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Lichens and Bryophytes
of Fish Creek Watershed,
Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon
Steven Jessup, Daphne Stone and John Villella
Fish Creek flows north through a gorge carved in Tertiary basalts on the southwest side
of the Mount Hood National Forest. This watershed is located in a crossroads of coastal
and montane climates, near the southern limits of a cool and moist biogeographic region
to the north. The distributions of many different organisms reflect this biogeographic
pattern. Refugia exist where microhabitats have remained stable over a long time period,
allowing persistence of species that are rare in the surrounding area. For example, the
Giant Salamander, Dicamptodon copei, at the southern limits of distribution in Fish
Creek Watershed (Foster & Olson, 2014), inhabits the same microclimate targeted in this
study. Many organisms that are locally rare are widely distributed further north.
Fish Creek watershed has scattered patches of old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/ Tsuga
heterophylla forest in the lower reaches. Much younger forest covers the upper reaches
where the terrain is steep, with drainages dissected by narrow ridges, cliffs, outcrops, and
deep ravines. Microclimate in ravines is cooled by cold air drainages from ridge tops, as
well as by proximity of cold flowing springs, seeps, streams and adjacent shaded rock
outcrops. The creek and tributaries are lined with rounded rocks and exposed bedrock,
providing excellent habitat for riparian and aquatic bryophytes.
Because cyanolichens require moisture throughout the year, they thrive in this type of
riparian forest. The creek bed and riparian zone in this steep watershed provide habitat
for bryophyte species unusual this far south. Our surveys were completed in order to add
information about some habitats with the best potential for lichens and bryophytes and
available in northern Oregon.
A 1994 watershed analysis identified Fish Creek as the most geologically unstable
watershed in the Mt. Hood National Forest (Hickman & Shively 2003). The watershed is
sensitive to disturbance because of its steep slopes and geology of layers of resistant
basalt and andesite interlain with weak, weathered pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 41%
of the watershed had been harvested, primarily by clearcutting, leaving soil exposed and
susceptible to erosion. The winter of 1995-1996 was a severe one, and in February 1996,
a storm passed the 100-year floodmark. Debris flows impacted 24 km of fishbearing
streams in the watershed. A second major storm event in 1999 increased the damage. The
area of the confluence Fish and Wash Creeks including Music Creek, was severely
scoured, with the entire forest and soil washed down to bedrock in some places. In other
areas, the forest stand was removed leaving enough soil for reestablishment of early
successional stages. Rock scour left the creek beds with very little gravel or sediment
under the size of 12". In the aftermath of the floods, where remaining small patches of
streamside microhabitat and old growth forest suffered relatively little disturbance,
cryptogam flora was expected to retain much of the biodiversity that was present prior to
the floods. A major objective of this study was to locate and inventory these relatively
undisturbed microhabitat refugia.
On a brief visit in 2010, our research team found numerous Sticta weigelii thalli and the
dung moss Tetraplodon mnioides, indicating excellent cool, moist forest habitat for other
cyanolichens and mosses. A search of the Consortium of North American Lichen
Herbaria and the Consortium of PNW Herbaria revealed no collections from Fish Creek
watershed, indicating a relatively unexplored portion of Mt. Hood National Forest.
Figure 1. Location of 2016 cryptogam survey in Fish
Creek Watershed. Upper photo shows Mt. Hood in the
upper right corner and the Fish Creek watershed
outlined in light blue. The lower photo shows Fish
Creek on the right and Wash Creek on the left.
Three surveyors spent 2 days each searching the Fish Creek watershed, during 23-25
August 2016. We camped at Lost Bridge, below confluence of Fish Creek and Wash
Creek. Steven Jessup, bryologist, and John Villella, lichenologist, searched intensively
along Fish Creek and Wash Creek, and Daphne Stone, bryologist and lichenologist,
searched Wash Creek, Fish Creek and lower Music Creek. We searched separately along
the riparian strip so that most of the area was covered. The area sampled traversed small
intact riparian patches of old growth forest, both adjacent to the creek and along the old
road, young riparian forests, rocky channels with ledges, in-stream boulders and large
woody debris, spray zones, and rock outcrops near flowing water.
Fig. 2. Mouth of Music Creek, with worn bedrock.
