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SUGARCANE PLANTING TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

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Planting is the most important and labour intensive operation in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane germination as well as yield is affected by planting material, layout, plant-population, method of planting and placement of bud etc. Planting material for vegetative propagation such as whole cane, setts having of single bud to six buds, settling prepared from tissue culture or single buds in nursery are being used. Sett planting method is mostly followed commercially through flat planting, ridges and furrows or ring pit method. The researchers found that the setts having two buds are giving germination about 65 to 70 % with better yield. Large setts have better survival under bad weather but single budded setts also gives 70% germination if protected with chemical treatment. The higher cane yield could be achieved either through higher seed rate through distributors or maintaining population to optimum level by planting about 4-8 tons-ha-1 material at 0.90 to 1.50 m inter row spacing. The most economical width and seed rate are determined by the variety, the planting period, as well as the soil fertility and climatic conditions of the area. The bud position while placement in the soil has effect on germination in single budded setts. 0° and 90° with respect to horizontal shown best results for germination and stalk height at 125 days after sowing and 180° and 270° position of bud have shown delayed germination. Planting of sugarcane involves unit operations like harvesting and de-trashing seed cane, preparation of seed, and placement of the planting material into well prepared seedbed. These operations have been modernized through semi or fully mechanized planting systems. Still approximately half of the sugar cane in the United States, Brazil, Australia and more than 80 percent in India and other parts of the world is planted by hand. The paper reviews the efforts of researchers for mechanization of sugarcane planting technique.
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Special Issue: National Seminar “Recent Trends in Plant Sciences and Agricultural Research (PSAR- Jan., 2018)
98
Contemporary Research in India (ISSN 2231
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2137):
UGC Approved Journal No. 62441
-
NAAS Score 2017: 3.23
SUGARCANE PLANTING TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW
S. M. Nalawade
1
, A. K. Mehta
2
and A. K. Sharma
3
,
1. Associate Professor, FMPE, MPKV, Rahuri and 2, 3. Professor, FMPE, MPUAT, Udaipur
Abstract: Planting is the most important and labour intensive operation in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane germination as well as
yield is affected by planting material, layout, plant-population, method of planting and placement of bud etc. Planting material for
vegetative propagation such as whole cane, setts having of single bud to six buds, settling prepared from tissue culture or single buds in
nursery are being used. Sett planting method is mostly followed commercially through flat planting, ridges and furrows or ring pit
method. The researchers found that the setts having two buds are giving germination about 65 to 70 % with better yield. Large setts
have better survival under bad weather but single budded setts also gives 70% germination if protected with chemical treatment. The
higher cane yield could be achieved either through higher seed rate through distributors or maintaining population to optimum level by
planting about 4-8 tons-ha
-1
material at 0.90 to 1.50 m inter row spacing. The most economical width and seed rate are determined by
the variety, the planting period, as well as the soil fertility and climatic conditions of the area. The bud position while placement in the
soil has effect on germination in single budded setts. 0
°
and 90
°
with respect to horizontal shown best results for germination and stalk
height at 125 days after sowing and 180
°
and 270
°
position of bud have shown delayed germination. Planting of sugarcane involves
unit operations like harvesting and de-trashing seed cane, preparation of seed, and placement of the planting material into well prepared
seedbed. These operations have been modernized through semi or fully mechanized planting systems. Still approximately half of the
sugar cane in the United States, Brazil, Australia and more than 80 percent in India and other parts of the world is planted by hand.
The paper reviews the efforts of researchers for mechanization of sugarcane planting technique.
Key words: Sugarcane, Planter, Planting technique, Mechanization of sugarcane, Factors affecting germination.
Introduction:
The sugarcane is labour intensive crop,
requires human workers for various unit operations
like planting, weeding, earthing up, fertilizer
application, and harvesting. Labour shortage during
planting, weeding and harvesting periods of
sugarcane growing hamper agricultural operations
causing crop losses. The labour intensive methods,
leads to considerable losses in crop production
(Dharmawardene, 2006). Analysis of the cost
components of sugarcane cultivation shows that
harvesting and loading of cane comprise 35% of the
costs followed by land preparation (21%), planting
(16%), weeding (10%), fertilizer application (10%)
and irrigation (8%). Timely planting with proper
application of nutrients and plant protection
improves crop stand as well as sugar yield. The the
planting methods largely affect the economics of
sugarcane production.
Planting technology includes harvesting and
detrashing seed cane, preparation of seed, and
placement of the planting material into well prepared
seedbed. The effectiveness of planting is affected by
quality and type of planting material, layout, spacing,
seed rate, nutrients and method of placement.
Mechanization of various operations reduces labour
dependency and help in performing farm operations
at proper time. Mechanization of the sugarcane
planting has been effected through development of
machines for different unit operations separately or
in combination. This paper reviews the efforts made
by research workers for modernization of sugarcane
planting technology.
