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Generalized high-fidelity closed-form formulae are developed to predict the shear modulus of hexagonal graphene-like monolayer nanostructures and nano-heterostructures based on a physically insightful analytical approach. Hexagonal nano-structural forms (top view) are common for nanomaterials with monoplanar (such as graphene, hBN) and multiplanar (such as stanene, MoS2) configurations. However, a single-layer nanomaterial may not possess a particular property adequately, or multiple desired properties simultaneously. Recently a new trend has emerged to develop nano-heterostructures by assembling multiple monolayers of different nanostructures to achieve various tunable desired properties simultaneously. Shear modulus assumes an important role in characterizing the applicability of different two-dimensional nanomaterials and heterostructures in various nanoelectromechanical systems such as determining the resonance frequency of the vibration modes involving torsion, wrinkling and rippling behavior of two-dimensional materials. We have developed mechanics-based closed-form formulae for the shear modulus of monolayer nanostructures and multi-layer nano-heterostructures. New results of shear modulus are presented for different classes of nanostructures (graphene, hBN, stanene and MoS2) and nano-heterostructures (graphene-hBN, graphene-MoS2, graphene-stanene and stanene-MoS2), which are categorized on the basis of the fundamental structural configurations. The numerical values of shear modulus are compared with the results from scientific literature (as available) and separate molecular dynamics simulations, wherein a good agreement is noticed. The proposed analytical expressions will enable the scientific community to efficiently evaluate shear modulus of wide range of nanostructures and nanoheterostructures.
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Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have been proved to be able to supply low friction. Here we assembled van der Waals heterostructures with graphene and molybdenum disulphide monolayers. The Raman spectrum together with a modified linear chain model indicate a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in interlayer lateral force constant, as compared with their homogeneous bilayers, indicating a possible routine to achieve superlubricity. The decrease of interlayer lateral force constant is consistent with the ultrasmooth potential energy corrugation during sliding, which is derived from density functional theory calculations. The potential energy corrugation is found to be determined by the sliding-induced interfacial charge density fluctuation, suggesting a new perspective to understand the physical origin of atomic scale friction of two-dimensional materials.
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Recently, flexible electrodes with biaxial/omnidirectional stretchability have attracted significant attention. However, most existing pliable electrode materials can be only stretched in one direction. In this work, an unexpected isotropic van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is proposed, based on the assembly of two-dimensional crystals of anisotropic black phosphorene (BP) and transition metal carbide (TiC2). Using vdW-corrected density functional theory calculations, the BP/TiC2 vdW heterostructure was predicted to have excellent structural and mechanical stability, superior electrical conductivity, omnidirectional flexibility, and a high Li storage capacity. We have unraveled the physical origin of the excellent stability, as well as the Li adsorption preferences of the lithiated heterostructure, based on a three-step analysis of the stability of the Li-adsorption processes. In addition, the BP/TiC2 vdW heterostructure can also be applied as the anode material for flexible Na-ion batteries because of its high Na storage capacity and strong Na binding. However, compared with Na adsorption, the capacity is higher, and the adsorption energy is more negative for Li adsorption. Our findings provide valuable insights into the exploration of a rich variety of vdW heterostructures for next-generation flexible energy storage devices. Open image in new window