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Lubrication and lubricants are the most important aspect for running a machine without
giving pre-matured failure. It is also used to minimize power loss, heat generation, wear and tear
of mechanical components as well as for smooth running of the machine. Production and
productivity are very much dependent on lubrication system.
This study material focuses on the subject “Lubrication”. Optimum and correct way of
using lubricants are the main issue now a days. This study material will help to know how
lubricants can be selected and where the use will be.
Study material includes the selection of lubricants, their specific place of application,
methods of using oil and grease lubrication, different lubrication equipments, etc. which are
needed for any lubrication personnel to know well. Our trainees and employees will be certainly
benefited by this study material.
Prepared by Approved by
Rohit Kumar & S.P.Sharma Mr. K N Choubey
Mechanical Group Head - Mechanical
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Topic Page #
1. What is Lubrication ? 3
2. Function of lubricants 3
3. Types of lubricants 3
4. Selection of lubricants 5
5. Principle of lubrication 10
6. Methods of oil lubrication 12
7. Methods of grease lubrication 18
8. Grease lubrication equipments 20
9. Lubricants-Handling, Storing & Dispensing 25
10. Protective Devices 26
11. Lubrication Fittings 27
12. Related Safety, Care and Maintenance 28
13. Questions for self evaluation 30
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What is Lubrication?
Lubrication is the science of reducing friction between two solid bodies in relative
motion by interposing a lubricant between their rubbing surfaces. It is the most vital
singular factor in plant maintenance. It keeps the plant young, contribute to better
profits by improving the life of the wear components, equipment availability and
reliability. Much work has been done in this direction my improving lubrication,
mechanization, modification of the existing lubricating system, elimination of
lubricant wastage and thus bringing down the consumption of lubricants and wear
Function of Lubricants :
The principal functions of lubricants are :
• Reduce friction.
• Control temperature rise.
• Control wear
• Control Corrosion
• Transmit Power in case of hydraulics
• Washout debris and contaminants
• Decrease power requirement
• Act as a seal (Seal out contaminants)
• Carry out heat (Sometime used for cooling)
Secondary results include those leading to economic benefits :-
• Extended useful life of frictional components.
• Reduction in unscheduled machine down time, resulting in increased
• Lower Production, maintenance, labour and replacement cost.
• Save energy.
Types of Lubricants :
Lubricants may be gaseous, liquid, plastic or solid. Their classification according to
physical state includes materials and coatings that are self lubricating. The
additives listed under solids are usually not lubricants themselves but contribute
important lubricating properties, when added to an oil.
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Gaseous lubricants – Air, helium, Carbon dioxide and others.
Liquid lubricants –
(a) Mineral oils (from petroleum crude)
• Straight or unadulterated
• Compound with fixed oils or their derivatives
• Compound with special additives.
• Compounded with fixed oils or their derivatives, plus chemical additives,
such as polymers and metal soaps.
(b) Fixed Oils
• Animal (acid less tallow oil, lard oils, etc)
• Vegetable (Castor oil, rapeseed oil, Palm oil, etc)
• Fish (Sperm oil, porpoise jaw oil, Palm oil, etc.)
(c) Synthetic fluids - Silicons, silicate esters, phosphate esters, polyglycols,
diabasic-acids esters, chlorofluro carbon polymers; Fluorocompounds (fluoro
esters) Neopentyl, polyol esters, polyphenyl ethers.
(d) Soluble oils or compounds
• Mineral oil compounded with emulsifying agents.
Synthetic fluids compounded with emulsifying agents.
Semi – Liquid/Plastic Lubricants (GREASE)
As per ASTM D288, grease is a solid to semi-fluid product of dispersion of a
thickening agent in liquid lubricant. Other ingredients imparting special properties
may be included – is known as GREASE.
GREASE – BASE OIL + Thicker + Additives.
Thickener : i) Soap : a) Calcium b) Lithium c) Sodium d) Aluminum
Where grease is suitable ?
Accessibility : If the lubricating point is difficult in accessing, Grease is suitable to
use in the machine.
Frequency : If the frequency of lubrication is long, then Grease is suitable.
Starting Stage : In some large equipments, starting stage lubrication is ensured by
Type Of Product : In food, textile type industries, product may be damaged due to
the presence of oil. So Grease is efficiently used.
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How does grease lubricate ?
When the load is applied on the grease the soap will release from oil. The pressure
again redirects the oil to go back to soap. The phenomenon is known as
SWEATING. Under the load the grease is PLASTIC, and when the load is released
again it is solidified.