Parent material used for sugarcane propagation:
Sugarcane propagation can be achieved by
sexual as well as asexual method. Sugarcane produces
seeds, which can be used for propagation; but mostly
used for development of hybrids. Modern
commercial sugarcane cultivation follows vegetative
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or asexual propagation through stem cuttings (‘billet’
or ‘sett’). The most common practice today is to use
setts of sugarcane stalk which may have 2 to 3 buds,
but longer setts with 4 to 6 buds or smaller single
budded setts are also being used for planting
sugarcane. Whole cane or longer sett planting is
preferred in cold temperature zones like Louisiana in
America, even the whole cane show considerable
differences in sprouting of upper and lower buds.
This is done to overcome stem rot and ovoid cold
stress by minimizing number of open wounds (Hoy,
2001 and Salassi et al, 2004).
Parameters affecting seed germination and yield:
Seed type and quality:
Seed cane health affects germination, speed
of emergence and vigour of sprouted shoots. Buds
on upper portion of cane stalk sprout first followed
by lower buds. Suppressing sprouts of lower buds is
due to hormonal effect (Dillewijn, 1952). As such
initial vigour of sprouts is affected by late sprouting
of lower buds. Damaged during sett preparation or
mechanical planting may increase susceptibility to
plant diseases, like particularly stalk rots, due to the
increased entry points for pathogens (Croft, 1998;
Viator et al. , 2005) and higher environmental stress
(Yin and Hoy, 1997 and 1998).
Two and three budded setts are ideal for
optimum germination compared to larger seed pieces
(Ali, 1990; Yadav, 1991). One budded set might give
good germination under ideal condition, but are
more vulnerable to environmental stresses. Primary
shoots developed from two or three budded setts are
more vigorous than from one budded set. There is
experimental evidence to show that three budded
setts gave 16% higher yield than single bud setts
(Kakde, 1985).
The settlings developed through tissue
culture or from bud chip or small sett, with bud and
complete root-band, could be viable and economical
option for sugarcane planting. Lal et al. (2014)
concluded that tissue culture techniques could be
beneficially utilized for rapid multiplication of
sugarcane after resolving the problems of thin canes
in tissue culture raised crops, high cost of production
and somaclonal variation.
Mawla et al. (2014) studied settling sizes,
germination, missing hills and died settlings. They
reported that settling sizes varied with germination
period, which was about 3 weeks. These were
transplanted up to 8 weeks; died hills largely affected
by the seedling age. The mechanical transplanting of
sugarcane settling was found beneficial in at 60 cm x
5 feet spacing as there was improvement in cane
yield to the tune of 13.13 t/ha and saved more than
1000 LE (Egyptian pound). The technique saves
2000 m
3
of irrigation water and up to two months of
production season.
Seed rate:
Planting rate can have effects on plant height,
population, TRS, sugar yield. The positive correlation
between yield and stalk population has been reported
by numerous authors, (Hebert et al., 1965; Boyce,
1968; Kanwar and Sharma,1974; Bull, 1975). Hoy et
al. (2006) reported a positive relation between
planting ratio and cane and sugar yields. Robotham
and Croft (2004) conducted dry planting tests a
desired establishment rate of 3-4 evenly spaced
primary shoots per metre length (considering
establishment rate 50%, planting rates of 4-6 eyes).
Cane planted at 4 eyes per metre yielded 248 t/ha.
The higher costs with sett planting were assessed
higher planting rates of 3:1 (i.e. three hectares were
planted with one hectare of seed-cane) required to
achieve comparable yield versus whole-cane, hand
planting (7.5:1) or whole-cane, machine planting
(5.5:1).
Layout and spacing:
The various layouts like flat bed planting,
furrows at various spacing, paired row planting and
ring pit method of planting are being used in
different parts of the world. The most economical
width of row was determined by soil fertility, with
fertile soils requiring wide spacing to enable freedom
of growth for the luxuriant crop (Deerr, 1921). Row
spacing may range from 3 to 7 feet (91-213 cm). The
choice of spacing depends on local conditions and
varieties. This was also supported by many
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experiments at different locations at different period.
Bhullar (2002) concluded that in India under late
sown conditions, planting in furrows in paired rows
(60 x 30 cm using 75,000 three budded setts-ha
-1
),
was the most beneficial method of planting. Planting
of sugarcane at row pacing of 75 and 90 cm being at
par produced significantly higher cane and sugar
yield, net returns and B:C ratio as compared to
planting at 105 and 120 cm row spacing (Mehar
Chand, 2013).
Effect of bud position on germination:
The buds of one budded placed upward gave
72.2% germination than the buds placed sideways
(69.43%), and downward (23.61 %), (Fasihi and
Malik, 1992). The buds positioned downward always
give poor germination and much delayed emergence
of shoots. Martinho et al (2010) also reported that 0°
and 90° position shows best results for germination
and stalk height at 125 days after sowing. They
observed that 180° and 270° position of bud shows
delayed germination and less stalk height, but
reported that the position of bud does not affect the
diameter of stalk as well as final yield significantly.
Sugarcane planting methods and mechanization:
Sugarcane planting methods are primarily
based on type of planting material used and secondly
on way of placement of planting material. Primary
classification is sett planters, whole cane planters and
settling transplanters.
