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The impact of social media on social lifestyle: A case study of university female students

Authors:
  • North West University South Africa, Mafikeng

Abstract

The impact of social media (SM) or new media (NM) in our education institutions and society today are undoubtedly overwhelming. Students in the developed and developing countries are becoming more addicted to social media and its applications for various reasons. These reasons can lead to change in social and personal lifestyle both academically and off-academic. This study aims to assess the impact of social media on female student's social lifestyle. The study deployed a quantitative research methodology involving questionnaire research instrument among 69 female students in the NorthWest University, South Africa. The findings include the followings; social media refines how female students think, interact, communicate, fall in love, their social lifestyle and many more.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SOCIAL LIFESTYLE: A CASE STUDY OF
UNIVERSITY FEMALE STUDENTS
Joshua Ebere Chukwuere
Department of Information Systems
North-West University (Mahikeng), South Africa
Precious Chibuike Chukwuere
Department of Nursing Science
North-West University, South Africa
Abstract
The impact of social media (SM) or new media (NM) in our education institutions and society today are
undoubtedly overwhelming. Students in the developed and developing countries are becoming more
addicted to social media and its applications for various reasons. These reasons can lead to change in
social and personal lifestyle both academically and off-academic. This study aims to assess the impact
methodology involving questionnaire research instrument among 69 female students in the North-West
University, South Africa. The findings include the followings; social media refines how female students
think, interact, communicate, fall in love (find love), their social lifestyle and many more.
1. Introduction
Over the years, there has been a drastic
improvement in technology. Social media
which is mainly for conveying information has
essential among students including female
students. The growing trend in World Wide
Web (WWW) has increased knowledge
acquisition, sharing and transfer of information
has become easier than before. People from all
walks of life can now easily share information,
pictures and post both motivational thoughts on
the social media and advert jobs. With the
advancement in technology, all these can be
convenience time using smartphones, tablets,
or personal computers. With this advent of
social media globally, many female students
has up their games in terms of utilising the
media wisely for more acquisition of
knowledge meanwhile, many devote most of
their time on things that adds no value to their
academic such as constant chatting and
uploading of different pictures. Social media
simply refers to online tools created for the
purpose of interaction and content sharing
among people in the community (Nyangeni,
Du Rand & Van Rooyen, 2015). In its broader
context, social media includes; web based
technologies like YouTube (social video
sharing service), test messaging, blogs,
microblogs such as Twitter, social networking
services (e.g. Facebook, MySpace,
WhatsApp).
2. Problem statement and objectives
The usage of social media by youths has
become a way of life and personal activities are
made public (Edge, 2017). Many studies has
been carried out on students usage of social
media, its impact on their social behaviour,
education, academic performance as well as the
positive and negative impact, the factors that
influence the usage, ethical usage and many
more (Al-Sharq, Hashim & Kutbi, 2015; Wolf,
Wenskovitch & Anton, 2016; Mingle &
Adams, 2015). Khan (2012) conducted a
research which focused on social media
websites impact on students. While Ahn (2011)
study covered social media effect on academic
advancement and social wellbeing of
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
adolescents. Although limited information is
known on the impact of social media or new
festyle.
According to Rajeev (2015), SM impact
different area of our society in allowing
individuals to make their views and life public.
While Shabir, Hameed, Safdar and Gilani
(2014) suggests that youths social lifestyle are
impacted by
SM, the impacts can be negative sometimes.
3. Literature study
Social media is becoming part of our society,
changing social norms and culture (Al-Sharq,
Hashim & Kutbi, 2015). Information and
contents sharing is now a social desire (Wolf et
al., 2015). It has changed how many people
including students especially females students
interact, communicate and socialise in the
learning institutions. The new media as mostly
called provides robust connectivity,
communication and content sharing among
students and rest of the society. Students
can now participate on social discussions,
posting comments, pictures, images, share
ideas and many more. At this point, one can say
that SM influences youth daily life path and
particularly the students (Rajeev, 2015).
3.1. Female students and social media
Social media creates channels for connectivity,
communication, discussion and interaction
among people. The channels provides news
and information across genders. Shabir et al.