Different form of Greases :
• Soap thickened mineral oils.
• Soap thickened Mineral oils with special additives.
• Yarn fibers saturated with fluid grease.
• Semi fluid grease.
• Mineral oil thickened with non soap gelling agents.
• Block grease (non flowing at room temperature).
Solid Lubricants : Solid lubricants are rarely used directly, commonly it is added
with other lubricants to increase its some of the properties. Some Examples of Solid
lubricants are Graphite, Molybdenum disulfide, mica, talc or soap, lead carbonate,
Additives : Additives are the substances which are added with the lubricants to
fortify some of their properties. Some of the Additives are : Metallic phosphates, few
additives, metallic oleates, metallic chlorides, Metallic sulfides, metallic stearates,
metallic oxides and metallic oxalates.
Selection of Lubricants
Factors to be considered to select a correct lubricant are :-
• The operating factors of an equipment, such as speed, load and
• Equipment condition-whether old or new, etc.
• Compatibilitiy of the lubricant with materials in contact.
• Operating environment - Dust, Hot Water, etc.
• Operating condition – continuous or intermittent.
• Lubricants application methods, Lubricant maintenance system.
• Clearances between moving parts.
Type of part to be lubricated - Gear, bearing, sliding surface etc.
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Grease Vs. Oil
In most applications there is no choice. In some cases both can be used.
Compared with grease oil is better coolant, generates less internal friction, is easier
to handle and apply, and forms a more uniform film. But there are certain
applications where grease has the advantage.
• Stays longer • Has less internal friction.
• Drips less • Serves high speeds
• Serve certain extreme condition. • Serves close tolerance.
• Provide better sealing • Serves as a coolant
• Requires less frequent • Flushes away contaminants.
• Lower costs • Lower costs
Selection parameters for oil and grease
Parameters Grease Oil
Load OK OK
Temperature Upto 120
Speed Low to medium for R. C.
Bearing, n x d factor
Any speed, n x d factor
Inaccessibility of location Good Bad
Dust environment Good Bad
Vertical Bearing (to protect
At low temperature
When pressure of
lubricant is to be varied
Complex layout of
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Important Properties of Oil
• Proper fluidity or plasticity under conditions of operation.
• Film strength commensurate with loads.
• Chemical stability.
• Adhesiveness to bearing surface.
• Lubricity or oiliness or slipperiness to the degree required by operating
• Purity i.e. freedom from contaminants that detract from the efficiency of the
• Non-corrosive characteristics.
• Rust proofing capability.
• Resistance to water wash.
• Resistance to foaming.
• Good sealing properties.
• High viscosity index.
• Fire resistance.
• Minimum of volatility or out gassing.
• Resistance to the effect of nuclear radiation.
• Good emulsifying qualities.
Important Properties Of Grease:
Penetration : Grease hardness is identified by the following chart.
NLGI GREASE CLASSIFICATION
Ranges Are The Penetration In Tenths Of A Millimter After 5 Seconds At 77
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Consistency : Consistency is defined as the degree to which a plastic material resists
deformation under the application of a force. In the case of lubricating greases it is the
measure of relative harness or softness, and may indicate something of flow and
dispensing properties. As per National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) grade,
Consistency, similar to viscosity varies with temperature.
Cone Penetration : The cone penetration of grease is determined with the ASTM
(American Standard of Testing Material) Penetrometer. After sample is prepared, the
cone is released and allowed to sink into the grease under its own load for 5 sec. The
depth the cone has penetrated is the reads in tenths of a millimeter and reported as the
penetration of the grease. Since, the cone will sink further into softer greases. ASTM
penetrations are normally measured at 25 deg. C.
Dropping point : The dropping point of any grease is the temperature at which a drop
of material fall from the orifice of a test cup under prescribed test condition.
Resistance to oxidation : Resistance to oxidation is an important characteristic of
grease intended for use in rolling element bearings. Both the oil and fatty constituents
in grease oxidize, the higher the temperature faster is the rate of oxidation. When
grease oxidizes it generally acquires a rancid or oxidized odour and darken in colour.
Simultaneously, organic acids generally develop and the lubricant becomes acid in
reaction. These acids are not necessarily corrosive, but may affect the grease
structures causing hardening or softening.