Sugarcane Sett planting:
Planting process involves following stages:
harvesting, sett cutting, seed treatment, transport to
the planting area, and planting which includes the
furrow opening, fertilizer application, sett
distribution in the furrow and closing of furrow. This
planting process is mechanized, partially or
completely.
Manual method sugarcane planting:
It is followed in the most of cultivation, but
it is not completely manual. In the semi-mechanized
system harvesting and distribution of seed in the
furrow is done manually, maintaining good
uniformity of seed spacing. The field layout is usually
prepared by tractor drawn or animal drawn
implements. Harvesting of plant cane is manually by
machetes, followed by de-trashing. Transportation to
the planting field where is cut into setts. Then setts
are treated with insecticide and fungicide. The
planting field is ploughed and layout of ridges and
furrows prepared by animal drawn or tractor drawn
ridger. The setts are laid on the ridges manually and
then placed at furrow bottom in dry or wet
condition. Needs to be covered with soil if planted
dry, pressed by feet if planted in wet soil. The
planting method requires 30 to 35 labour-days per
hectare for detrashing, sett cutting and
transportation. Another 5 labours for fertilizer
application are required (Deshmukh at al., 2009)
similar labour requirement was reported by (Yadav et
al, 2004; Khedkar and Kamble, 2008).
Ring or Pit Planting:
The ring or pit system of planting developed
by the Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research,
Lucknow (Singh et al., 1984) has huge potential to
increase yields. In the system, circular pits of 90 cm
diameter are dug out to a depth of 45 cm with a gap
of 60 cm between the two adjacent pits. At this
spacing, the pits are spaced at 150 cm apart. The
layout was modified with a gap of 60 cm on one side
and 90 cm on another side in which the irrigation
channel was formed (Sundara, 1994 and 1998). The
pits are filled with loose soil and FYM or pressmud
to a depth of 15 cm, twenty-two-bud setts are
planted in each pit, and covered with soil to a
thickness of 5 cm. As the crop grows, the dugout soil
is reapplied to the pits at the time of manuring. This
system has given 100% more yield as compared to
the normal planting in the subtropics (Yadav and
Singh, 1987).
Planting with manually fed sugarcane cutter
planters:
Bullock drawn semi-automatic sugarcane
planter was designed for flat planting of sugarcane in
light to medium type of soils. The machine opens a
furrow, setts are dropped manually, fertilizer and
insecticide are applied and the planted setts are
covered with a blanket of soil followed by
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compacting of soil cover. All the operations involved
in cane planting are completed in a single process
basis. Tractor drawn sugarcane cutter planters are
semi-automatic, which required feeding workers to
ride on the machine. Numbers of machines were
developed throughout the world as well as in India.
Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR),
Lucknow; Vasantdada Sugar Institute (VSI), Pune;
Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana;
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbtor are
major contributors for these developments. These
machines carries whole stalk of sugarcane on the
machine, which are feed to the cutters manually.
Fig 1. Sugarcane planter developed by IISR, Lucknow
Yadav et al. (2004) reported that sugarcane
cutter planters the field capacity of the planter varied
from 0.08 - 0.22 hah
-1
and field efficiency 30.61 -
71.33 %. Depth of planting varied form 12 - 25 cm.
Sett length was 30 - 50 cm and bud damage was less
than 5%. Similar machines were developed by
Mandal and Maji (2008) and Deshmukh et al. (2009).
. They reported that machine could be used for
planting in furrow spacing of 0.90 m, 1.20 m, 1.50 m
and paired row spacing of 0.90-1.80 m with field
capacity of 0.2 hah
-1
.
The operating cost was Rs.
4010/- per hectare as against that of Rs. 7721/- per
hectare for conventional sugarcane planting in India
(Deshmukh, 2009).
Completely mechanized sugarcane planting system:
In this system the seed cane harvested
mechanically using sett harvester and transported to
the field and loaded by tractor operated loaders into
the planter and the remaining operations are
performed by the planter. The mechanical system
reduces labour and operational costs significantly,
but more seed cane is placed in the furrow, to
overcome the lower quality of the seed cane.
Planting by sugarcane distributors:
These machines have large storage space and
metering mechanism which distribute whole canes or
setts. Large number of research workers have
worked on sugarcane planting technology and few
patents are also been awarded all over the world in
the last century. In countries like America, Brazil and
Australia with large land holdings prefer to distribute
the setts rather than maintaining plant to plant
spacing. In conventional system and semi-
mechanized system, about 4–8 tons seed cane per ha
is used, depending on the variety, the planting
period, as well as the soil and climatic conditions of
the area. But mechanical planting with distributors
requires almost 50% more seed cane, from 8 to 12 t
ha
-1
(Janini, 2008).
Whole cane planter
Whole cane planter is a towed vehicle having
a chassis and a bed holding a large number of
sugarcane stalks in a semi-vertical position. An
operator was required for controlling the distribution
process through the rotating drum as in machines by
Davis in U.S. Pat. No. 4653411, Longman U.S. Pat.