(2014), believed that SM influences the youth
and females included. World events of today
are impacted by social media as researches
prove that 50% of people on daily basis gets
instant news through this channel (Lowisz,
2014). Undoubtedly, the usage of social media
has affected social and human feelings. These
feelings can results to pain, hurt, mental and
emotional breakdown (Williams, 2012), crisis
in marriage and many more. But studies on the
effect of social media on marriage
discontinuity are few. Furthermore, Williams
(2012) argued that ineffective usage of
Facebook by couples can lead to relationships
collapse. The study also alluded that Facebook
usage affects relationship and continue to
change human interaction landscape. The
researcher further stated that SM influence
reli
more. Altogether, SM can be said to be widely
used by female students than male fellows for
various reasons and activities.
3.2. Social media impact on female students
Social media if utilised wisely can serve as a
good avenue for collaborative learning for
students (Chen, Kaewkitipong & Ractham,
2016). Gross (2004) stated that the use of social
media has spiked so high over the past decades
which has increased lots of expectations such
as; a) the prediction of social media use by
gender as boys appear to spend most of their
time browsing the internet while girls engage
in chatting, b) that the use of social media leads
to adolescent depression and isolation, c) that
adolescents uses social media for diverse
unknown things. Jha, Shah, Basnet, Paudel,
Sah, Sah and Adhikari (2016) maintained that
Facebook is among the type of social media
application widely used across all ages and
professions. SM applications can be assessed
from devices like computer and at anywhere
any time for the purpose of connecting friends
and well-wishers, interacting and sharing
personal ideas. Furthermore, the use of social
media like Facebook can leads to addictive
behaviours and dependence among students
which calls for concern. Also the use of social
media by students can cause problems of self-
esteem, depression and sleeplessness.
With the improvement in technology, research
has proven that social media plays a huge role
in the economy growth, uniting of friends and
allow making of new friends. While it
consequences includes; terrorist attack, cyber
bullying, poaching for sexual exploitation and
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
time wasting (Makinde, Odimegwu,
Abdulmlik, Babalola & Fawole, 2016). Also,
research reported that the use of social media
has led to series of female violence through
arranged meetings with social media male
friends. Junco, Helbergert and Loken (2011)
work is in congruent with more recent works
maintaining that social media encompasses
Internet website, service and practices that
enhance sharing of information among people.
One of Internet websites like Facebook which
is also the most used social media among
students with effect on their educational
performance.
3.3. Social media impact on social life style
The information age brought by Internet
change has formed social or new media world.
Social media has created alterative new world
of information, communication, and
interconnectivity order which cannot be
activated using face-to-face method among the
students (Al-Sharq et al., 2015; Chukwuere &
Onyebukwa, 2017). The new world order has
-
being. With SM, pressing issues in the societies
are discussed and given attention (Shabir et al.,
2014). However, few years ago, high education
institution students has engaged on excessive
usage of social media which has coined a
debate on whether the usage of social media
has impacted on their social lifestyle, wellbeing
and behaviour (Al-Sharq et al., 2015).
According to Al-Sharq et al. (2015), the level
of changes brought by social media has
motivated tutors, students, education
institutions and other stakeholders to improve
their interactions and teaching and learning
delivery technique. The adoption of SM into
education and in life at large is attributed to it
user-oriented features, cheap and easy to use
and others (Chukwuere & Onyebukwa, 2017).
Students uses social media across different
departments including nursing, information
systems and many others. Also for various
reasons like communicating with friends,
access to learning contents and sharing, group
discussion forum, chat room, wiki, fun and
many more (Al-Sharq et al., 2015). At this
point, the usage of social media among
university students can bring positive and
negative impacts. Al-Sharq et al. (2015) further
stated that SM create a new innovative mind-
set on students as well as improving inter-social
interaction and relationship between students
and educators. This new media can be
addictive, time consuming, distractive, social-
gathering isolation, monophobia and others.
Also, Mingle and Adams (2015) suggested that
the usage of SM negatively cause bad hand
writing and spelling, lateness to class and
assignment submission, addiction, few study
time and others. These negative effects can be
visualised on social lifestyle or cultural belief
system changes. Mingle and Adams (2015)
further asserted that SM changes educational
settings and learners behaviour. The platform
exposes students to post unethical contents and
views (Edge, 2017). The extent of changes
from SM is one of the most innovation of the
21st century. But SM can cause harm/s to the
user (Moate, Chukwuere & Mavhungu, 2017).