Resistance To Water : The ability of a grease to resist water washout under
conditions where water may splash or impinge directly on a bearing is an important
Oil Separation : The resistance of a grease to separate oil from thickener involves
certain compromises. When greases are used to lubricate rolling contact bearings a
certain amount of bleeding of oil is necessary in order to perform lubrication function.
On the other hand, if the oil separates too much readily from a grease in application
devices, a hard, concentrated soap residue may built up which will clog the devices
and prevent or retard the flow of grease to the bearing. Further leakage of separated
oil from bearings can damage materials in production or equipment components such
as electric motor windings.
In application devices, such as central lubrication system and spring loaded cup when
pressure is applied on the grease on more or less on continuous basis, oil can be
separated from greases by a form of pressure filtration. The pressure forces the oil
through the clearance spaces around plungers, piston or spool valves, but since the
soap cannot pass through the small clearance it is left behind. This may result in
blockage of the devices and lubricant application failure.
E.P. and wear preventation test : As per ASTM (D2596) the standardized test
procedure to determine E.P properties of greases using the four ball extreme and the
Timken (ASTM D 2509) load tester.
The two extreme pressure tests are considered to be capable of differentiating
between greases having low, medium or high level of extreme pressure properties.
The wear prevention test is intended to compare only the relative wear.
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LUBRICATING GREASE CHARACTERISTICS
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PRINCIPLE OF LUBRICATION
To maintain a film of Lubricant between the surfaces in running condition any
one of the following principle of lubrication prevails.
• Hydro dynamic Lubrication
• Hydrostatic Lubrication.
Hydrodynamic (Thick film) Lubrication :
The formation of a thick fluid film that will separate two surfaces and support a
load as the two surfaces moves with respect to each other, internal friction in the
fluid causes it to be drawn into the space between the surfaces. The force
drawing the fluid into space A is equal to the force tending it out, but since the
cross sectional area the outlet section is smaller than inlet, the flow of fluid is
restricted at the outlet. The moving surface tries to “compress” the fluid to force
it through the restricted section with result the pressure in the fluid rises. The
thickness of the film in this case is high enough to eliminate any contact
between the surfaces, thus the coefficient of friction micron is even in the order
Development Of Hydrodynamic Film In A Journal Bearing
1. Firstly the machine is at rest with the oil shut off and the oil has leaked from
the clearance surface. Metal to metal contact exists between the journal and
2. Secondly, when the machine has been started and the oil supply turned on
filling the clearance space, the shaft begins to rotate counter clockwise and
friction is monetarily high so the shaft tends to climb the left side of bearing.
3. Finally , as it does this, it rolls onto a thicker oil film so that the friction is
reduced and the tendency to climb is balanced by the tendency to slip back.
As the journal gains speed, it draws more oil through the wedge shaped
space between it and the bearing. Pressure is developed in the fluid in the
lower left portion of the bearing that lifts the journal and pushes it to right.
Under steady condition the upward force developed in the oil film just equals
the total downward load and the journal is supported in the slightly eccentric
Hydrostatic film Application :
One of the more common applications of the hydrostatic principle is an “oil lifts”
for starting heavy rotating machines, such as steam turbines, large motor steel
mills and rotary ball and rod mills. Because metal to metal contact exists
between the journal and the bearings when the journal is at rest, extremely high
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torque may be required to start rotation and damage to the bearings may occur.
By feeding oil under pressure into the pocket machined into the bottom of the
bearings, the journal can be lifted and floated on fluid films. When the journal
reaches a speed sufficient to create hydrodynamic films the external pressure
can be turned off and the bearing will continue to operate in the hydrodynamic
Elasto-hydrodynamic Film Lubrication :
In the case of rolling contact bearing as the ball or roller on their raceways, the
lubricant is carried into the convergent zone approaching the contact area and
as the pressure on oil increases. The viscosity increases. As the viscosity
increases, the pressure further increases. This hydrodynamic pressure
developed in the lubricant is sufficient to separate the surface at the leading
edge of the contact area and as the lubricant is drawn into the contact area and
as the lubricant is drawn into the contact area the pressure on it increases
further together with the viscosity. Due to this high viscosity and the short time
required for the lubricant to be carried through the contact area, the lubricant
cannot escape and separation of the surface can be achieved. Hydro-dynamic &
Hydrostatic films are for sliding contact surfaces whereas Elasto-hydrodynamic
film is for rolling contact surfaces.
Boundary Lubrication :
If none of the above these conditions exists the condition will be of boundary
lubrication. Boundary larger lubrication is obtained when the thickness of the
lubricating film is of the same order of magnitude as the individual oil molecules.