No. 4106669; All U.S. Pat. No. 3946899, and Dugas
U.S. Pat. No. 4084465. In some machines as planter
by Longman in U.S. Pat. No. 3468441; distribution
of full length cane stalks has been done through
mechanical means. Hearne, US Pat. No. 5469797,
has developed whole stalk planter with a fully
automatic hydraulically driven feed and distribution
system to place cane stalks on the field in three or
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more successive rows including the row directly
beneath the planter.
Improvement in sugarcane sett planters
The research made the sugarcane planting
faster and automatic. Researchers tried to achieve
singulation of setts, precision in planting and reduce
bud damage. The recent research is more
concentrated towards precise judgement of location
of bud before cutting setts. Quick US Pat. No.
4450778 (1984), invented a novel-hopper in
combination with a chain and slat conveyor which
removes excess setts from the slats with minimal
damage to the eyes on the cane setts. He designed
sloping hopper with slat conveyor which collect only
one sett at time and deliver it to furrow. Braunbeck et
al. (2014) developed a sugarcane sett metering
module used in precision sugarcane planting, which
awarded World Pat. No.WO2014121362A1, which
comprised of a separator, a sorter and a metering
device. Qiang (2014) invented a seeding device of an
automatic sugarcane planting machine awarded
Chinese patent No. CN 103621230. The device
comprises a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)
software programming control box, an infrared
detector and a seeding box. The seeding device of
the automatic sugarcane planting machine has the
advantages of improving the seeding speed, the
seeding quality and the yield of the sugarcane.
Fig. 2 External drum meter Fig. 3 Internal drum meter
Settling transplanting:
Transplanting machines uses settlings
developed in nursery. The machines developed for
vegetable transplanting were adopted for sugarcane
settlings with some modifications. Researchers tried
to modify available semi automatic machinery to
make them suitable for sugarcane Abd El Mawla et al.
(2011) developed a single row machine for
mechanical transplanting of sugarcane, powered by a
ground wheel. Seedlings from tray were fed by
labour into funnels which place it in bottom of the
furrow. Naik et al. (2013) developed a 35 hp tractor
mounted mechanical transplanter for settlings raised
from sugarcane bud chips. The two row machine had
metering mechanism, operator’s seat, furrow
openers, soil openers and furrow closers mounted on
the main frame. The field capacity of 0.15 ha-h
-1
was
achieved at the speed of 1.4 km-h
-1
with the missing
hills, 2.33%.
Fig. 4 Chain sugarcane transplanter Fig. 5 cup type sugarcane transplanter
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Summary:
Sugarcane germination as well as yield is
affected by planting material, layout, plant-
population, method of planting and placement of
bud etc. Whole cane, setts having of single bud to six
buds, settling prepared from tissue culture or single
eye buds in nursery are used as planting material for
sugarcane propagation. Sett planting method is
mostly followed commercially through flat planting,
ridges and furrows or ring pit method. The
researchers found that the sett having two eye buds
are giving germination about 65 to 70 % with better
yield. Large setts have better survival under bad
weather but single budded setts also gives 70%
germination if protected with chemical treatment.
The cane yield could be achieved either through
higher seed rate through distributors or maintaining
population to optimum level by planting about 4-8
tons-ha
-1
material at 0.90 to 1.50 m inter row spacing.
The bud position in the soil with respect to
horizontal has not effect in multiple bud setts
because either of the bud is always facing up or on
the sides, but 0° and 90° position shows best results
for germination and stalk height at 125 days after
sowing in single budded setts and 180° and 270°
position of bud shows delayed germination. Due to
the increasing cost of labour, planting material and
other inputs; there is need of improvement in overall
planting efficiency. Mechanized planting efficiency
could be improved by solving existing problems like
material handling system, furrow opening, uniform
distribution and covering of sett, as well as proper
seed treatment (Ide, 2007). The mechanized
solutions are available for various methods of
sugarcane planting could be used for high quality
with less labour and timely operation.
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... Nilai DT, LP dan IKP dihitung dengan rumus sebagai (Brandes and Van Overbeek, 1948;Humbert, 1963;Bakker, 2012;Khuluq, 2013;Nalawade et al., 2018) dan kemunculan tajuk tanaman berlangsung lebih lama dibandingkan benih dengan mata tunas posisi atas (Nalawade et al., 2018). Hal tersebut terjadi karena ...
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Germination phase is a crucial stage in the cultivation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). This phase is influenced by numerous factors, such as the position of bud when the sugarcane seed is planted. This study aims to examine the responses of germination and early growth of sugarcane bud chip and budset seeds variety PS 862 that are grown in various bud positions, namely upward, downward and side positions. Results explicated that there were significant differences in the seed germination that are grown with various bud positions. Seeds that are planted with a downward bud position germinate slower than the two other bud positions. However, the percentage of germination of all treatments were classified as vigorous since the numbers are more than 80%. There was a strong influence of the bud position on the number of tillers and root/shoot ratio. Seeds that are planted with upward and side bud position have more tillers than seeds grown with the two other positions. The root/shoot ratio was higher in seeds grown with upward positions than the other positions. Meanwhile, there were insignificant effects of bud positions and the form of seed on plant and stem height, the number of leaves, as well as root, shoot and total dry weight of the crop.
