ArticlePDF Available

Beneficial Effects of Poultry Meat Consumption on Cardiovascular Health and the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

Authors:
  • Namik Kemal University, Medical Faculty

Abstract and Figures

Poultry meat is an animal product important in human nutrition. A variable, and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals make poultry meat a valuable food. Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as well as the Mediterranean Diet. The substitution of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts and legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Low-fat diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular health benefits. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative diet enriched with high-quality foods reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inflammatory milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function and ultimately act as a barrier to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and development of atherosclerosis. The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on different factors such as age, feeding, keeping, hybrids, carcass parts and type of meat. Preventive measures against risky aspects of the matter should be developed. Since the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens, antibiotics must be replaced by herbs and spices with growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health related benefits to solve the problem. Enrichment and fortification with nutrients may cause poultry meat to gain even more functional food character.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Effects of Poultry Meat
Med One
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
1
DOI: 10.20900/mo.20170018
Received: May 22, 2017
Accepted: July 24, 2017
Published: August 25, 2017
Copyright: ©2017 Cain et al. This is an
open access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License,which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are
credited.
Benecial Effects of Poultry Meat
Consumption on Cardiovascular
Health and the Prevention of
Childhood Obesity
Mustafa Metin Donma1*, Orkide Donma2
1 Prof. Dr. in Pediatrics, Namik Kemal University, Medical Faculty, Department
of Pediatrics, Tekirdag, Turkey;
2 Prof. Dr. in Medical Biochemistry, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical
Faculty, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Istanbul, Turkey.
*Correspondence: Mustafa Metin Donma, Namik Kemal University,
Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Tekirdag, Turkey. Email:
mdonma@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Poultry meat is an animal product important in human nutrition. A
variable, and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of
good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex
vitamins as well as minerals make poultry meat a valuable food.
Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents of Dietary
Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as well as the Mediterranean
Diet. The substitution of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts
and legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2 and gestational
diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular
risk factors. Low-fat diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and
poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular health benets. Anti-
inflammatory and antioxidative diet enriched with high-quality foods
reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inflammatory
milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function
and ultimately act as a barrier to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2
diabetes mellitus and development of atherosclerosis.
The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on different factors
such as age, feeding, keeping, hybrids, carcass parts and type of
meat. Preventive measures against risky aspects of the matter should
be developed. Since the use of antibiotics leads to the development of
antibiotic resistant pathogens, antibiotics must be replaced by herbs
and spices with growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and
other health related benefits to solve the problem. Enrichment and
fortication with nutrients may cause poultry meat to gain even more
functional food character.
Keywords: Poultry meat; Obesity; Childhood
http://mo.qingres.com
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
2
1 INTRODUCTION
Obesity is a chronic low-grade inammatory disease.
In recent years, it has become a major health
problem particularly in children. The prevention of
this disease particularly during childhood will inhibit
the development of obesity in adulthood as well as
obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular
diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, non
alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and
cancer. Overweight children are potentially at risk
of early atherosclerosis as much as obese children
[1]. Overweight children are also susceptible to the
development of heart failure [2]. T cell immunity plays
important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases
such as obesity. Decreased regulatory T cells status
is noted in obese children [3].
The major concern is the reduction in the energy
intake of individuals, prevention of foods with high fat
and carbohydrate content. Poultry meat is an animal
product important in human nutrition. A variable, and
moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins
of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-
soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals
make poultry meat a valuable food [4, 5].
Poultry meat is under the threat of oxidative
stress parameters, which impair the quality of it.
However, successful antioxidative strategies may
fight against oxidative damage produced and
supported by the harmful effects of reactive oxygen
species including those of free radicals (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant sources affecting poultry meat.
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
3
Recent studies have shown that the magnitude
of changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption varied
between children and adults, and also, by meat
source as well as by gender. Also, compared with
1995, more people consuming poultry, mostly as
chicken, in 2011-2012 were reported [6]. Associations
of meat consumption during childhood with
measures of body composition during adolescence
have been investigated [7].