This condition may present when the quantity of oil is insufficient or the relative
movement between surfaces is too low. The coefficient of friction micron in this
cases is high-as high as 0.1, and on the incipient metallic contact, can rise to
0.5. When the coefficient rises, friction losses also increases. These are
converted into heat, which raises the temperature of the lubricant, thereby
reducing its viscosity so that the load carrying capacity of the film is even lower
in the most case so low that the surfaces seize together.
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METHODS OF OIL LUBRICATION
We will group the different methods used for applying lubricating oil into moving
parts under three types :
1. Once through oiling / All loss method.
2. Oil reservoirs / Reuse method.
Circulating oil systems
Once through oiling : Once through oiling is so named because the oil passes
through the bearing only once and is lost for further use. Method of this type
includes oil cane lubrication, drop feed oiling, gravity feed bottle, wick feed
a) Oil can Lubricator : This is the direct application of oil to a moving machine
part from a hand oil cane. It is used for small bearings, chains. This method
has limitations. The excess oil runs off bearing. The parts operate with
insufficient oil until next oiling.
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b) Drop feed Oilers : When a more uniform supply of oils is required, a drop
feed oiler may be used. It consists of a shut off lever, feed adjustment, oil
chamber, needle valve and sight glass. The dropping of the oil through the
drop feed oiler can be regulated and checked from time to time see that the
oil is continuing to feed properly.
c) Wick Feed Oiler : The wick feed oiler consists of an oil reservoir and a wool
wick. The wick draws oil from an oil cup by the capillary and siphoning action
of the wick and feed it into an opening in the bearing. The amount of oil
being delivered to the bearing can be regulated by changing the size of the
wick. The reservoir should be kept well filled, because the rate of oil feed
depends on level of the oil in the reservoir.
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d) The Bottle Oiler : The bottle oiler consist of an inverted glass mounted
above the bearing and filled with a sliding pin which rests on the journal.
When the journal rotates, it vibrates the pin. The vibration in encourages the
flow of oil from bottle to the bearing through the space between pin and its
Reuse Methods :
As referred to “all loss” lubrication, the lubricants supply to the
bearings gradually leaks
away and is not reused. In short, the bearing passes
through the region of mix film
lubrication and operate much of the time under
A closer approach for maintaining a safe oils supply may be
application devices such as wick feed oilers, drop feed cups
bottle oilers. Even with
regular application of small amount of lubricant, their film
bearings require proper
selection to control wear and provide satisfactory service
Reuse method of oil application include circulating supplying lubricant for one
machine and self contained system such as bath, splash, food and ring
a) Chain Oiling : Chain oiling is similar to ring oiling except that a small linked
chain is substituted for ring. Chain will carry larger volume of oil than does
b) Oil Collar : An oil Collar may be used to carry oil from reservoir to journal
which are rotating at high speed so that rings and chains would slip. The
collar fastened to the journal rotates carrying the oil to an over head scraper
which removes and distribute oil to bearing and gears.
c) Ring Oiling Method : In ring oiling method, a metallic ring larger in diameter
than journal rides on it and turns as it rotates. The ring dropping into oil,
carries oil to the top of the journal where it flows along and around the
journal providing lubrication before returning to the reservoir.
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d) Splash Oiling : In this method, some moving parts is in direct contact with
oil in the bottom of the casing. As the moving part turns, it splashes and
carries the oil in to the other parts within the casing keeping them well
supplied with lubricant. This is very reliable method of lubrication.
In I.C. engine compressor, the crankpin connecting rod which coming in
contact with oil level during rotation splashing out the oil to the surrounding
and oil is carried out to the desired locations.
In gear boxes, one gear dips into the oil and carries to the moving parts and
to the meshing zones of the gears.
The gear teeth carry oil directly to some gears and splash it to others and to
collecting through which leads it to bearing not reached by splash.
In all method of reservoir lubrication it is important that the reservoir be
checked for proper oil level either by dip stick or gauge glass.
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e) Mist Oil Systems : In oil mist lubricators, oil is atomized by low pressure
(0.7 to 3.5 bar) compressed air forming a practically a dry mist or fog, that
can be practically a dry mist or fog, that can be transported relatively long
distance in small tubing. When the mist reaches the application point it is
condensed or collapsed into larger particles that wet the surface and provide
CENTRALISED OIL CIRCULATING SYSTEM :
System comprising an assembly of
the following units:
e) Different Gauges etc.