... New techniques of sugarcane plantation are getting popular since last decade these include pit plantation of sugarcane, trench plantation, double strip sowing of sugarcane (Chattha et al., 2007), ring pit method and chip bud technology (Jain et al., 2006). All these planting methods are aimed to improve the growth and biomass production (Bashir and Saeed, 2000) with higher sugar recovery and have the advantage of being mechanically operated which reduces the labor cost, increase precision and ultimately increasing the stripped cane yield and sugar recovery with greater net field benefits (Nalewade et al., 2018). There are many studies available regarding the effect of planting method and K application on growth, yield and sugar recovery of sugarcane. ...
Article
Potassium-nutrition is a subject of great consideration, as research has revealed its importance in increasing sugar recovery in sugarcane. While it cannot achieve its genetic expression of yield without proper planting technology. Therefore, the present study was conducted to optimize the planting method and K level to improve the yield and sugar recovery of sugarcane at University of Agriculture Faisalabad in 2014-2016. Treatments comprised of four planting methods viz. i) 90 cm spaced pits with a diameter of 90 cm, ii) 90 cm spaced pits with a diameter of 90 cm in diagonal fashion, iii) 90 cm spaced double row strips and iv) 120 cm spaced trench planting in combination with four K nutrition levels i.e., 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha K2O. Results revealed that K application improved the growth, cane yield and sugar recovery irrespective of planting method. However, maximum number of tillers were recorded in sugarcane sown in diagonal pit planting at 90 cm with 100 kg/ha K2O. Likewise, Leaf area index and net assimilation rate were substantially improved with K application in all planting methods. More cane weight (15%) was obtained at sugarcane sown in 120 cm spaced trenches with 200 kg/ha K2O during both the years. Stripped cane yield was maximum in diagonal pit planting at 90 cm with 100 kg/ha K2O (113.7 t/ha) during the plant crop year and diagonal pit plantation + 200 kg/ha K2O (98.22 t/ha) during the ratoon crop year. Likewise, maximum potassium use efficiency (KUE) i.e. 99.5 and 88.2 kg /kg were recorded in planting of sugarcane in diagonal pits at 90 cm with 100 kg/ha K2O during plant crop year and 120 cm trenches +100 kg/ha K2O during the ratoon crop year, respectively. Sugar recovery was also enhanced by all the K nutrition levels over control. The cultivation of sugarcane in 90 cm spaced pits with the supplementation of potash at 100 kg/ha gave the maximum sugar yield of 15.8 t/ha in plant crop year and 13.2 t/ha in the ratoon crop year. The combined economic analysis over two years (plant + ratoon year) revealed that sugarcane planting was more beneficial at 120 cm spaced trenches, with 100 kg potash/ha (3678$); which was followed by 90 cm diagonal pit plantation +100 kg/ha K2O which gave the combined benefits of 3611$. Sugar cane may be planted in 90 cm diagonal pits and 120 cm spaced trenches with 100 kg/ha potash to improve the cane yield and sugar recovery
... Commercially, sett planting, flat planting, ridges and furrows or the ring pit method are common methods. Setts with two buds have a germination capacity of 65-70% and better yield (Nalawade et al. 2018). ...
Book
This book reviews the production of bioplastic from various raw materials and recycling wastewater into useful bioproducts by bacteria. In addition, it also addresses the recent advancement in pest control in rice plants, different methods to analyse genotoxicity on soil samples and the effect of phytocompounds on acrylamide-induced toxicity in Drosophilla. Interestingly, this book also discusses mesoporous silica nanoparticles' role as nanocarrier material for inhibiting the cancer cell, especially breast cancer and various biotechnological applications of marine fungal exopolysaccharides.
... Then, the cut residues are used as soil cover over the plantations. This can be done manually or mechanically using hay rake and wheel trash rake (Nalawade et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Putra RP, Ranomahera MRR, Rizaludin MS, Supriyanto R, Dewi VAK. 2020. Short Communication: Investigating the environmental impacts of long-term monoculture of sugarcane farming in Indonesia through DPSIR framework. Biodiversitas 21: 4945-4958. An increasing trend of sugar demand in Indonesia due to the rising population has forced the government to boost its national sugarcane production through intensification program. Long-term monoculture system has long been practiced by sugarcane growers in Indonesia, particularly by large sugar companies for more than 30 years. This farming method bolsters the government’s program in scaling-up national sugar production. Through a literature study, the present study analyzed the impacts of long-term sugarcane monoculture in Indonesia on agroecosystem functions by using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. Results showed that long-term sugarcane monoculture leads to decreased soil quality, lowered hydrological functions, reduced agrobiodiversity, and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Those conditions corresponded to reduced sugarcane yield and productivity, increased pests and diseases, decreased income gained by growers, higher dependencies on chemicals, and higher cultivation costs. In the end, we proposed several sustainable crop management to mitigate the detrimental effects of sugarcane monoculture practice in Indonesia. These include performing crop break or rotation with legume or the other cash crop, intercropping, green harvesting and trash blanket, precision agriculture methods, and soil amendment with organic matters. However, some constraints in implementing those sustainable crop management, such as inadequate knowledge and capital, should be considered. The information given in this study can be used by sugarcane growers or companies, policymakers, and sugarcane-related stakeholders as considerations to improve sugarcane productivity while at the same time minimizing its impact on the environment.
