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Effect of Banana on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Individuals:A Cross Sectional Study from Pokhara, Nepal

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... Hypertension in mammals is an abnormally elevated blood flow rate in the vasculature characterised by increased exertion of force by blood on a unit area of blood vessel. Hypertension strains the heart, injure blood vessels, increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems and if untreated may cause death (Dayanand et al., 2015). Globally hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, with people in sub-Saharan Africa more affected and likely to suffer one or more hypertension related diseases (Ogah, 2012). ...
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Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which are major causes of mortality globally. This study evaluated the antihypertensive effects of Harungana madagascariensis on sodium fluorideinduced hypertension. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group A (control), received normal food and water with no treatment; Groups B to E were exposed to 300 ppm sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, Group C was treated with 10 mg/kg enalapril, while Groups D and E were treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of H. madagascariensis extract, respectively. The result showed that there was a significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the rats treated with 200 mg/kg of H. madagascariensis compared with rats exposed to NaF alone. Also significant increase was observed in the activities of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the cardiac and renal tissues of rats treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of H. madagascariensis extract similar to enalapril, compared with rats exposed to NaF alone. However, serum nitric oxide (NO) decreased significantly in rats exposed to NaF alone compared with rats that received 200 mg/kg H. madagascariensis as treatment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine increased significantly in rats exposed to NaF alone compared with rats that received 200 mg/kg H. madagascariensis as treatment. The histopathology of the cardiac tissue of the rat exposed to NaF alone showed mild hydropic and vacuolar degeneration of cardiomyocytes, while the renal tissue showed foci of markedly flattened tubular epithelial cells and congestion of interstitial blood vessels. The aforementioned lesions were ameliorated in rats treated with 200 mg/kg H. Madagascariensis. In conclusion, H. madagascariensis had potent antihypertensive effect in rats. The effect was probably mediated via the alleviation of oxidative stress in cardiac and renal tissues. Key words: Harungana madagascariensis, Antioxidant activity, Oxidative Stress, Hypotensive effect, Sodium fluoride.
... Mosa and Khalil (2015) suggest that the consumption of fresh and dried banana peels of M. acuminate may reduce the risk of acute liver failure in human patients. Besides, banana pulp intake was suggested as important to decrease hypertension due to the amount of sodium found in that biomass (Mohamed 2014;Dayanand et al. 2015). Finally, banana fruit and other parts of the plant appear to be sources of bioactive compounds with interesting pharmacological activities regarding the gastrointestinal tract. ...
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Banana and plantain are monocotyledonous plants belonging to the genus Musa , family Musaceae, and order Zingiberales. All around the world, the importance of banana plant increases with its different applications in pharmaceutical and food industries and in other biotechnologically related processes. This chapter provides an overview of bioactive compounds in banana and biological activities of banana's secondary metabolites. Raw and mature bananas have a characteristic matrix of bioactive compounds such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines, and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they have many positive effects on human health and well‐being. Antioxidants serve to keep down the levels of free radicals, permitting them to perform useful biological functions without damaging cells and preventing diseases. Banana peel extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols, with a wide range of medicinal properties, in particular the high free radical scavenging activity.
... Penelitian ini sejalan dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Dayanand, Sharma, Ahmed, Jyothi, & Rani (2015) yang menyatakan bahwa pisang kaya akan kalium yang dapat menurunkan tekanan darah pada manusia. Kalium merupakan pengatur tekanan darah yang penting. ...
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Background: Hypertension becomes a serious problem since one in three adults worldwide suffers from hypertension. Hypertension is the third highest cause of death in Indonesia at all ages with the proportion of deaths of 6.83%. Purpose: This study aims to determine the relationship of lifestyle with hypertension in Dusun Sendang Anyar and Tambakrame Desa Bumiayu Kecamatan Baureno Kabupaten Bojonegoro. Methods: This research was done for a month from July to August 2017. This research type is descriptive with cross sectional research design. The population study were 150 family heads who have at least one family member aged ≥40 years. Sampling method using cluster random sampling, obtained sample of 101 family heads. Independent variable in this study is hypertension, while the dependent variable is lifestyle that includes sports habits, smoking, consumption of salted fish, spinach, banana, and frying food. Data analysis using chi square statistic test with significance level of 95% and α = 5%. Results: This study showed that the variables related to hypertension were sports habit (p = 0.01), smoking (p = 0.01), consumption of salted fish (p = 0.01), consumption of spinach (p = 0.01), consumption of banana (p= 0.02). Variable unrelated to hypertension was consumption of frying food (p = 0.23). Conclusion: There were correlation between exercise habits, smoking, consumption of salted fish, consumption of spinach, and consumption of banana with hypertension.