This system explains a typical example. Returning oil drains to a settling
compartment, enters into reservoir. Water and heavy contaminants settle at power
point from which they can be drained. Particularly purified oil overflows a baffle to a
clean oil compartment. The clean oil pumps takes oil through a suction strainer and
pumps it to a cooler and then to Bearing, Gears and other lubricated parts. The
pressure desired in the oil supply pipings is maintained by means of a relief valves
which discharges to the reservoir. A continuous by-pass purification system takes 5
to 15% of the oil in circulation system through a pump from point above the
maximum level of separated water in the reservoir and pumps it through a suitable
filter back to the clean oil compartments.
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METHODS OF GREASE APPLICATION :
There are three methods of applying grease :
1. By hand
2. By hand operated mechanical devices like grease gun, which delivers the
grease to one point at a time.
3. By centralized grease systems which supply a number of points at a time
from a central reservoir.
Hand Application :
As the name implies is the application of
the grease directly to
the parts by hand.
Ball and Roller bearings are greased by
fingers into the space
between the balls
Grease application is also done to open
Hand Operated Mechanical Devices :
(a) Grease Cup : It consists of a small
reservoir for holding the Grease and
pressure is exerted by screwing it down
and forcing the grease into the Bearing.
(b) Grease Gun : The grease gun is a very popular device for grease lubrication at
the various lubricating points. The gun delivers the grease by operating the
lever, in turn grease is forced into the fittings to reach the bearing surface.
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Centralised Grease Lubrication System :
(a) Single line system : The three way valve, operated manually or automatically,
either directs pump pressure into the supply line or relieves the pressure in the
line to permit the spring return to reset the valves.
(b) Dual line (FARVAL) system: The four way valve operated manually or
automatically directs pump pressure to one line and then the other. When one
line is pressurized the other line is relieved.
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(c) Multi line (DELIMON) system : The gear train moves the cam plate which in
turn moves each plunger up & down and creates suction & delivery. During
delivery the lubricant is forced out to the outlet pipe.
GREASE LUBRICATING EQUIPMENTS
(a) H5A Grease Gun : It is a small screw plate pinned Grease gun. It is lever type.
Capacity – 5 lbs. Max. Pressure- 2,500 psi. with 7 ft. hose with ¼” hose
fitting or coupler in delivery line.
Discharge – 1/3 ozs or 10 gm/stroke.
Height – 13.5”, Length-21”, Width – 5.25”.
Operating Instructions For H5A Grease Gun :
a) Fasten the hose coupler on the fitting to be lubricated.
b) Move the handle up & down until lubrication is completed.
c) Release the handle, it will automatically move to its neutral position,
releasing pressure in the hose and permitting the hose to be uncoupled from
d) Remove coupler, pulling it to one side and off.
Note – If the valve does not come out easily, further relieve pressure in the
hose by opening the air pressure release valve, Then remove the coupler.
e) After using the gun pump slightly dampen a ray with oil and mesh the hose.
Then, wipe off the hose drip. This step will prolong the life off your hose.
Note : This gun builds 2,500 lbs. of air pressure. Should this pressure not be
enough to free a bearing, the bearing should be removed and cleaned. Make
sure that the lubricant is packed solidly, so no air pockets can form.
f) Replace follower on the stem, and turn the crank to the right-clockwise-until
the fill lower is back in position.
g) Replace cap on cylinder.
h) Open the air relief valve. Turn the crank to the right until lubricant begins to
ozze out at the valve opening. Then close the valve.
i) Swing the pawl lever and handle up, into normal operating position.
j) Move the handle up and down until lubricant appears at the hoes coupler.
CAUTION : Never use a pipe extension or other attachment on the lever to
secure more pressure. Never jump on the lever.
Maintenance Instructions For H5a Grease Gun :
Lubricating an extra tight bearing : After lubricating an extra tight bearing, swing the
pawl lever and handle unit back on to the cylinder to prevent damage to he pawl
level, stem, head casting, follower or other working parts of your lubricating gun.
Removing air pockets :
- Continued pumping will remove normal air pockets.
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- Larger air pockets may be quickly removed by opening the air release valve and
turning the crank slightly to the right.
Correcting the faulty gun operation : If there is lubricants in the gun but it can not
be pumped out :
- Remove the hose.