Fig. 3. Wash creek at mouth of Pick Creek. Note young creek-side vegetation with a
patch of large old trees downstream.
Collections were identified by the collectors. Nomenclature for lichens follows Esslinger
(2016), except for the species of Sticta known as S. weigelii. That name and the name
Sticta beauvoisii are used for a PNW species that may be an unnamed species or S.
beauvoisii or both (McCune & Geiser 2009). Moss nomenclature follows Flora of North
America vols. 27 & 28 (Zander & Eckel, 2007, 2014), and Norris and Shevock where
regionally recognized taxa are not treated in FNA. Hepatic nomenclature follows Flora of
North America, vol 29. (Zander & Eckel, forthcoming).
Element Occurrence Forms for listed species were filled out by the surveyors. Voucher
specimens for these and for unusual and rare species were submitted to ISSSSP, and will
later be placed at Oregon State University Herbarium (OSC).
Results and Discussion
A list of species found at Fish Creek is presented in Appendix 1.
Fifty-five lichen species were collected in the riparian corridor. Lichens with
cyanobacterial photobionts are well represented along Fish Creek: twenty-four
macrolichens with cyanobacterial photobionts were found, more than one half of the
macrolichen species seen. Among these is Lobaria oregana growing without its green
algal photobiont ("L. silvae-veteris") a form specific to old-growth forests of the Pacific
Northwest (Goward & Goffinet 1993). Three lichen species listed at the time of the
survey were found, Sclerophora peronella, Sticta "weigelii" and Pseudocyphellaria
One effect of the flooding in 1995-1996 was removal of large strips of old growth forest
along the creeks and eventual replacement by young Douglas-firs, Alnus and Salix in that
riparian strip. Although superficially the area seemed optimal for cyanolichens, in fact the
dark closed young forest along the creeks was poor habitat and few target species were
found there. We did find two spots with prime habitat. The first is along the road on the
east side of Fish Creek and Wash Creek, where light is let into the edge of old-growth
forest. Dead lower branches of young and suppressed trees here provide habitat for the
listed species Sticta "weigelii" and Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis. Three occurrences of
P. rainierensis were found during this survey, always growing among lush Lobaria
oregana thalli. The second area of prime habitat is a few relict old growth trees along the
creek margin that were not washed away in the floods. Among these old trees we found
abundant occurrences of Sticta "weigelii".
Fig. 4. Old-growth Thuja plicata that survived the 1990's washouts, on the bank of Pick
Creek. Chaenotheca furfuracea was found low on its bole.
Fig. 5. Surveyors Steven Jessup and John Villella in the near-stream, young forest.
Bryophyte cover is high even on small twigs.
Fig. 6. Typical young forest vegetation between old road and Fish Creek.
Several dozen occurrences of Sticta “weigelii” were noted throughout the near stream
environment; this was by far the most common of the listed or rare species of
cyanolichens in Fish Creek. Although this species is generally present in old-growth
habitats in Northern Oregon, the population in Fish Creek is one of the densest
occurrences of this lichen that we have encountered.
Pseudocyphellaria mallota was encountered in at least four locations always as a twig
dwelling epiphyte in the near stream habitat. This species was once thought to be one of
the rarest macrolichens in the Pacific Northwest and was a listed Survey and Manage
species but we now know it to be more common. It is unique among Pacific Northwest
Pseudocyphellaria in having upper surface tomentum. Only one collection of this species
was made from Fish Creek, because of its apparent lack of upper surface hairs. This
specimen may represent a unique genotype among North American P. mallota
specimens. We plan to conduct a molecular genetic analysis of this specimen as part of a
larger study of this taxon.
It is likely that historic occurrences of all of these rare cyanolichen species within the
Fish Creek watershed were more widespread prior to anthropogenic disturbance. Their
persistence in the older trees near the stream edges represent an important habitat
refugium that may allow for future colonization of the surrounding forest stands, if these
stands are allowed to mature to old-growth. All of the rare cyanolichen species
encountered are considered dispersal-limited because they are only known to reproduce
by fragmentation or asexual propogules. Management activities should include the
maintenance of this critical habitat in order to insure persistence of these rare species
within the Fish Creek watershed.