4. Research methodology
This study deployed both primary and
secondary data sources. The primary data
source was collected through questionnaire
while the secondary data was also built using
literature study. This study focused on the
social lifestyle. The study involved random
sampling method in the North-West
University, Mahikeng, South Africa. The
sample size of 67 female students was involved
in the study through questionnaire data
gathering technique. Then, a descriptive
research method was used in understanding and
exploring the effects of social media on social
lifestyle of female students.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
4.1. Research questions
What are the impact of social media on
social lifestyle of female students?
What are the attitude and perception of
female students on social media impact on
their social lifestyle?
To what extend do social media changes
social lifestyle of female students?
(Positive and negative).
5. Data analysis and discussions
What are the impact of social media on
social lifestyle of female students?
The use of social media has a great deal of
Chen et al. (2016), the usage of SM improves
collaborative learning among
students. Also, there is ongoing discussions on
whether the usage of SM affects social
behaviour, lifestyle and well-being of students
(Al-Sharq et al., 2015). To address the
discussion with clarity, this research question
aimed to determine SM impact on female
Table 1: Preferred social media application by female students
Responses
N Percent
Which of the following is your preferred
kind of social media application?
WhatsApp 59 85.5%
Facebook 32 46.3%
Instagram 22 31.8%
YouTube 19 37.5%
Twitter 8 11.5%
Skype 3 4.3%
In accordance to Table 1, the finding indicates
that 59 (85.5%) of the female students
preferred using WhatsApp, 32 (46.3%) uses
Facebook, while 22 (31.8%) prefers Instagram
and the list continue. However, according to
study by Jha et al. (2016), Facebook is the most
used SM application and it is used across
different professions to connect friends and
colleagues. But this study suggested WhatsApp
to be the preferred SM application.
Table 2, 3 and 5 results is presented in the
following manner: Strongly agree (SA) +
Agree (A) = Agree (A), Disagree (D) +
Strongly disagree (SD) = Disagree (D) and
Undecided stands alone. The study focused on
A and D. However, undecided student results
were not considered in the analysis because
their opinions cannot be matched to any
category (agree or disagree).
Construct
Does the use of social
media impacts on female
22 35 57 4 6 10 2
32% 50.7% 82.6% 5.7% 8.6% 14.4% 2.8%
3 33 36 22 3 25 8
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Does social media usage
promotes good societal
norms and values?
4.3% 47.8% 52.1% 31.8% 4.3% 35.2% 11.5%
Does the posting of
irrelevant, racist, abusive,
anti-cultural and religious
contents and links
promotes hatred among
racial groups in the
society?
29 29 58 5 2 74
42.0% 42.0% 84.0% 7.2% 2.8% 10.1% 5.7%
Does the use of social
media by female students
disvalue marriage
institution in the society?
4 21 25 24 5 29 15
5.7% 30.4% 36.2% 34.7% 7.2% 42.0% 21.7%
Literature and discussions on social media
impacts on students social lifestyle has been
lauded and researched by researchers. The
literature from this study highlighted the
impact of SM in different ways. This study
found that 57 (82.6%) of the females
participants suggested that social media have
impacted on their social lifestyle. The study
concord with researchers (Al-Sharq, Hashim &
Kutbi, 2015; Wolf, Wenskovitch & Anton,
2016; Mingle & Adams, 2015) they believed
that SM impact students both on social
behaviour, education and others. The findings
social lifestyle.
A questionnaire was used to determine whether
social media promotes good societal norms and
values in Table 2. The study found out that 36
(52.1%) of the female students strongly
believed that social media promotes good and
better societal norms and values. This norms
and values are what reshapes social well-beings
which promotes a healthy and better society at
large. Al-Sharq et al. (2015) research findings
supported this study indicating that SM has
brought social norms and cultural change. The
findings further show that 25 (35.2%) of the
participants disagrees on SM promoting good
societal norms and values.
