to the use of focus groups as a research tool within the social and behavioral sciences. For more detailed information, readers are encouraged to seek out the primary sources cited here, particularly Krueger and Morgan, as well as their contributions in Qualitative Health Research (this issue).
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Students on college and university campuses who are gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered encounter unique challenges because of how they are perceived and treated. In this article, Sue Rankin shares the findings of her research with students, staff and faculty from 14 universities. Selected quotes reveal the experiences of LGBTs on campus and the climate that perpetuates heterosexism.
Article
To assist colleges and universities in becoming more supportive of transgender people, the authors, who work in campus LGBT student services, offer practical recommendations in areas where gender-variant students, staff, and faculty are likely to encounter discrimination. These areas include health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, gender and name changes, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. For each area, beginning, intermediate, and advanced steps are suggested.
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Increasing numbers of youth are beginning to come out and transition while in college. This qualitative study examines the perspectives of male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender students as they reflect upon the reactions of family and friends. While friends tended to be supportive, parents often had a negative reaction to their children coming out as transgender and sought to dissuade the students from transitioning. The study participants who were pre-transition and living part time as their self-identified gender often felt that the reactions of others reinforced their sense of not being normal. The students who had moved into living full time as their self-identified gender began to feel some sense of normalcy in their lives.
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Transgender youth have become more visible in the last decade but remain one of the most underserved populations on college campuses and have largely been ignored in the higher education literature. To provide a context for understanding the experiences of gender variant students, this article provides a brief history of transgenderism before discussing the handful of published narratives by transgender youth. It concludes with recommendations for educators seeking to improve the campus climate for people of all genders.
Article
Few non-pathologizing models of transgender identity development currently exist. This study uses an adaptation of the D'Augelli (1994) lifespan model of sexual orientation identity development to consider the lives of transgender college students. Interviews with two transgender-identified students find that they have developmental experiences in each process of D'Augelli's framework. In addition to demonstrating the need for more research on transgender identity development, this study suggests that the binary construction of gender that pervades United States culture and college campuses, in particular, must be examined and challenged.
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Transgender students are becoming more visible on college campuses. This qualitative study examines the experiences of undergraduate and graduate students who self-identify as transgender. Most of the participants reported that a hostile climate for transgender students exists on their campuses and that their colleges lack resources and education on transgender issues.
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The purpose of this study was to: (1) highlight diversity related findings from quantitative survey assessment efforts on a private university campus; (2) to utilize focus groups to assess student, faculty, staff, and management perceptions and attitudes of campus diversity climate; and (3) to illustrate how focus group information can complement quantitative survey findings. Eight homogeneous and heterogeneous focus groups made up of students, faculty, staff, and senior management participated in this study. Quantitative survey findings showed that different ethnic groups on campus had overall positive but somewhat different perceptions and attitudes regarding campus diversity climate. The focus group findings confirmed and complemented the quantitative survey findings. They also helped generate action recommendations. An attempt was made to evaluate the use of focus groups in addition to use of surveys to assess campus diversity climate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Colleges and universities are beginning to consider the needs of transgender students, but few understand how to offer support to this segment of the campus community. This chapter address issues and provides suggestions for student affairs professionals.
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Includes bibliographical references, index
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Jones, S., & Abes, E. (2013). Identity development of college students: Advancing frameworks for multiple dimensions of identity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Trans à in college: Transgender students' strategies for navigating campus life and the institutional politics of inclusion
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Nicolazzo, Z. (2016a). Trans à in college: Transgender students' strategies for navigating campus life and the institutional politics of inclusion. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
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Bilodeau, B. (2009). Genderism: Transgender students, binary systems, and higher education. Saarbr€ ucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. M€ uller Aktiengesellschaft & Co.
The 2013 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation's schools
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Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Palmer, N. A., & Boesen, M. J. (2014). The 2013 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in our nation's schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network.
Transgender inclusion in the LGBTQ rights movement
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dickey, l. (2016). Transgender inclusion in the LGBTQ rights movement. In A. E. Goldberg (ed.) The SAGE encyclopedia of LGBTQ studies (pp. 1223-1226). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The experiences of transgender students in Massachusetts' colleges and universities
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Spagna, K. (2014). The experiences of transgender students in Massachusetts' colleges and universities. Undergraduate Review, 10, 134-142.
Recommendations of transgender students, staff, and faculty in the USA for improving college campuses
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Seelman, K. L. (2014). Recommendations of transgender students, staff, and faculty in the USA for improving college campuses. Gender & Education, 26, 618-635.
Assessing campus climate of cultural diversity: A focus on focus groups
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Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1998). The focus group kit. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Morrow, G. P., Burris-Kitchen, D., & Der-Karabetian, A. (2002). Assessing campus climate of cultural diversity: A focus on focus groups. College Student Journal, 34, 589.