Calicioid lichen diversity is known as a measure of continuity of a forest habitat (Selva
2003, 2013). Selva assessed forests in the Canadian Maritime region, using 15 or more
species of calicioid lichens and fungi as the criterion for ancient forests. We found 6
calicioid species, 5 of which are common. The sixth species, Sclerophora peronella,
which is listed, was found in a hole in the rotten trunk of an old Acer macrophyllum at the
edge of bedrock along Fish Creek. The low number of calicioid species found in this
survey could be explained by the abundance of mosses covering boles, but also likely
indicates disturbance and poor development of microhabitats expected in a forest this old.
The creek beds were also changed drastically by the floods. Rock scour left pools with
very little gravel or sediment under the size of 12". In creeks similar to this one, without
flood disturbance, some aquatic lichens such as Leptogium rivale or Peltigera aquatica
would be expected, yet at Fish Creek, we found only two small occurrences of the lichen
Leptogium rivale. The nearly non-existent lichen flora in the creek channel demonstrates
the effects of scour working on the creek. The growth form of this lichen is very close to
the rock substrate, this likely contributes to its ability to continue to occupy Fish Creek
despite the heavy scour events that have occurred in recent years.
Lichenicolous fungi are species that live as obligate symbionts intimately associated with
lichens. Although these species are commonly encountered in the forests of the Pacific
Northwest, few studies have specifically focused on this interesting group of fungi. Some
literature suggests that lichenicolous fungi increase in abundance along a gradient of
habitat continuity; the longer a habitat exists undisturbed the longer it has to accumulate
parasitic or commensurate fungi (Knutsen 2012). Although we did not specifically target
lichenicolous fungi, nor did we attempt to quantify their occurrence in the Fish Creek
watershed, nonetheless we did record two conspicuous lichenicolous fungi occurring on
Protounguicularia nephromatis, a fungal parasite specific to the host genus Nephroma
was encountered twice. This species appears to have a broad distribution in the northern
hemisphere, and has been found in Alaska, Canada, Fennoscandia, Russia and Asia. The
species of Nephroma on which this fungus occurs are typical of moist old growth forests
(Huhtinen, et al. 2008).
Nectriopsis lecanodes is a fungal parasite on lichens in the family Lobariaceae,
widespread across Europe and the Americas. In Oregon this species is known from
Andrews Experimental Forest growing on Peltigera membranacea (Pike & Roseman
#1403) (MycoPortal 2018). In Fish Creek it was encountered twice, once on
Pseudocyphellaria crocata and once on Nephroma bellum. It is our belief that further
studies on lichen parasites in the Pacific Northwest may reveal this species to be common
Eighty-one moss species and thirty-four liverworts were found during our survey.
Although bryophytes were abundant in the creek channel, the bryophyte flora was
dominated by fewer species than might be expected in undisturbed habitat. Scattered
refugia with rich bryophyte flora were found along creek banks. Cliff habitats, though
uncommon in the study area, were found to support a typically diverse flora.
Fig. 7. Near-stream bryophyte habitat, looking upstream at protected alcove.
Figure 8. Perennially moist sods, seeps, shaded ledges, and splash zones.
The road on the east side of Fish Creek and Wash Creek was the location of several
patches of Tetraplodon mnioides on a brief visit in 2010. Since the road was closed
before 2010 and has had very little foot traffic since, young trees and shrubs have
encroached on this once-optimal dung moss habitat, and we did not find any T. mnioides
on our visit.
Of the rare taxa treated in Exeter et al. (2016), Marsupella sprucei was the only liverwort
species found, while Didymodon eckeliae and Rhytidium rugosum are the two moss
Marsupella sprucei is a wide-ranging Holarctic species, in the Pacific Northwest
represented by few records. The miniscule plants overlap in size and form with
diminutive stems of other Marsupella. A larger sample from the habitat is needed to
assess phenotypic plasticity of diagnostic characters, and to search for reproductive
structures. The species was collected by Dan Norris, at Opal Creek in 1994, 25 km south
of Fish Creek location. Wilf Schofield collected the species in West Vancouver, 1979.
Exeter, Harpel, Wagner (2016) report an undisclosed location in Douglas County.