- Operate the pump. If lubricant flows, the hose is plugged up. Clean or replace
hose, as necessary. If lubricant does not flow, the pump screen is probably
clogged with foreign material and should be cleaned.
NOTE : Foreign particles in the lubricants may score the piston or casing,
and cut down the pump pressure and operating efficiency.
(b) Air Operated (Goliath) Grease Pump : It is an air operated grease gun. It has
heavy duty construction for longer life in difficult operating condition. Front
caster wheel and rear wheel tyres are made of rubber to suit in rough plant,
garage floor, etc. It is supplied with 7 feet hose with control valve. Helix arm and
worm gear construction assure positive mechanical priming to handle heavier
grease even in cold weather with no air pockets. The rugged air motor develops
greases pressure 33 times the air pressure applied.
Other Features :
a. Capacity - 40 lbs.
b. Maximum pressure – 5,000 psi.
c. Minimum air pressure required – 40 psi.
d. Discharge – 14 ozs / minute average
e. Height – 31.5”
f. Width - 17.75”
g. Length – 39”
Outlet has double check valve with 3/8” & ¼” bush to connect ¼” hose.
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(c) Farval Pump :
It is a hand operated dual line pump. 2 to 200 bearing points can be lubricated
at a time up to ¼ mile distance. It’s selector is 4/2 way hydraulic change over
valve to supply lubricant in both lines alternately when pressurized by handle of
the pump. It has 2 suction port with strainer, two check valves for double acting,
inlet line to tank for excess lubricant for easy handling of selector. It requires
less maintenance. It is used for centralized lubrication, remote and difficult
approach & normal industrial
Other Features :
a) Capacity - 4.5 lbs., 8.25 lbs or 12.5 lbs.
b) Discharge - 10 cc/stroke of handle.
c) Maximum working pressure – 200 kg per square cm.
a) Use clean lubricants.
b) Do not over pressurized.
c) Relief air pocket by bleeder valve when pressure is not rising, also check the
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d) FWA Grease Pump :
Application : Lubrication of not more than 36 points with small quantities of
grease, particularly for conveyor system, presses, construction machinery etc.
Reliability : Every lubrication point receives the correctly metered quantity of
lubricants either continuous or at particular intervals, at our choice. No lubricating
point is over or under lubricated. The lubricant fed to the lubricating point is always
Economy : Manual lubrication is more costly.
Advantages : Transport of lubricant through piping is clean and avoid unnecessary
losses in transferring from one container to another, very much suitable for lubricant
conservation. Lubricants cost are reduced. Plant remains cleaned.
Work Design : All lubrication lines are plumbed directly from the pump to the
lubrication points. The lubricant is metered by the pump, the quantity being
adjustable. The pump may be operated manually or by an electric motor.
Mode of operation : The worm which is fitted to the drive shaft engaged the worm
wheel, which is attached to the vertical distributor sleeve. This sleeve rotates the
scraper with wedge plate, which pushes the greases out of the container through
the strainer into the Gear Box. The rotating movement of distributor sleeve is
transmitted to the distribution cylinder through the two Bevel gears which has
transmission ratio of 1:1.
The cam plate which is fixed on top of the distribution cylinders turns with the latter
and moves each cylinder up & down once or three times per revolution depending
on the rise of the cam plate (single/three). During the suction stoke a quantity of
lubricant is drawn through the suction port of the distribution cylinder. During the
feeding stroke the lubricant is forced out of space through the pressure port into the
Care & Maintenance:
1. The strainer is to be cleaned at regular time intervals.
2. Do not allow the jute, rust, bolts etc. to be fallen inside the grease container.
3. Top lead of grease container is to be cleaned time to time.
4. The direction of rotation must be clockwise from the back side of the motor,
and it must be ensured.
5. All pipes are to be cleaned prior to the installation, by pressurized air.
6. Grease container must be filled when about 3/4
of its grease has been
7. Before putting power “ON’ to the motor, motor coupling should be turned
manually and watch for any abnormal alarming.
8. In case of pumping unit getting higher leakages all related bolts and screws
should be tightened. Discharge line should also be checked for the free
movement of grease in the pipes, pipes are coming freely or not.
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(e) CENTRIFUSE (OIL – RECLAMATION)
The principle of separating and purifying liquids by centrifugal force in the disc type
centrifuge is equally easy to understand, for the discs divide the liquid into thin layers
so that centrifugal force can act on the thin liquid strata most.