Consumption of poultry meat along with
vegetables and fruits is associated with a risk
reduction of developing overweight and obesity,
cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus,
cancer. The United Nations Food and Agricultural
Organization consider poultry meat widely available,
relatively inexpensive food to be particularly useful in
developing countries. Poultry meat consumption due
to its essential nutrients gains importance particularly
in pediatric and geriatric age groups and during
some physiological conditions such as pregnancy
and breast feeding periods [4].
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 The Nutritive Value of Poultry Meat
The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on
different factors such as age, feeding, keeping,
hybrids, carcass parts and type of meat. Breast
meat is richer in protein and poorer in fat than meat
of drumsticks and thighs. Poultry meat is a good
quality protein source. The low content of collagen
is another positive aspect of poultry meat, because
collagen reduces the digestibility of the meat [4, 5].
Aside from fat soluble vitamins B group vitamins
such as niacin, pyridoxine and pantothenic acid
are found in considerable amounts in poultry meat.
Variable concentrations of physiologically essential
trace elements (iron, zinc and copper) essential for
the human body are found across different types
of meat. Poultry meat is also an excellent source
of selenium, another essential trace element with
antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties [4, 5].
2.2 The Effect of Oxidative Stress
Protein oxidation takes place at the center of
biochemical reactions, which affect the poor quality of
pale, soft and exudative poultry meat. Proteins of the
breast meat are more susceptible to oxidative stress
due to lower pH, an impaired activity of endogenous
antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase,
catalase, superoxide dismutase [8].
Cooking techniques as well as the length of
cooking are two major contributors to the production
of oxidation products, particularly the oxidation
of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and
protein cross-linking, in poultry meat. Out of grilling,
roasting, frying and sous-vide techniques, the last
one seems to be the most advantageous cooking
methods to obtain high-quality meat devoid of protein
carbonylation and disulfide bond formation. Free
thiol groups, Schiff base formation and hardness are
impacted by the length of the cooking [9].
2.3 Risky aspects, antioxidant strategy
and preventive measures
The nutritive value of poultry meat is indisputable.
However, hygienic conditions should also be
considered. There are suggestions on improving the
environmental sustainability of poultry production [10].
There are also studies trying to discuss persistent
risky practices of backyard poultry [11, 12]. Preventive
measures against risky aspects of the matter should
be developed. Some of them may help in fighting
microorganisms. Poultry products enriched with
micronutrients will possess beneficial effects on
human health [5]. Enrichment of feeds with some
selected nutrients is quite important. Enrichment of
the corn in the diet of chickens with key carotenoids
maintains poultry health, increases the nutritional
value of poultry products and protects them against
coccidiosis [13]. Another nutrient with antioxidant
properties is L-carnitine. It plays important roles
in fatty acid metabolism by directing fatty acids to
oxidation in mitochondria. L-carnitin also promotes
growth and strengthens the immune system [14].
Since the use of antibiotics leads to the
development of antibiotic resistant pathogens,
antibiotics must be replaced by botanical
alternatives to antibiotics such as herbs and spices
with antimicrobial properties, and other health
related benefits to solve the problem [15]. Poultry
meat enriched with herbs and spices containing
phytochemicals possessing beneficial effects
also for human health exerts various antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihelmintic
functions. Some may also act as growth promoter,
immunomodulator, immunostimulant, hypoglycemic,
hypolipidemic agents [16, 17] (Table 1).
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
4
Elevated methylmercury concentrations observed
in muscles and organs of chickens, ducks and
geese suggest that poultry meat can be an important
human methylmercury exposure source in some
areas of the world [18].
Mycotoxins in foods and feeds are a major
problem throughout the world. Aflatoxins,
biologically active mycotoxins, constitute a great
risk causing anorexia, listlessness, hepatotoxicosis,
haemorrhage. Natural sodium bentonite and
sepiolite, aluminum and magnesium silicates,
respectively, added to poultry feed without harmful
effects are capable of absorbing aatoxins and thus,
act as toxin-binding agents [19, 20].