Rhytidium rugosum inhabits cold-wet climates in North America. Populations are rare
and widely disjunct in the southern limits of the range. Known populations in Oregon
include Saddle Mountain in Clatsop County (multiple vouchers), and west Union County
(W.A.Weber 3201, in 1945), also known from Skamania County, Washington (Wind
River Valley at 1500', McArdle & Thorpe, 1928). The Fish Creek population is at
southern limit of distribution in the PNW lobe of the range. Rhytidium rugosum was
growing with the listed lichen Sticta "weigelii".
Didymodon eckeliae was found in the Columbia River Gorge in 2008 by Toren
(collection 9605), and Kellman (collection 5846). Exeter, Harpel and Wagner (2016)
report D. eckeliae in Multnomah, Hood River, Lane, and Umatilla Counties in Oregon,
and in British Columbia, Washington, and California. The Fish Creek specimen may be a
first report from Clackamas County. The fragile leaves of D. eckeliae give the appearance
of a weathered specimen of D. vinealis, a ubiquitous and variable species occupying
similar habitat, and specimens of D. eckeliae have likely been lumped with D. vinealis in
Vitt & Belland (1997) demonstrate that rare species are a large component of β-diversity,
and that high β-diversity is correlated with mesoscale complexity in the landscape, for
instance on the watershed level. Narrow microclimates associated with spatially restricted
features of the landscape provide refugia where rare species may accumulate and persist.
Within the riparian corridor in Fish Creek, habitat complexity is highest in areas of deep
shade, sheltered alcoves, dry rock ledges, dripping rock faces, overhanging rock walls,
moist soil patches over rock, spray zones, cool pockets among rocks, large decomposing
tree boles, the bases of very old trees, wounds and hollows in old trees, repressed old
trees in the understory, and single hardwoods in openings.
Biogeography of indicator species:
Key indicator species for near-stream microhabitat found in Fish Creek watershed
include the liverworts Blasia pusilla, Meztgeria conjugata, and Plagiochila porelloides.
The Fish Creek population of Blasia pusilla is near the southern and eastern limits of
distribution in the Pacific Northwest. Populations of B. pusilla are scattered southward on
the coast, becoming rare south of Cape Mendocino. Long range disjunct populations
occur at isolated locations. The Fish Creek specimens were growing over decomposing
wood with Riccardia palmata and Celphalozia bicuspidata. Blasia is an ancient
phylogenetic relict, descended with scant modifications from the earliest diverging
lineages of Marchantiopsida.
Figure 9. Shaded ledges, seeping crevices at the back of recesses along Fish Creek,
showing the habitat of Metzgeria conjugata.
Though not rare, Metzgeria conjugata occurs in a narrow cool-moist microhabitat. In
Fish Creek headwaters M. conjugata is found in protected crevices adjacent to flowing
water. Distribution in the PNW is coastal – montane. At the southern range limits, M.
congugata occurs as isolated patches near the coast, south to Arcata (45º 54' N), and
reported at one montane location, on Hunter Creek, near Boulder Peak in the Marble
Mountains. As species reach limits of range distribution, microhabitat is restricted to
smaller and more fragmented patches on the landscape. When dispersal and new
population recruitment is limiting, persistence of a species depends on long-term stability
of critical refugial microhabitat.
Plagiochila porelloides also occurs in the narrow cool moist microclimate along edges of
the stream channel. Plants were sparsely intermixed in loose mats with other moss and
liverwort species. Populations occur sporadically inland west of the Cascades. The
distribution demonstrates an oceanic-montane biogeographic pattern. Many cryptogam
species become uncommon or rare as they approach southern limits of distribution.
Plagiochila porelloides populations in Fish Creek are close to eastern limits of
Wide ranging liverwort indicator species include Blepharostoma trichophyllum and
Cephalozia bicuspidata, typically occurring in the near-stream habitat. Indicator
bryophytes include Heterocladium macounii, Porotrichum bigelovii, and Ulota
megalospora all endemic to the Pacific Northwest. These species have narrow geographic
ranges in the Pacific Northwest, and though not rare within their ranges, reach eastern
range limits, or southeastern-most limits, near the Fish Creek Watershed.