In the bowl of a centrifugal oil purifier, a mixture of oil water and dirt will be separated
by centrifugal force into three layers. Each whirling particle or droplet will lend to “fly
out” like the ball on the string. The dirt will go to the periphery of the bowl. The water
will form the next layer and the oil. Lightest of the three, will collect at, and be
discharged from, the point nearest the centre.
Techniques of Separation:
Throughput : This means the quantity of liquid supplied per unit time. The throughput
is given in cu.m/h or I/h (lmp.galls/h).
Reception ability : This means the largest liquid quantity that the bowl can treat per
unit time, expressed in cum/h or 1/h (Imp. Galls/h)
Clarification : A liquid-sludge separation in which the machine is used for separating
off particles, normally solids, having a higher specific gravity than that of the liquid.
Purification : A liquid-liquid separation in which the machine is used for separating
two intermixed liquids, which are insoluble in each other and have different specific
gravities. Solids with specific gravities higher than those of the liquids can be
separated off at the same time.
Factors influencing the Separation :
Difference in Specific gravity : The centrifugal force acts on all particles
proportionally to their specific gravity. This applies to solid particles as well as to fluid
particles. The greater the difference in specific gravity, the easier the separation.
Size and shape of Particles : The larger the particle, the quicker is the
sedimentation. The particles to be separated off must not be so small that the mixture
is getting near colloidal state. The smooth and round particle is easier separated off
than the irregular and elongated one. Rough treatment such as in pump can split the
particles, with reduced size and separating speed as a result.
Viscosity : The more fluid a liquid is, the quicker is the separating process and the
better the separation. In other words, low viscosity improves the separation result. The
viscosity can in many cases be reduced by heating.
Time in centrifugal field : If the separation is not satisfactory, the throughput must be
reduced. Lower throughput gives a better separating result.
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LUBRICANT - HANDLING, STORING AND DISPENSING
Observing simple precautions and procedures in the handling, storing and dispensing
of lubricants can achieve significant economic and operating benefits. Economic
benefits can be obtained by the following preventive factors :
a) Leakage or spill from damaged or improperly closed containers.
b) Contamination due to exposure of the lubricants to dust, metal particles and
c) deterioration caused by storage in excessively hot or cold environment.
d) deterioration due to prolonged storage.
e) residual oil or grease left in containers at the time of refilling.
f) mixing different brands and types of lubricants that are incompatible.
g) leaks, spills and drips when changing a reservoir or lubricating a machine.
Handling : Drums can be unloaded without damage from trucks by sliding them down
with the help of wood or metal skids (05 mm * 2.5 mm). Before unloading the brakes
of the truck should be set firmly and wheel should be blocked. The skid should be
securely attached to the truck.
NOTE : a full oil or grease drum weighs about 204 kg.
A drum standing on end with bungs up can collect rain water or condensed
atmospheric moisture inside the too annular. This water can gradually be drawn in
around the bungs by the breathing of the drums as the ambient temperature rises and
falls. This can occur even with the bungs drawn tight and the temper proof seals in
Prepared by: Rohit Kumar & S.P.Sharma Page 26 of 30
1. Level Gauge
b) Glass Tube
c) Dial (float actuated pneumatically operated)
2. Level Switch a) Float actuated
b) Sensing probe
3. Pressure Gauge a) Borden type
4. Pressure Switch
a) Bellow actuated
b) Piston actuated
c) Borden Tube
5. Pressure Control Valve
a) Standard high lift spring loaded
b) Direct operated diaphragm
c) Pneumatic control diaphragm
6. Flow Switch a) Wen Actuated
b) Differential Pressure Switch with orifice
7. Spring Relief valve a) Standard
b) Die lift
8. Differential pressure Switch a) Bellow actuated
b) Piston actuated
b) Vapour Pressure
c) Mercury Inserted
10. Temperature Control Valve. a) Direct operated
b) Pneumatic Controlled Diaphragm
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LUBRICATION FITTINGS APPLICATION