... Then, the cut residues are used as soil cover over the plantations. This can be done manually or mechanically using hay rake and wheel trash rake (Nalawade et al. 2018). ...
Article
Fatimah IN, Iskandar J, Partasasmita R. 2020. Ethnoecology of paddy-fish integrative farming (minapadi) in Lampegan Village, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 4419-4432. In the past, the traditional paddy-fish integrative farming (minapadi) was predominantly undertaken by rice farmers in West Java, particularly in the water abundant areas. Currently, however, the practice of the rice-fish system has been dramatically reduced due to the Green Revolution programs, including water pollution that may have affected fish farming in paddy fields. Although the rice-fish systems have rarely been practiced in West Java villages, some farmer groups of Lampegan Village, Ibun Sub-district, Bandung District are still practicing the rice-fish farming system. The purpose of this study is to collect and document the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Lampegan Village about the rice-fish system farming managements, including data on various fish species that are widely cultivated in the community, cultural practices of the rice-fish farming management, and benefits of the rice-fish farming system. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used, with an ethnoecological approach. Techniques of data collection, such as observation, semi-structured interviews, or deep interviews, and structured interviews were employed in this study. The results of the study show that the farmers of the rice-fish farming in Lampegan Village, Bandung District own rich and deep knowledge of fish species and practice of the minapadi system. The TEK of the rice-fish farming management system has been inherited from ancestors and is mixed with western scientific knowledge. The rice-fish farming systems have provided some ecological and socio-economic benefits for village people.
... Commercially, sett planting, flat planting, ridges and furrows or the ring pit method are common methods. Setts with two buds have a germination capacity of 65-70% and better yield (Nalawade et al. 2018). ...
Book
This book provides the technological insight on biorefinery and nanoremediation and provides comprehensive reviews on applications of Biochar for environmental sustainability. Critical review on biosurfectants in food applications as well as sustainable agricultural practices has also been provided in this book. It also highlights the microbial-omics and microRNAs for protecting ecotoxicity. Overall, this book provides critical as well as comprehensive chapters on wastewater treatment using different technologies.
Article
The current modern mechanized sugarcane harvesting system implies changes in crop management. However, studies on the benefit of planting arrangement associated with seedling types in sugarcane are still scarce. Our hypothesis is that the planting arrangement associated with seedling types can influence the yield and quality of ratoon sugarcane. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of planting arrangement associated with seedling types on biometric indices, yield, and juice quality of ratoon cane. The effects of arrangements in double rows using billets, double row using pre-sprouted seedlings (PSS) with 0.50 m and 0.75 m spacing, triple rows using billets, and triple rows using PSS with 0.50 m and 0.75 m spacing were investigated in third, fourth, and fifth ratoon cane. The cuts of each ratoon cane were performed in August for all crop seasons. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replicates in a split block design. Biometric, yield, and juice quality variables evaluated in each season were: stalk height (SH), stalk diameter (SD), number of stalks per meter (NSM), mass of ten stalks (MTS), sugarcane yield (THC), apparent juice purity (JP), cane fiber percentage (CF), sugar content (POL), and total recoverable sugar (TRS). The planting arrangement associated with the seedling type did not affect the stalk height and diameter, number of canes per meter, stalk mass, yield, and juice quality of the third, fourth, and fifth ratoon cane. Given these findings, the planting arrangement with triple rows and using PSS with wider spacing between seedlings (0.75 m) is a good management strategy aimed at reducing machine traffic and seedling costs in sugarcane crops.
Research
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The main epigram of this paper is to overcome the labour shortage and to reduce time and money. Mainly cultivation of sugarcane involves three process-cutting of sugarcane into reliably smaller pieces, ploughing the field for sowing the sugarcane and sowing them in the sand. This paper proposes a piece of equipment which can perform the above mentioned three works simultaneously. In this paper, we come up with the use of pneumatic pistons for cutting the sugarcane, which is also attached to the equipment/planter. The planter consists of a plough setup and addition plough control at the back to cover the cane with sand after it is sowed in the sand.
Chapter
Sustainable agricultural systems aim to use technologies that do not cause any adverse effects to environmental goods and services. To solve the problem of food insecurity due to the increasing global population, modern agricultural practices are used by food cultivators in many countries to maximum their crop yields. Modern agricultural practices use mechanized equipment for irrigation, tilling and harvesting along with hybrid seeds. However, they also use synthetic or chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides that deplete soil fertility and are harmful to the environment. Modern farming has evolved with technology such that irrigation is done mainly through tube wells, sprinklers and dripping systems, which has caused decreases of the water table. In addition, modern technologies are highly mechanized and lead to increased use of non-renewable sources of energy. Modern agricultural practices are responsible for genetic erosion and the extinction of germplasms of crop seeds, which leads to less variability and a loss of indigenous varieties of crop plants. Sometimes, genetically modified food can create health issues, causing fear among consumers with regard to such food and its products. It is necessary to create awareness about healthy soils that produce healthy food systems, which is only possible through the use of sustainable agricultural practices. Fertile soils can be maintained by supplementing essential nutrients, water, oxygen and root support, which is essential for allowing food-producing plants to grow and flourish. This chapter discusses recent developments in crop production from sustainable agricultural practices that maintain healthy agricultural soil conditions.