... According to the WHO 2008 estimates, the prevalence of raised BP in Indians was 32.5% (33.2% in men and 31.7% in women) [18]. Although higher prevalence rate, fortunately, due to availability of a wide variety of pharmacological and herbal treatment choices for lowering blood pressure, has reduced the disease burden [6,19]. A number of diagnostic tests like lipid Profile, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) became extremely popular. ...
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This assistance activity for hypertension facilitator in Kabupaten Kubu Raya through DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) dissemination is Community Partnership Program (PKM) with it purpose are to increase knowledge and skill of food preparation and food making with DASH Diet approach. The background of this activity is the high number of hypertension patients in Kabupaten Kubu Raya. In DASH Diet approach, consumption of fruit and vegetable or high potassium intake is highly suggested. Partner in this Partnership activity are Community Health Centre (Puskesmas) of Sungai Raya Dalam and PKK (Family Welfare Community) of Kabupaten Kubu Raya. Participant are cadre anddelegation from Integrated Service Community (Posyandu) in Kubu Raya. Method used are socialization, training and assistance, and evaluation. DASH Diet is made enriched food with fruit and vegetables, which are cookies with pineapple and low gluten composite noodleenriched with carrot. Participants experienced a very useful assistance supported by comprehension score 62% for understand, and 32% very understand. Applied processed food has preferable score 74% for fruit cookies, and 63% score for low gluten noodle. Participant are expected to distribute the knowledge and applied it at least in family level. Healthy food application in the future will be developed, not only for it health benefit but also preferable taste.
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Objective: to analys the effect of Ambon banana administering (Musa Paradisiaca S) toward reducing of blood pressure of elderly in hypertension. Methods: This article is quatitative research with pre experiment design (pre and post test without control). The population of this research is all the elderly who live in Social House of Tresna Werda Al Kautsar Foundation, Palu. The number of sample was 6 elderly and taken by total sampling technique that done from 1 to 7 August 2017. Statistict test by wilcoxon signed test. Results: T h e result of this research shown that have decreasing of Blood Pressure after giving therapy of Ambon Banana about 3 pieces (303 gram) a day within one week.Decreasingofsystolepressureabout 25 mmHg and diastole pressure 13,34 mmHg with p value = 0,023 (p<0,05). Conclusion: Administering of Ambon banana have effect toward decreasing of blood pressurefor elderly in Hypertension at Social House of Tresna Werda Al Kautsar Foundation, Palu
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Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before. The study was conducted according to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guideline. A literature search was performed with a combination of medical subject headings terms, “hypertension” and “Epidemiology/EP”. The search was supplemented by cross-references. Thirty-three publications that met the inclusion criteria were included in the synthesis and meta-analyses. Hypertension is defined when an individual had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, was taking antihypertensive drugs, or had previously been diagnosed as hypertensive by health care professionals. Prehypertension is defined as SBP 120–139 mm Hg and DBP 80–89 mm Hg. The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension from the studies was found to be 27% and 29.6%, respectively. Hypertension varied between the studies, which ranged from 13.6% to 47.9% and was found to be higher in the studies conducted in urban areas than in rural areas. The prevalence of hypertension from the latest studies was: Bangladesh: 17.9%; Bhutan: 23.9%; India: 31.4%; Maldives: 31.5%; Nepal: 33.8%; Pakistan: 25%; and Sri Lanka: 20.9%. Eight out of 19 studies with information about prevalence of hypertension in both sexes showed that the prevalence was higher among women than men. Meta-analyses showed that sex (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.37), obesity (OR 2.33; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.78), and central obesity (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.95) were associated with hypertension. Our study found a variable prevalence of hypertension across SAARC countries, with a number of countries with blood pressure above the global average. We also noted that studies are not consistent in their data collection about hypertension and related modifiable risk factors.