Single end connector For connecting two pipes or tubes
Double ended connector For connecting two separate pipes
Ferrule For connecting treadles tubes
Benzo For controlling flow by adjusting radial hole
Grease Button Used while inserting grease to machine
Grease Coupler Used along with grease button while inserting grease
Plug To close the end of pipe line
Nipple To connect two pipes having internal threads
Socket To connect two pipes having external threads
Tee Connects three pipes
Cross Connects four pipes
Elbow Connects two pipes at 90
Bend Connects two pipes at 90
angle or at more or less
Steel pipe Where fixed pipe installation is required
Copper tube Where more flexibility in pipe lines are required
Nylon tube Where lay-out is not fixed or for temporary mounting
Flexible hose In high pressure lines, where pipe can not be fixed
Bushing Pipe is being supported
Union Two pipe end can be connected without turning the
Hose clamp Used to clamp hoses
Jublee Clamp Used to clamp hose
Hose compression sleeve Used to connect hoses at high pressure lines
Teflon tape Used to make leak proof joint at threaded portion
Prepared by: Rohit Kumar & S.P.Sharma Page 28 of 30
RELATED SAFETY, CARE & MAINTENANCE
1. Whole activity of lubrication should be done under some responsible person.
2. Recommended lubricants should be used only.
3. One grade of oil should not be mixed with other grade.
4. Oil should be protected from contaminants.
5. Oil should be allowed to work under recommended temperature.
6. Oil should be checked, clean, filtered and replaced in specified interval.
7. Oil barrel should be handled properly. While unloading from carrier, care should
be taken to avoid damage. Skidding of drums should be avoided.
8. Barrels should be stored categorically based on its grade, use, etc.
9. Barrels should be kept under some roof. It should be avoided from direct sun, rain
water, moisture, etc.
10. Barrels should be kept horizontally, keeping their bungs horizontal.
11. Lids of barrel must be kept fully tight to avoid entry of water vapour, air, water, etc.
12. Oils should be transferred from barrel to machine only through transfer pump.
Direct contact with operating personal should be avoided.
13. Lubricating personnel must take absolute care while handling, filling oil, for its
14. Spillage of oil must be stopped.
15. Shop floor must be free from oil and grease to avoid slippage.
16. Tools, tackles, lifting devices should be free from lubricants.
17. Proper pressure rating of lubricant fittings should be used only.
18. Pipe lines must be flushed properly before using fresh oil.
19. Filters, strainers, coolers, etc. must be attended in regular interval.
20. Pressure relief valve must be adjusted at right pressure in case of centralized
21. Pump should not be allowed to rotate in reverse direction.
22. Condensed water and other impurities must be drained from reservoir at regular
23. Oil level, oil pressure and other leakage should be checked regularly.
24. Hoses should be fitted in proper manner only.
25. Flareless joint should be connected carefully to avoid leakage.
26. All warning and protecting devices should be in working condition. These should
not be bypassed from system.
27. Fire extinguisher must be kept ready at different locations to avoid fire hazard.
28. Oil godown should be properly ventilated, clean, lighted and free from fire hazard.
There should be no chance of electrical short circuit.
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29. Oil should be filled up only up to required level.
30. More greasing should be avoided. It normally damages lubricating seals and
31. Some oils are injurious for our eyes and skin. Avoid touching of oil.
32. Lubrication oil should not be used for cleaning components. Proper solvents
should be used only.
33. Lubricants are too costly, avoid misuse of lubricants.
34. Lubricating oil should not be used in hydraulic system. Hydraulic oil has some
specific properties, which a lubrication oil does not have normally.
35. While using coupler, points of grease buttons should be cleaned properly.
Prepared by: Rohit Kumar & S.P.Sharma Page 30 of 30
Questionnaire for self evaluation
1. What are the functions of lubrication?
2. What are the four categories the lubricants?
3. What are the composition of grease?
4. Mention different factors on which selection of lubricants depend.
5. Mention important properties of lubricating oil.
Mention important properties of lubricating Grease.
7. Mention principle of Lubrication.
In case of Boundary lubrication the entire load rests on metallic contact, (T/F)
9. Mention different methods for oil lubrication in which oil is not being reused.
10. Mention different methods of oil lubrication in which reservoir is required.
11. Mention two methods of oil lubrication used for centralized lubrication system.
Mention different methods of grease lubrication.
Name five components of a H5A grease pump.
Write different points to take care for the best performance of this grease pump.
Name different components of an air operated grease pump.
Write different points to take care for he best performance of this grease pump.
Name different components of a Farval grease pump.
Write various points to take care for the best performance of this grease pump.
Name components of a FWA grease pump.
Write different points to take care for the best performance of this grease pump.
Name different components of a centrifuge.
Mention four factors which influences the oil selection .
What are the common problems related with lubricant handling and dispensing?
What are the safety related requirement of a OIL GODOWN ?
25. What are the conventions maintained in TISCO for proper storing and dispensing
of Lubricants ?