According to the next question which states,
anti-cultural and religious contents and links
promotes hatred among racial groups in the
SM abusive or unethical/anti-cultural contents
posting promotes hatred in the society. The
finding found out that 58 (84.0%) of the female
students accepts that some SM posting
promotes hatred in our inter-race, society and
possibly the world at large. Table 2 also
provided more responses from the participants.
A healthy marriage can produce structured and
sound society. A question was asked to identify
if SM has influences on structural or
conventional views of students with regards to
marriage. A study by (Williams, 2012) proves
that Facebook as SM application affects
relationships including marriages. The findings
submits that 29 (42.0%) of the respondents
marriages perception and concept in our
society. This finding proves that no matter SM
impacts in the society, marriage is still
surviving.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
What are the attitudes and perceptions of
female students on social media impact on
their social lifestyle?
Attitude towards technology can be influenced
acceptance. This means that perception leads to
attitude (positive or negative) which could
result to acceptance or not. This question works
attitude and perceptions impacts of SM on
social lifestyle.
Table 3: The attitude and perceptions of female students on social media impact
on their social lifestyle
Construct
education learning?
19 37 56 8 3 11 2
27.5% 53.6% 81.1% 11.6% 3.3% 15.9% 2.9%
The use of social media is negatively
affecting personal interaction (social
lifestyle)?
15 30 45 20 0 20 4
21.7% 43.4% 65.2% 28.9% 0% 28.9% 5.7%
The use of social media promotes
immoral and unethical posting of
videos, pictures, images among
female students?
12 38 50 11 4 15 4
17.3% 55.1% 72.4% 15.9% 5.8% 21.7% 5.8%
The use of social media creates
unnecessary information and
confusion on female students mind?
9 26 35 27 4 31 3
13.0% 37.7% 50.7% 37.7% 5.8% 44.9% 4.3%
The use of social media impact on
female students positively?
8 30 38 15 2 17 16
11.5% 43.5% 55.0% 21.7& 2.9% 24.6% 23.2%
The findings reported that 56 (81.1%) of the
participants agreed strongly that SM promotes
good 21st century education teaching and
learning. The finding was backed by Chen et al.
(2016), they agreed that SM can contribute
very well on education in the way of promoting
collaborative learning among students,
however when applied correctly. The finding is
an indication that SM is a welcomed
development and initiative on the 21st century
education environment.
The second question meant to find whether SM
negatively affect personal interaction (social
lifestyle) of female students. According to
Shabir et al. (2014), they affirm that sometime,
youths are negatively affected by SM. In
accordance with this study in Table 3, 45
(65.2%) of the participants alluded strongly
that SM negatively affect their social lifestyle
and interactions in the society. The findings
proves that majority of the responses agreed
that SM have negative impact on social
lifestyle interactions. The impact might have
resulted from their perceptions which controls
attitudes (positive or negative).
The study further presented with 50 (72.4%) of
the students suggesting that SM promotes
immoral and unethical posting of videos,
pictures, images among female students. While
15 (21.7%) disbelieved that SM encourages
unethical posting of videos, pictures,
comments, and many more by female students.
The findings suggests that overall, unwisely
usage of SM promotes unethical posting of
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
private-personal contents online which most
times backfires on the content-creator or
account owner. It also shows that SM promotes
unethical posting of contents online.
The massive usage of SM has engineered
positive and negative information and creating
confusion as well. To ascertain whether SM
usage has created unnecessary image,
information (content) sharing and confusion
(positive and negative) on the mind of female
students, then, the fourth (4th) question was
asked. The finding proves that 35 (50.7%) of
the students agree strongly that SM has created
unnecessary and confusion on the minds of
female students. The findings showcased that
SM creates information or contents overloads
among female students which leads to
confusion on what to believe and what not to
believe.
The fifth (5th) on Table 3 seeks participants
understanding to ascertain if SM impact
positively on female students. There are a
number of researches suggesting the fact that
SM usage impacts on students including female
students. Then, 38 (55.0%) of the participants
strongly agree that SM have positive impacts
on female students. While 17 (24.6%) believed
that SM is not impacting on them positively.
The overall findings indicates that SM is
positively impacting and influencing on female
students.
Table 4: The social lifestyle constructs that affect social media most
Construct
Responses
N Percent
In which of the following
social lifestyle constructs do
social media affect the most?