Article
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A field experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari, Gujarat (India) during 200809 to 2010-11 to study the influence of sett size, seed rate and sett treatment on yield, quality and economics of sugarcane. The results of the experiment indicated that, planting of sugarcane with two bud sett found significantly superior in increasing number of millable canes (110250 ha-1), cane yield (110.42 t ha-1) as compared to three and single bud setts during all the three years of experimentation. The increase in cane yield was 6.86 % and 25.72 % in three and two bed setts respectively over single bud sett. Normal seed rate of 100 % of recommended buds ha-1 increased the number of millable canes ha-1, cane yield (100.83 t ha-1) and commercial cane sugar (ccs) yield (12.53 t ha-1) significantly as compared to lower seed rate of 75 % of recommended buds ha-1. Significant differences in cane yield, ccs yield and juice quality parameters were not observed due to sett treatment either with carbendazim @ 0.1 % alone or along with gibberellic acid @ 100 ppm for 15 minutes.
Article
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Brazil is the world biggest producer of sugar cane with an area of 7x106 hectares. Mainly the system used for planting is the semi-mechanized one, which consists in opening the furrows with a machine, manually allocating the fractioned stalks and then covering the furrows done by the machines. The great amount of human labor used in the semi-mechanized system is becoming harder to find and also more expensive, indicating the need of a fully mechanized operation. Currently in Brazil these agriculture machines industries offers six different types of fully mechanized sugar cane planters (two types of whole stalks for planting and four using mechanized harvested stalks known as billets). All of them plant in two furrows simultaneously in 1.5 m row spacing. This study analyzed five different machines and the following variables: Working Speed (km h-1); Effective Capacity (ha h-1), Drawbar Force (kgf), Draw Bar Power (in HP), Fuel Consumption (L h-1) and Costs (US$ ha-1) comparing them with the semi-mechanized system. This research also characterized the stalks for planting as viable gems number (%), non viable gems number (%) and billet length (m). And lastly the mechanized planting system is cheaper than the conventional one and none of the machines has an adequate mechanism for placing the right amount of sugar cane seed.
Article
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A reduction in the amount of billet used in mechanized planting of sugarcane is very important. In this research a new billet planter which plants billets with an overlap planting pattern was fabricated. Array of cupboards attached on chain conveyor were used on two metering devices for transportation of billets to the furrows. The mechanism used to exclude extra billets was effective and at the same time simple in design and construction. Chain conveyor system enabled the timing of the billet travel to provide desired planting with the recommended billet overlapping. Ground-driven power train was used to run the metering devices, hence providing a constant billet overlap planting pattern according to the changes of forward speed. The planter was evaluated in the field based on the on cupboards filling percentage, over-overlapping and under-overlapping as affected by planting speed (2.59, 3, 3.5 , 4 km/h), cane variety (CP69-1062 and CP57-614) and angle of the chain conveyor structure from vertical line (10, 15, 20 degree) with three replications. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design was used to determine effect of planting speed and chain conveyor angle on cupboards filling percentage, over and under-overlap indexes. The results indicated that the chain conveyor angle and planting speed have significant effects on cupboards filling percentage. An increase in planting speed and chain conveyor angle decreased the percentage filling of cupboards. The best performance of the metering unit designed was obtained at a planting speed of 3.5 km/h for both varieties with a 20 degree conveyor chain angle.
Article
Sugarcane and potato are the two major cash crops cultivated in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia. Growing potato as intercrop with sugarcane has a synergistic effect on sugarcane, resulting in increased economic returns to farmers. In order to mechanise simultaneous planting of sugarcane and potato for intercropping, a new planting machinery named as sugarcane-cum-potato planter was designed and developed at ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, India. It was equipped with furrowers for opening of furrow and ridge making in between furrows, sett cutting unit for cane planting, potato seed tuber metering mechanism for potato planting, covering unit to cover planted sugarcane setts and potato and insecticide application unit. The designed equipment planted two rows of sugarcane in furrows and two rows of potato on ridges simultaneously in single pass. Picking and dropping of seed potato were automatic, whereas sugarcane seed stalk feeding for sett cutting was manual. Field testing of the developed planter was conducted at IISR farm in sandy loam soil. The effective field capacity of planter was 0.127 ha h⁻¹. Average soil cover on sugarcane setts was 45 mm. Average depth of seed potato tuber placement on the ridges was 40 mm, and average tuber to tuber spacing was 192 mm. Developed machine-planted sugarcane at furrow spacing of 750 mm with average overlapping of 68 mm between the setts. The cost of planting operation with developed equipment was rupees 3160 ha⁻¹ as against rupees 13,600 ha⁻¹ in conventional planting. Saving in cost of planting operation was about 76% and labour about 90% with the developed planter as compared to conventional planting. Irrigation water use efficiency, yield attributes and total yield increased significantly in potato–sugarcane intercropping as compared to relay cropping of potato and sugarcane. Benefit/cost ratio in mechanised intercropping of potato and sugarcane with the developed planter was 2.57:1 followed by conventional manual intercropping (2.26:1) and manual potato–sugarcane relay cropping (1.84:1).