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Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder and now regarded as major public health problem. It is a precursor to major diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure etc. There are very limited community based data on hypertension in Nepal, so, information on the prevalence of hypertension in the population is desirable. To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to explore the risk factors associated with hypertension. In a cross sectional study , a total of 527 subjects (males n=214 and females n=313) participated in our study (age =18 years). The participants underwent anthropometric measurement and blood pressure and answered a pretested questionnaire. Hypertension was defined as per JNC VII criteria. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 22.4% (males: 32.7% and female: 15.3%). Age specific prevalence of hypertension showed significant progressive increase in blood pressure ranging from 8% to 35%. Almost 40% of hypertensives did not know about their status. Bivariate analysis showed significant relationship of hypertension with gender, age, literacy, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption. Multivariate analysis excluded literacy but all other risk factors continued to show positive association with hypertension. Being elderly, less physical activity, obese/overweight, smoking and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors of hypertension. Therefore, intervention measures are warranted emphasizing on modifiable risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and obesity to prevent hypertension.
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AIM/OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to examine if there has been any change in the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the Nepalese population in the last two and half decades. A population-based cross-sectional study was done in Bhadrabas village area of Kathmandu valley to estimate the prevalence of HTN and the findings were compared to the study done in the same location 25 years ago. The study shows that there has been a three-fold increment in the prevalence of HTN in the same location. The major causes behind this increment appear to be increased salt intake and increased body mass index (BMI). This is the first repeat cross-sectional study on blood pressure (BP) in a Nepalese population. There is a very high prevalence as well as a sharp rise in HTN prevalence in this society largely because of changing lifestyle which is most likely because of socio-economic transition.
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The effect of banana on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human volunteers was tested. Systolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.025) and mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.005) were significantly decreased during cold stress after banana treatment compared to controls subjected to cold stress. There was no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity after banana treatment. Banana decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate.
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A new isochroman-4-one, 7,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisochroman-4-one was isolated from water soluble fraction of Musa sapientum L. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic evidences and its total synthesis has also been reported. The compound showed potent antihypertensive activity.
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Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids characterized as 16α-hydroxy-3-ketoisomultiflorene and 3β-hydroxy-16-ketoisomultiflorene have been isolated from the aerial parts of Antidesma menasu. Both of these compounds displayed diuretic activity in experimental animals.
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Individuals prone to exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs) are instructed to eat bananas because of their high potassium (K(+)) concentration and carbohydrate content and the perception that K(+) imbalances and fatigue contribute to the genesis of EAMCs. No data exist about the effect of bananas on plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)](p)) or plasma glucose concentration ([glucose](p)) after exercise in the heat. To determine whether ingesting 0, 1, or 2 servings of bananas after 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise in the heat alters [K(+)](p) or [glucose](p) and whether changes in [K(+)](p) result from hypotonic fluid effluxes or K(+) ion changes. Crossover study. Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 27 ± 4 years, height = 180.3 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 84.9 ± 26.1 kg, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.006) without EAMCs volunteered. Intervention(s): On 3 separate days, participants completed 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous cycling (temperature = 36.4°C ± 1.1°C, relative humidity = 19.4% ± 2.5%) and then ate 0 g (0 servings), 150 g (1 serving), or 300 g (2 servings) of bananas. Blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes postingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): The [K(+)](p), changes in plasma K(+) content, plasma volume changes, and [glucose](p). The [K(+)](p) differed between conditions at 60 minutes; 2 servings (4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.6 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) was greater than 1 serving (4.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.5 ± 0.2 mEq/L]) and 0 servings (4.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.4 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) (P < .05). The [K(+)](p) was greater at 60 minutes than at 3 and 5 minutes in the 1-serving condition and was greater at 30 and 60 minutes than at 3 and 5 minutes in the 2-servings condition (P < .05). Percentage change in K(+) content was greater only at 30 and 60 minutes postingestion than at baseline in the 2-servings condition (4.4% ± 3.7% and 5.8% ± 2.3% increase, respectively) (P < .05). The plasma volume changes among conditions were unremarkable. The [glucose](p) was greater in the 2-servings condition than in all other conditions at 15, 30, and 60 minutes (P < .05). The effect of banana ingestion on EAMCs is unknown; however, these data suggested bananas are unlikely to relieve EAMCs by increasing extracellular [K(+)] or [glucose](p). The increases in [K(+)](p) were marginal and within normal clinical values. The changes in [K(+)](p), plasma K(+) content, and [glucose](p) do not occur quickly enough to treat acute EAMCs, especially if they develop near the end of competition.