Interest 22 31.8%
Culture 20 28.9%
Belief 15 21.7%
Opinion in life 32 46.3%
Behaviour 37 53.6%
Behavioural orientation (group and individual) 22 31.8%
Thought 23 33.3%
Social position 21 30.4%
Action 16 23.1%
Associations 1 1.4%
Norms 2 2.8%
There are different social lifestyle constructs
that SM can impact on. Table 4 presents those
constructs. According to Al-Sharq et al. (2015),
there is an on-going debate on whether SM
impacts social lifestyle, well-being and on the
users behaviour. While Mingle and Adams
(2015) states that SM changes student
behaviour. Table 4 presents findings which
indicates 37 (53.6%) of the participants
suggests that SM impacts their Behaviour,
Opinion in life 32 (46.3%), Behavioural
orientation (group and individual) 22 (31.8%),
Interest 22 (31.8%), Social position 21
(30.4%), and many more. The findings shows
that the presence of SM impacts female
students behaviour which can lead to change in
social behaviour, life opinion (opinion in life),
social position, interest, thought, belief,
culture, behavioural orientation (group and
individual), action, association and norms. All
these constructs are social lifestyle components
of an individual. Then the findings suggests
that SM has direct impact on them all.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
To what extend do social media change
social lifestyle of female students?
SM brings social lifestyle change. The level of
changes brought by SM has motivated
students, youths, tutors, and academic
institutions (Al-Sharq et al., 2015) and they like
to be adopting it into their daily life activities
and operations. According to Mingle and
Adams (2015), SM brings behavioural change.
This study question seeks to determine the level
or extent of change introduced by SM
.
Table 5: Positive and negative impacts of social media on female students
Construct
Has the use of social media
destroyed your social values
and lifestyle?
4 20 24 29 11 40 5
5.8% 29.0% 34.7% 42.0% 15.9% 57.9% 7.2%
Does the use of social media
promotes borrowing of foreign
culture and traditions?
9 35 44 18 1 19 6
13.0% 50.7% 63.7% 26.1% 1.4% 27.5% 8.7%
The use of social media helps in
destroying gender inequality?
5 23 28 27 4 31 10
7.2% 33.3% 40.5% 39.1% 5.8% 44.9% 14.5%
The use of social media
encourages female students to
involve in politics?
14 21 35 19 3 22 12
20.2% 30.4% 50.7% 27.5% 4.3% 31.8% 17.4%
The use of social media calling,
chatting, sharing contents,
linking links and many more is
time consuming?
26 29 55 10 1 11 3
37.6% 42.0% 79.7% 14.5% 1.4% 15.9% 4.3%
The use of social media has
changed how you feel in falling
in love with non-South
Africans?
7 23 30 25 5 30 9
10.1% 33.3% 43.4% 36.2% 7.2% 43.4% 13.0%
The use of social media is latest
means for you to find love?
5 19 24 24 14 38 7
7.2% 27.5% 34.7% 34.8% 20.3% 55.0% 10.1%
The use of social media has
destroyed your relationship
with family, friends, and
course-mates?
6 10 16 26 22 48 5
8.7% 14.5% 23.1% 37.7% 31.9% 69.5% 7.2%
The ineffective of use of social
media destroys inter-
relationship between countries?
7 25 32 23 4 27 10
10.1% 36.2% 46.3% 33.3% 5.8% 39.1% 14.5%
The use of social media is
becoming addictive to female
students?
42 16 58 2 1 30
60.9% 23.2% 84.0% 2.9% 1.4% 4.3% 0%
Does social media influence on
how you communicate or
address older person?
14 21 35 26 7 33 1
20.2% 30.4% 50.7% 37.7% 10.1% 47.8% 1.4%
The level of change attributed to SM can either
be positive or negative on female students. The
first question on Table 5 directed to understand
whether SM destroys social values and lifestyle
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
of female students. According to the study
finding, 40 (57.9%) of the participants disagree
that SM destroys their social values and
lifestyle. while 24 (34.7%) contradicts by
agreeing that SM destroys female students
values and lifestyle which is a negative impact.
At this point, the study proves that SM does not
lifestyle. Though there are levels of impact on
behaviour and all that.