Article
The experiment was conducted during autumn season of 2004-*06 and 2005-07 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Karnal, India. Five treatments consisting of flat planting at row spacing of 75, 90, 105 and 120 cm, pit planting at centre to centre distance of 120 cm between two pits was conducted in four replications. Highest cane yield, sugar yield, variable cost, net returns and B:C ratio was recorded in pit planting method followed by conventional planting at row spacing of 75, 90, 105 and lowest in case of 120 cm spacing. Planting at 75 cm and 90 cm being at par produced significantly higher cane yield, sugar yield , net returns and B:C ratio as compared to 105 and 120 cm row to row spacing. CCS % was not affacted significantly by different planting pattern.
Article
Sugarcane planting is a very labour intensive job and involves considerable human drudgery. Cost of sugarcane planting by mechanized method is less compared to traditional methods. It also reduces drudgery involved in unit operations of sugarcane planting. Thus, recently developed sugarcane cutter planters are getting very good acceptance amongst sugarcane growers Generally planting of any crop is very much important as far as the crop growth and yield is concern. This paper describes regarding the design refinement of a sugarcane cutter planter and its prototype development. In this machine, the complete sugarcane, which is fed by the laborers sitting on the machine, is cut automatically into pieces before dropping into furrows. It also opens the furrows, applies fertilizer, chemical and fungicide and also covers the sets and presses it automatically. It is operated by 35 hp tractor and has 2 units. The performance of the planter was evaluated in field. Its field capacity was 0.2 ha/hr with field efficiency of 80.0 percent at effective working width of 1.35m and forward speed of 1.85 km/hr at 2 nd low gear. The set length was 31.8 cm with an average overlap of 6.48 cm observed at the speed of 2.5 km/hr. The seed rate capacity of machine was found 5.55 tones per ha.
Article
Sugarcane bud chip planting is the latest technique of sugarcane planting, wherein the bud along with a portion of the nodal region is chipped off and planted in protray with FYM soil and sand. Studies on mechanisation of the planting of settlings from sugarcane buds raised in portrays were carried out at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering—Regional Centre, Coimbatore and Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore and a tractor mounted two row mechanical planter for settlings raised from sugarcane bud chips was developed. It consists of mainframe which can be attached to standard three-point hitch arrangement of a 35 hp tractor. The metering mechanism, operator’s seat, furrow openers, soil openers and furrow closers are mounted on the main frame with necessary supports. The optimum speed of operation was standardized as 1.4 km/h by experimentation where the missing percentage was 2.33 %. The field capacity of the equipment was 0.15 ha/h. The biometric parameters viz., diameter of the cane, cane height, single cane weight, juice content and yield of the mechanically planted sugarcane settlings were on par with the manually planted sugarcane settlings. The juice quality of sugarcane from mechanically planted settling in terms of brix, CCS, sucrose and purity was at par with sugarcane from manual planting of settlings at the time of harvest. Cost economic analysis of planting with mechanical planter showed 40 and 85 %, saving in cost and labour, respectively over manual bud chip settling planting.
Article
Sugarcane is a major commercial crop consuming more labour force for planting. Sugarcane planting is a time consuming and labour intensive operation in sugarcane cultivation. In the traditional method in India, all the sugarcane cultivation processes are carried out by manual labour except land preparation. Sugarcane planting requires manual power and a pair of bullock or a tractor with ridger to plant sugarcane setts in one hectare on an average. Although number of useful machines have been designed, developed and being manufactured for cultivating sugarcane, but due to lack of extension and socio-economic reasons, still majority of the farmers are using indigenous tools and equipments. Shortage of timely labour availability and exorbitant wages compel our farmers to limit their acreage under sugarcane crop. Therefore there is an urgent need to mechanize sugarcane planting operations for reducing the cost of planting, as well as, for reducing the human drudgery involved. The field trials of Khalsa Make three row automatic sugarcane planter was conducted for planting of sugarcane at farmers’ field as well as at research farm. The performance indicators of the planter viz. field capacity, efficiency etc. were calculated. The effective field capacity was 0.38 ha/h with field efficiency up to 70.4%.
Article
An algorithm was designed for mechanizing sugarcane planting by machine vision system and image processing method. This algorithm uses convolution, threshold and look-up table operations for identification of sugarcane nods and sends the cut-point position of two consecutive nodes to microcontroller. The recognition algorithm which was used with right sobel matrix has 2.08±0.30% error. The right sobel matrix was assigned as the best mask matrix with the variance and standard deviation of 8.82 and 2.97, respectively. The precision of nods identification in sugarcane stalk by mentioned algorithm was estimated to be 97.92±0.3%. The test of this image processing method showed that the total running time of one image processing was less than 0.500 sec.