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Abstract Pulp of ripe banana, supplied daily (50 g/rat/day) together with standard food pellets, prevented an increase in blood pressure induced by the intramuscular injection of deoxycorticosterone enantate (DOC, 25 mg/rat) in rats given access to both water and 2% NaCl solution. The antihypertensive effect of banana was not related to reduced salt intake: on the contrary animals receiving banana during DOC-treatment consumed significantly larger amounts of salt relative to controls. The enhanced salt intake in banana-fed animals was not due to increased renal excretion of sodium. Ritan-serin, a 5-HTjc receptor antagonist, partially inhibited the effect of banana on DOC-induced salt intake, suggesting that the effect may be partially mediated by serotonergic mechanisms. This finding suggests that an increase in central serotonin levels triggered by the high triptophan and carbohydrate content of banana is responsible for the serotonin-mediated component of the natriorexic effect of banana. However, both the effect of banana on salt intake and that on blood pressure cannot be entirely accounted for by its influence on endogenous serotonin levels; additional mechanisms should be evaluated.
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Abstract Desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration to rats placed on normal rat feed elevated the mean arterial blood pressure. The consumption of plantain diet by rats previously treated with DOCA lowered the mean arterial blood pressure to control values. DOCA administration to rats previously placed on plantain diet produced no significant change in the mean arterial blood pressure when compared with control. Chronic consumption of plantain diet is capable of lowering the DOCA-induced elevated mean arterial pressure in rats. Plantain diet can also prevent the onset of DOCA-induced hypertension in rats.
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One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.
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Despite the promising findings from short-term intervention trials, the long-term effect of habitual fruit and vegetable intake on blood pressure (BP) remains uncertain. We therefore assessed the prospective association between baseline intake of fruits and vegetables and the risk of hypertension in a large cohort of middle-aged and older women. We conducted analyses among 28,082 US female health professionals aged ≥39 years, free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hypertension at baseline. Baseline intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Incident hypertension was identified from annual follow-up questionnaires. During 12.9 years of follow-up, 13,633 women developed incident hypertension. After basic adjustment including age, race, and total energy intake, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was 0.97 (0.89-1.05), 0.93 (0.85-1.01), 0.89 (0.82-0.97), and 0.86 (0.78-0.94) comparing women who consumed 2- <4, 4- <6, 6- <8, and ≥8 servings/day of total fruits and vegetables with those consuming <2 servings/day. These associations did not change after additionally adjusting for lifestyle factors but were attenuated after further adjustment for other dietary factors. When fruits and vegetables were analyzed separately, higher intake of all fruits but not all vegetables remained significantly associated with reduced risk of hypertension after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. Adding body mass index (BMI) to the models eliminated all associations. Higher intake of fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy dietary pattern, may only contribute a modest beneficial effect to hypertension prevention, possibly through improvement in body weight regulation.
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Potassium intake has been inconsistently associated with risk of stroke. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the relation between potassium intake and stroke risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed from January 1966 through March 2011 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% CIs of stroke for ≥3 categories of potassium intake or for potassium intake analyzed as a continuous variable. Study-specific results were pooled using a random-effects model. Ten independent prospective studies, with a total of 8695 stroke cases and 268 276 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. We observed a statistically significant inverse association between potassium intake and risk of stroke. For every 1000-mg/day increase in potassium intake, the risk of stroke decreased by 11% (pooled relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97). In the 5 studies that reported results for stroke subtypes, the pooled relative risks were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97) for ischemic stroke, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.09) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.27) for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Dietary potassium intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke, in particular ischemic stroke.
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It is well recognized that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduction of blood pressure (BP) measured by conventional BP measurement in Western countries; however, there is little evidence about these associations in other regions and there have been no reports on these associations using self-measured BP at home (home BP). The objective of this work was to investigate the associations of fruit and vegetable consumption and their related micronutrients with the reduction of hypertension risk by using home BP in Japanese residents. Data were obtained from 1,569 residents aged 35 and over who measured their home BP in a general population of Ohasama, Japan. Dietary intake was measured using a 141-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then subjects were divided into tertiles according to fruit, vegetable, potassium, vitamin C, and beta-carotene consumption. Hypertension was defined as home systolic/ diastolic BP > or = 135/85 mmHg and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of home hypertension was 39.4% for men and 29.3% for women. After adjustment for all potential confounding factors, the highest-tertile consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C were associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension (45%, 38%, 46%, and 43% lower risk of home hypertension, respectively). In conclusion, this cross-sectional study based on home BP measurement suggests that high-level consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C are associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension.