Phytase supplementation improves the growth
performance and reduces the phosphorus levels [21].
2.4 Allergy to Poultry Meat and Hen’s
Egg
Allergy to poultry meat and hen’s egg are important
risks associated with the higher worldwide
consumption of these foods. Allergy to poultry meat
is rare, but affects both children and adults. Primary
poultry meat allergy is mainly seen in adolescents
and young adults however, hypersensitivity may
start at an earlier age. Oral allergy syndrome,
gastrointestinal complaints, urticaria and angioedema
are typical symptoms [22].
Hen’s egg is an important and inexpensive source
of high-quality proteins in the human diet. It is a key
ingredient in many food products due to its nutritional
value and unique functional properties. However,
egg is also known for its allergenic potential. Hen’s
egg allergy mainly affects young children worldwide
and may be potentially life-threatening [23]. It is the
second most common food allergy particularly in
children, next to cow’s milk allergy [24, 25]. Hen’s egg
allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four
allergens (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin
and lysozyme) found in the egg white. Alpha-livetin
appears to be the main allergen in egg yolk [25, 26].
In children with hen’s egg allergy, these allergens
may cause itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial
asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal
edema, chronic urticaria and anaphylaxis [25,
27]. Elimination of eggs and products containing
eggs from the diet is the most effective way of
avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. Oral
immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction
protocol. Induction of Treg cells has been reported
after oral immunotherapy [25, 26, 28].
3 RESULTS
Table 1. Some herbs as well as spices and their main functions for the improvement of poultry
HERBS FUNCTIONS
Garlic Growth promoter, antioxidant, immunostimulant, augment T cells
Curcumin Growth promoter, immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-inammatory, antiseptic,
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic
Ginger Growth promoter, antioxidant, effective in diarrhea, eye diseases
Onion Antioxidant, antihelmintic, effective in diarrhea, skin infections
Echinacea Immunostimulant, effective in upper respiratory tract infections, gut infections
Thyme Growth promoter, antioxidant, immunomodulator, antimicrobial, antilipidemic
Rosemary Growth promoter, antioxidant
Cinnamon Growth promoter, antioxidant, immunomodulator, antimicrobial
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
5
Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents
of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as
well as the Mediterranean Diet [29-31]. The substitution
of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts and
legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2
and gestational diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic
control and cardiovascular risk factors. Low-fat
diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and
poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular
health benefits. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative
diet enriched with high-quality foods reduces pro-
inammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inammatory
milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and
endothelial function and ultimately act as a barrier
to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes
mellitus and development of atherosclerosis [32-34].
Introduction of some meat including poultry to
children in later ages is detected in populations with
low nutritional status compared to populations with
middle and good nutritional status [35].
Adequate consumption of poultry meat can
facilitate the control of body weight due to its high
protein content and help to counteract against the
development of obesity, cardiovascular diseases,
diabetes mellitus and cancer [4].
Poultry is one of the most common dietary
sources of L-arginine, the precursor amino acid for
nitric oxide synthesis. L-arginine supplementation
may be a novel therapy for obesity and metabolic
syndrome [36].
Supplementation or fortification with selenium
contributes to the matter with its anti-inflammatory
and antioxidative properties. Selenium is also
considered for the treatment of obesity [37].
4 CONCLUSION
Poultry meat is particularly susceptible to oxidative
damage. Lipid oxidation is a major threat to the
quality of processed poultry meat. Low feed intakes,
poor performance, diseases, rancidity, formation
of toxic compounds are some of the impacts of
oxidation [38]. Protein oxidation plays important roles
in the impaired quality poultry meat. Therefore,
it will contribute to the productivity in this field to
avoid from applications, which may lead to oxidative
damage.
Fortification and enrichment of poultry meat
with nutrients such as vitamins, trace elements,
phytochemicals and omega-3 fatty acids may result
in gaining even more functional food character
because they promote optimal health and help to
reduce the risk of diseases.