The pteridophyte flora of Fish Creek watershed includes three species of Selaginella with
global distributions restricted to the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest narrow
endemic, Selaginella douglasii, in the subgenus Stachygynandrum is the only species in
subgenus Stachygynandrum west of the Mississippi River and north of the Rio Grande.
The ranges of S. oregana and S. wallacei, both in subgenus Tetragonostachys, overlap in
Clackamas, Hood River and Multnomah Counties.
This study was funded by a grant from the Interagency Special Status/ Sensitive Species
Program to Biodiversity Research Collective. We greatly appreciate the support,, which
makes intensive studies such as this one possible.
Esslinger, T. 2016. A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and
Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, Version 21.
https://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm - N Accessed 7 March
Exeter, Ronald L, Judith Harpel and David Wagner. 2016. Rare Bryophytes of Oregon.
Salem District, Bureau of Land Management. Salem, Oregon. 97306. ISBN–13: 978–0–
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(Dicamptodon copei) USDA Forest Service Region 6 & USDI Bureau of Land
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Fungi of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, Iberian Peninsula and Canary
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Appendix 1. List of Species found at Fish Creek
Blasia pusilla L.
Blepharostoma trichophyllum (L.) Dumort.
Calypogeia azurea Stotler & Crotz
Cephalozia (cf.) lacinulata Jack ex Spruce
Cephalozia lunulifolia (Dumort.) Dumort.
Cephalozia biscuspidata (L.) Dumort.
Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb.
Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dumort
Cephaloziella divaricata (Sm.) Schiffn.
Chiloscyphus pallescens (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Dumort.
Chiloscyphus polyanthos (L.) Corda
Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dumort
Doinia ovata (Dicks.) H. Buch.
Frullania californica M.A. Howe
Frullania nisquallensis Sull.
Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort
Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dumort
Lophozia longiflora (Nees) Schiffn.
Marchantia polymorpha L.
Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.) Dumort.
Marsupella sprucei (Limpr.) Bernet.
Metzgeria conjugata Lindb.
Plagiochila porelloides (Torr. ex Nees) Lindb.
Porella cordeana (Hueb.) Moore
Porella navicularis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Pfieff
Radula complanata (L.) Dumort.
Riccardia multifida (Hedw.) Carruth.
Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth.
Scapania americana Müll. Frib.
Scapania bolanderi Aust.
Scapania curta (Mart.) Dumort.
Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort.
Scapania undulata (L.) Dumort.
Scapania undulata var. oakesii (Aust.) Buch
Amphidium californicum (Hampe ex Müller) Brotherus
Amphidium mougeoutii (Bruch. & Schimp.) Schimp.
Anacolia menziesii (Turner) Paris
Andreaea rothii Weber & D. Mohr
Antitrichia californica Sull. ex Lesq.
Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Bridel
Bartramia pomiformis Hedw.
Brachythecium frigidum (Müller Hal.) Besch.
Bryum sp. cf. capillaris
Buckiella undulata (Hedw.) Ireland
Ceratodon stenocarpus Bruch & Schimp.
Claopodium bolanderi Best
Claopodium crispifolium (Hooker) Ren. & Cardot
Codriophorus acicularis (Hedw.) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra
Condriophorus varius (Mitt.) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra
Dichodontium pellucidum (Hedw.) Schimp.
Dicranella varia (Hedw.) Schimp.
Dicranodontium denudatum (Bridel) E. Britt.
Dicranoweissia cirrata (Hedw.) Lindb.
Dicranum fuscescens Turner
Dicranum scoparium Hedw.
Dicranum tauricum Sapjegin
Didymodon eckeliae Zander
Didymodon rigidulus Hedw.
Didymodon vinealis (Bridel) Zander
Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch. & Schimp.
Ditrichum heteromallum (Hedw.) E. Britt.
Fissidens bryoides Hedw.
Grimmia torquata Hornsch. ex Grev.
Herzogiella seligeri (Bridel) Iwats.
Heterocladium macounii Best
Homalothecium fulgescens (Mitt. ex Müll.) A. Jaeg.
Homalothecium pinnatifidum (Sull. & Lesq.) Lawton
Hygroamblystegium varium (Hedw.) Mönk.
Hygrohypnum bestii (Ren. & Bryhn) Holtz.
Hygrohypnum molle (Hedw.) Loeske
Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.