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The flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea L.S. gigantea Ait., S. canadensis var. canadensis and S. canadensis var. "scabra" flowers were administrated p.o. to rats and showed diuretic activity. Increase in overnight diuresis reached 57-88%. Decrease of overnight excretion of potassium and sodium also occurred after administration of form examined fractions. The flavonoids from S. virgaurea and S. canadensis var. canadensis caused increased excretion of calcium with urine.
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Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies suggest that potassium is an important regulator of blood pressure. Surveys conducted in widely divergent geographic locations indicate higher prevalence of hypertension in populations ingesting diets low in potassium. Amelioration of hypokalemia lowers blood pressure in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension in rats and in essential hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics. We observed that in normotensive subjects ingesting normal amounts of sodium, short-term potassium depletion increases the mean arterial pressure from 90.9 +/- 2.2 mm Hg to 95.0 +/- 2.2 mm Hg (P less than 0.01). Furthermore, acute sodium loading increases blood pressure in potassium-depleted subjects but it had no effect in subjects ingesting normal amounts of potassium. Preliminary studies indicate that short-term potassium depletion also elevates blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Potassium supplementation lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients ingesting normal amounts of sodium. Blacks appear to be more sensitive to the hypotensive effects of potassium. The mechanism of potassium-induced changes in blood pressure is not well understood. Potassium depletion consistently induces sodium retention. The hypertensive effects of potassium depletion and hypotensive effects of potassium supplementation are not observed when sodium intake is kept low. Direct vasoconstrictive effects of hypokalemia may contribute to the pressor effect of potassium depletion. The role of altered vascular sensitivity to vasoactive hormones and alterations in divalent cation metabolism in mediating the potassium-induced changes in blood pressure require further study.
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Responses of the aorta and portal veins isolated from rats to aqueous extract of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) were studied. The extract produced concentration-dependent relaxation in both noradrenaline- and KCl-contracted aortic rings. The maximum relaxation in noradrenaline-contracted rings was 52.49 +/- 6.63% and in KCl-contracted rings was 77.51 +/- 2.52% of the initial tensions developed in response to the contractile agents. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.01) inhibition of the maximum aortic contractile response to noradrenaline and completely abolished the spontaneous contractions of the portal veins. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), unlike the extract, produced contraction rather than relaxation of the aortic rings. The results show a non-specific relaxing and inhibiting effect of plantain extract on aortic and portal smooth muscles, an effect that is not attributable to its abundant serotonin content.
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Reliable information about the prevalence of hypertension in different world regions is essential to the development of national and international health policies for prevention and control of this condition. We aimed to pool data from different regions of the world to estimate the overall prevalence and absolute burden of hypertension in 2000, and to estimate the global burden in 2025. We searched the published literature from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2002, using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies of retrieved articles. We included studies that reported sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of hypertension in representative population samples. All data were obtained independently by two investigators with a standardised protocol and data-collection form. Overall, 26.4% (95% CI 26.0-26.8%) of the adult population in 2000 had hypertension (26.6% of men [26.0-27.2%] and 26.1% of women [25.5-26.6%]), and 29.2% (28.8-29.7%) were projected to have this condition by 2025 (29.0% of men [28.6-29.4%] and 29.5% of women [29.1-29.9%]). The estimated total number of adults with hypertension in 2000 was 972 million (957-987 million); 333 million (329-336 million) in economically developed countries and 639 million (625-654 million) in economically developing countries. The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1.56 billion (1.54-1.58 billion). Hypertension is an important public-health challenge worldwide. Prevention, detection, treatment, and control of this condition should receive high priority.
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There is increasing evidence that lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is important in atherogenesis. The present study was designed to study the effects of a single banana meal on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, plasma oxidative stress and susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in 20 healthy volunteers. Lipid and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels were measured before the meal (baseline, fasting) and 2 h after it (post-dose). The susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation of baseline and post-dose LDL was measured as conjugated diene (CD) formation. Results showed that the LPO contents in plasma, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) decreased significantly in the 2 h post-dose phase. Prolongation of lag phase and decrease of CD formation during LDL oxidation indicated that post-dose LDL was less susceptible to oxidative modification than the homologous fasting LDL. In conclusion, the consumption of banana reduces the plasma oxidative stress and enhances the resistance to oxidative modification of LDL.
Geneva: World Health Organization
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