Poultry meat prepared in optimum conditions
will favor the healthy growth and development of
children. The replacement of high-calorie foods,
commonly consumed at present by the young
population, with this valuable protein source will help
children to avoid obesity and obesity-associated
chronic diseases both during childhood and also
their adulthood.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors declare that there is no conflict of
interest regarding the publication of this paper.
REFERENCES
1. Alpsoy S, Akyuz A, Akkoyun DC, Nalbantoglu B,
Topcu B, Tulubas F, Demirkol M, Donma MM.
Is overweight a risk of early atherosclerosis
in childhood? Angiology. 2013; doi:
10.1177/0003319713476134.
2. Alpsoy S, Akyuz A, Akkoyun DC, Nalbantoglu
B, Topcu B, Degirmenci H, Ozdilek B, Donma
MM. Effect of overweight on cardiac function
in children. Turk Cardiol Org Arch. 2013; 41(8):
714-723.
3. Donma M, Karasu E, Ozdilek B, Turgut B, Topcu
B, Nalbantoglu B, Donma O. CD(4), CD(25),
FOXP3 (+) T regulatory cell levels in obese,
asthmatic, asthmatic obese and healthy children.
Inammation. 2015; 38(4): 1473-1478.
4. Marangoni F, Corsello G, Cricelli C, Ferrara N,
Ghiselli A, Lucchin L, Poli A. Role of poultry meat
in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health
and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document.
Food Nutr Res. 2015; 59: 27606.
5. Kralik G, Kralik Z. Poultry products enriched
with nutricines have benecial effects on human
health. Med Glas (Zenica). 2017; 14(1): 1-6.
6. Sui Z, Raubenheimer D, Cunningham J, Rangan
A. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption
in Australia: From 1995 to 2011-2012. Nutrients.
2016; 8(12): pii E753.
7. Harris C, Buyken A, von Berg A, Berdel D,
Lehmann I, Hoffmann B, Koletzko S, Koletzko B,
Heinrich J, Standl M. Prospective associations
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
6
of meat consumption during childhood
with measures of body composition during
adolescence: results from the GINIplus and
LISAplus birth cohorts. Nutr J. 2016; 15(1): 101.
8. Carvalho RH, Ida EI, Madruga MS, Martinez
SL, Shimokomaki M, Estévez M. Underlying
connections between the redox system
imbalance, protein oxidation and impaired
quality traits in pale, soft and exudative (PSE)
poultry meat. Food Chem. 2017; 215: 129-137.
9. Silva FAP, Ferreira VCS, Madruga MS, Estevez
M. Effect of the cooking method (grilling,
roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation
of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and
protein cross-linking in jerky chicken. J Food Sci
Technol. 2016; 53(8): 3137-3146.
10. Leinonen I, Kyriazakis I. How can we improve
the environmental sustainability of poultry
production? Proc Nutr Soc. 2016; 75(3): 265-
273.
11. Shanta IS, Hasnat MA, Zeidner N, Gurley ES,
Azziz-Baumgartner E, Sharker MA, Hossain K,
Khan SU, Haider N, Bhuyan AA, Hossain MA,
Luby SP. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural
Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benets,
but Persistent Risky Practices. Transbound
Emerg Dis. 2016; doi: 10.1111.
12. Headey D, Hirvonen K. Is Exposure to Poultry
Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational
Analysis for Rural Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2016;
11(8): e0160590.
13. Nogareda C, Moreno JA, Angulo E, Sandmann
G, Portero M, Capell T, Zhu C, Christou P.
Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers
bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects
them against coccidiosis. Plant Biotechnol J.
2016; 14(1): 160-168.
14. Adabi SHG, Cooper RG, Ceylan N, Corduk M.
L-carnitine and its functional effects in poultry
nutrition. Worlds PoultrySci J. 2011; 67(2): 277-
296.