Culture is element of social construct.
According to the finding in Table 5, the second
question seeks to understand if SM promotes
borrowing of foreign culture and traditions.
The finding indicates 44 (63.7%) of the
respondents concord that SM promotes females
students borrowing and adopting foreign
culture and traditions. This finding depicts that
SM usage by female students influences their
adoption of foreign lifestyle and traditions.
Our society exist on gender and social
inequality. The third question on Table 5 aimed
to address whether SM assist in breaking the
gender-divide and inequality in the present
society. The finding shows that 28 (40.5%)
accepts that SM helps in breaking and
destroying gender inequalities among students.
While in contrary, 31 (44.9%) stands that SM
does not destroy gender inequalities among
genders in our society. The findings highly
and ideas to disarm gender inequality and
imbalance in the society.
The finding further continue on the fourth row
which implies that 35 (50.7%) of the
participants believing that SM encourage them
through its contents and activities to join or
develop interest in politics. In contrary, 22
(31.8%) suggests that SM does not encourage
them to join or engage in political exercises and
activities. Simply, the finding shows that SM
contents, and views around political issues
brings good inspiration for female student to
join, engage in political discussions and task in
the present day society.
The finding further alluded that different
activities performed on SM like chatting, page
liking, call (audio and video) and many are time
consuming to female students. The indication
(79.7%) has proven that continuous
engagement on SM by female students for
different kinds of activities are time consuming
and distracting.
Another set of question seeks to understand
from participants if SM usage by female
students brings about changes on how they fall
in love with non-South Africa men. Change is
a constant thing on social media in our life-
time. According to Al-Sharq et al. (2015), SM
has changed the face of academic institutions
together with the users. The change also reflect
on how users feel, think, reason, act, accept,
transfer ideas and contents, and the list
continue. The study finding provide a clarity
that 30 (43.4%) felt that due to SM their choice
and chances of being in romantic or love
relationship with non-South Africa men is
boosted. While, 30 (43.4%) also disagree with
the finding by saying that SM has changed
nothing in the way they feel about non-South
Africa men. The finding highlights that SM is
busy changing and promoting inter-race, tribe,
and countries love relationships but many still
downplay on the view by alluding that SM has
not changed their love stand towards non-South
African men.
In another account, participants were made to
state if SM is the latest platform or medium
they used to find love. Love is an essential
ingredient that bind human beings together.
Based on this, a que
of social media the latest means for you to find
the latest medium or means for them to find
love and affection. Findings further show that
24 (34.7%) of the respondents agree that SM is
the latest means in finding love and affection.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
The overall finding indicates that female
students are not using SM just for love
searching, however, some felt that SM have
opened a new door in the relationship world as
a latest medium to find love.
Against all the odds and negativity following
SM among the youth. The research tries to
that 48 (69.5%) of the respondents disagree that
SM destroys family, friends and course-mate
relationship. All the indication proves that SM
usage by female students are not really
jeopardising their family, friends and classmate
relationships and values.
The next question focused on the ineffective
use of SM that destroys inter-countries
relationship and interactions. The finding on
Table 5 found that 32 (46.3%) of the
respondents accepts that ineffective usage or
application of SM destroys inter-countries
understanding, interactions and relationship
due to unethical contents and image postings.
The row also indicated that 27 (39.1%)
disagree by stating that SM does not destroy
inter-nations relationship and corporations.
The finding lauded to the fact that SM does
affect inter-
relationships.
Mingle and Adams (2015) research findings
suggests that SM usage promotes addiction
among students and youths. Their finding was
in-line with this study outcome which indicate
that 58 (84.0%) of the respondents suggests SM
is becoming addictive to female students which
can be seen as a negative side of the application
and platform. The overall finding proves that
SM usage among female students is becoming
an addiction to them.
Respect and regard to elderly ones can be seen
as a social norm. As a result of SM, many
things about social attitudes and standards have
change in recent time. Then this question
administered to understand if females students
regard for older persons have changed or
influenced by SM. The findings suggests that
35 (50.7%) of the participants agree that SM
has defined how they communicate, address
and regards elderly persons. While 33 (47.8%)
proposed otherwise that SM has not changed
any of their social regard, respect,
communication to older persons. This study
can state that female students regard for older
persons has declined a lot due to the influences
of SM.