Hypnum circinale W.J. Hooker
Hypnum subimponens Lesq.
Imbribryum miniatum (Lesq.) Spence
Imbribryum torenii Spence & Shevock
Isopterygiopsis pulchella (Hedw.) Iwats.
Isothecium cristatum (Hampe) H. Robinson
Isothecium spiculiferum (Mitt.) Ren. & Chardot
Isothecium stoloniferum Bridel
Kindbergia oregana (Sullivant) Ochyra
Kindbergia praelonga (Hedw.) Ochyra
Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst.
Neckera douglasii W. J. Hooker
Niphotrichum elongatum (Ehrhart ex Frisvoll) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra
Niphotrichum ericoides (Bridel) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra
Niphotrichum muticum (Kindb.) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra
Oncophorus wahlenbergii Bridel
Orthotrichum consimile Mitt.
Orthotrichum rivulare Turner
Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Bridel
Philonotis tomentella Molendo
Plagiomnium medium (Bruch & Schimp.) Koponen
Plagiothecium cavifolium (Bridel) Iwats.
Plagiothecium laetum Schimp.
Platydictya jungermannioides (Bridel) Crum
Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb.
Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.
Porotrichum bigelovii (Sull.) Kindb.
Pseudoleskea stenophylla Ren. & Cardot
Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans (Bridel) Iwats.
Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) Spence & Ramsay
Rhizomnium magnifolium (Horikawa) Koponen
Rhizomnium nudum (R.S.Williams) Koponen
Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum (Bruch & Schimp.) Koponen
Rhynchostegium aquaticum Jaeger
Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb.
Rosulabryum capillare (Hedw.) J.R. Spence
Rosulabryum gemmascens (Kindb.) J.R. Spence
Rosulabryum torquescens Bruch ex De Not.) J.R. Spence
Schistidium rivulare (Bridel) Podpĕra
Scleropodium obtusifolium (Mitt.) Kindb. in Macoun
Scouleria aquatica W.J. Hooker
Ulota megalospora Vent. in Röell
Bryoria pseudofuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell
Chaenotheca gracillima (Vainio) Tibell
Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.)Th.Fr.
Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Sprengel
Cladonia furcata (Hudson) Schrader
Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda
Fuscopannaria leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg.
Fuscopannaria pacifica P. M. Jørg.
Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.
Hypogymnia apinnata Goward & McCune
Hypogymnia enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl.
Hypogymnia hultenii (Degel.) Krog
Hypogymnia inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson
Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.
Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaerer) Hav.
Hypotrachyna sinuosa (Sm.) Hale
Leptogidium contortum (Henssen) T. Sprib. & Muggia
Lobaria anthraspis (Ach.) T. Sprib. & McCune
Lobaria anomala (Brodo & Ahti) T. Sprib. & McCune
Lobaria hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Müll. Arg.
Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.
Micarea prasina Fr.
Nectriopsis lecanodes (Ces.) Diederich & Schroers
Nephroma bellum (Sprengel) Tuck.
Nephroma helveticum Ach.
Nephroma laevigatum Ach.
Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach.
Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.
Parmelia hygrophila Goward & Ahti
Peltigera collina (Ach.) Schrader
Peltigera leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyelnik
Peltigera pacifica Vitik.
Peltigera ponojensis Gyelnik
Peltigera venosa (L.) Hoffm.
Pilophorus accicularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
Platismatia glauca (L.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Platismatia herreii (Imshaug.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Platismatia norvegica (Lynge) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Protounguicularia nephromatis (Zhurb. & Zavarzin) Huhtinen, D. Hawksw. &
Ihlen (lichenicolous fungus)
Pseudocyphellaria crocata (L.) Vainio
Pseudocyphellaria mallota (Tuck.) H. Magn.
Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis Imshaug
Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.
Sclerophora peronella (Ach.) Tibell
Scytinium palmatum (Hudson) Gray
Scytinium polycarpum (P. M. Jørg. & Goward) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin
Scytinium rivale (Tuck.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin
Stenocybe pullatula (Ach.) Stein (non-lichenized fungus)
Sticta weigelii Delise
Usnea fulvoreagens (Räsänen) Räsänen
Usnea lapponica Vainio
Usnea longissima Ach.