6. Research findings
media applications and platform is echoing
widely in developing countries like South
Africa and across other places. The finding
demonstrated that WhatsApp is the most used
SM application utilised by female students.
The rest of this study findings are presented in
the following headings:
The impact of social media on female
Social media actually impact on female
views about life in general.
To a larger percentage, social media
promotes good and healthy societal norms
and values which prove a positive sign in
our society.
Overwhelmingly, female students strongly
suggests that posting of irrelevant, racist,
abusive, anti-cultural and religious
contents and links promotes hatred among
racial groups in the society.
Participants also argued that social media
usage by female students does not disvalue
their thought, regard and value on
marriage as an institution in the society.
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
The attitude and perceptions of female
students on social media impact on their
social lifestyle
Female students have a good attitude and
perception on SM as an aid to teaching and
learning (education) in our society today.
Their attitude and perception also proves
that SM is negatively affecting personal
interaction and social lifestyle in the
society.
The finding also proves that female
students believed that SM promotes
immoral and unethical posting of videos,
pictures and images among students. The
posting sometimes leads to a display of
personal/private contents and pictures
online for the public to see.
The study also found out that SM usage
promotes and creates unnecessary
information and confusion on the minds of
female students. They are sometimes
confused in determining between true and
fake information and contents on SM sites
and applications.
The attitude and perception of female
students proves that SM can impact
positively, however, this impact heavily
lays on effective usage.
Social media impacts on female students
social lifestyle constructs according to this
hierarchy (Table 6):
Table 6: Hierarchy impact of social lifestyle constructs
The extend social media changes social
lifestyle of female students
The impact of SM on female students can either
be positive or negative.
Positive impacts of social media on female
students social lifestyle
Social media does not destroy social
values and lifestyle.
It also encourages female students to get
involved in politics.
According to the findings, half of the
participants affirmed that the usage of
social media influences how they fall in
love with non-South African men.
The use of social media is not regarded as
the latest channel for female students to
find love, rather they prefer traditional
method.
The usage of social media by females has
not destroyed they relationship with
family, friends and course-mates.
Negative impacts of social media on female
students social lifestyle
Social media promotes borrowing of
foreign culture and traditions.
gender inequality, rather it promotes it.
The use of SM features (calling, chatting,
sharing contents, linking links and many
According to the findings, half of the
participants affirmed that the usage of
Hierarchy impact of social lifestyle construct
1Behaviour 7Culture
2Opinion in life 8Action
3Thought 9Belief
4Interest 10 Norms
5Behavioural orientation (group and individual) 11 Associations
6Social position
Gender & Behaviour 2017 ISSN: 1596-9231
Copyright 2017 Ife centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
social media influences how they fall in
love with non-South African men.
The ineffective use of social media
destroys inter-relationship between
countries.
The use of social media is an addiction for
female students.
Social media influence how female
students communicate and address older
persons in the society.
affects and impact on their personal
interaction (social lifestyle).
7. Recommendations
The impact of social media reengineers social,
historical, and personal lifestyle, views and
thinking pattern of female students. To manage
the effects on society, this study identifies a
number of recommendations in the regard:
Social media sites and applications should
be culture-oriented both in content and
features.
Female students should spend lesser time
on SM because it can be addictive and time
consuming.
Female students should limit believing
everything they read, and watch on SM
sites applications.
People should stop making abusive
comments, sending unethical videos on
SM sites and applications.
SM should not influence individual
regards, and respect for others.
8. Conclusions
Despite articles on social media and its
influences in the society with less focus on
female students, this unique study carefully
examine the impact of social media usage on
l lifestyle. The study was
able to discover diverse impacts of social
media usage both positive and negative which
are a result of advancement in modern
technology. The findings highlights include the
followings; social media refines how females
students think, interacts, communicates, fall in
love, their social lifestyle and many more.
Appropriate recommendations were made
which includes; making social media culture-
oriented, female students spending less time on
social media in order to avoid addiction, female
student should limit believing everything they
read and watch on social media sites and people
should stop making abusive comments and
sending unethical videos on social media.
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As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents' home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys' and girls' online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.