15. Diaz-Sanchez S, D'Souza D, Biswas D, Hanning
I. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use
in organic poultry production. Poult Sci. 2015;
94(6): 1419-1430.
16. Dhama K, Tiwari R, Khan RU, Chakraborty S,
Gopi M, Karthik K, Saminathan M, Desingu
PA, Sunkara LT. Growth promoters and novel
feed additives improving poultry production
and health, bioactive principles and beneficial
applications: The trends and advances-A review.
Int J Pharmacol. 2014; 10(3): 129-159.
17. Dhama K, Latheef SK, Mani S, Samad HA,
Karthik K, Tiwari R, Khan RU, Alagawany M,
Farag MR, Alam GM, et al. Multiple beneficial
applications and modes of action of herbs in
poultry health and production-A review. Int J
Pharmacol. 2015; 11(3): 152-176.
18. Yin R, Zhang W, Sun G, Feng Z, Hurley JP, Yang
L, Shang L, Feng X. Mercury risk in poultry in
the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. Environ
Pollut. 2017; 230: 810-816.
19. Yenice E, Mizrak C, Ceylan N, Yıldız T, Gultekin
M, Atık Z. Effects of dietary sodium bentonite
and mannan oligosaccharide supplementation
on performance, egg quality, blood and digestion
characteristics of laying hens fed aflatoxin
contaminated diet. Kafkas Univ Vet Fac J. 2015;
21(2): 211-218.
20. Mizrak C, Yenice E, Kahraman Z, Tunca M,
Yıldırım U, Ceylan N. Effects of dietary sepiolite
and mannanoligosaccharide supplementation
on the performance, egg quality, blood and
digestion characteristics of laying hens receiving
aflatoxin in their feed. Ankara Univ Vet Fac J.
2014; 61(1): 65-71.
21. Ceylan N, Cangiri S, Corduk M, Grigorov A, Adai
SHG. The effects of phytase supplementation
and dietary phosphorus level on performance
and on tibia ash and phosphorus contents in
broilers fed maize-soya-based diets. J Anim
Feed Sci. 2012; 21(4): 696-704.
22. Hemmer W, Klug C, Swoboda I. Update on the
bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat
allergy. Allergo J Int. 2016; 25: 68-75.
23. Chokshi NY, Sicherer SH. Molecular diagnosis of
egg allergy: an update. Expert Rev Mol Diagn.
2015; 15(7): 895-906.
24. Benedé S, López-Expósito I, Molina E, López-
Fandiño R. Egg proteins as allergens and the
effects of the food matrix and processing. Food
Funct. 2015; 6(3): 694-713.
25. Dhanapala P, De Silva C, Doran T, Suphioglu
C. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg
hypersensitivity. Mol Immunol. 2015; 66(2): 375-
383.
26. Urisu A, Kondo Y, Tsuge I. Hen's Egg Allergy.
Chem Immunol Allergy. 2015; 101: 124-130.
27. Ohtani K, Sato S, Syukuya A, Asaumi T, Ogura K,
Koike Y, Iikura K, Yanagida N, Imai T, Ebisawa
M. Natural history of immediate-type hen's egg
allergy in Japanese children. Allergol Int. 2016;
65(2): 153-157.
28. Fuentes-Aparicio V, Alonso-Lebrero E, Zapatero
L, Infante S, Lorente R, Muñoz-Fernández
MÁ, Correa-Rocha R. Induction of Treg cells
Effects of Poultry Meat
Mustafa Metin Donma et al.
MED ONE 2017, 2:e170018 | Email:mo@qingres.com August 25, 2017
7
after oral immunotherapy in hen's egg-allergic
children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014; 25(1):
103-106.
29. Sayer RD, Wright AJ, Chen N, Campbell WW.
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet
retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure
when lean pork is substituted for chicken and
sh as the predominant source of protein. Am J
Clin Nutr. 2015; 102(2): 302-308.
30. Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J. "Towards an even
healthier Mediterranean diet". Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis. 2013; 23(12): 1163-1166.
31. Casas R, Sacanella E, Estruch R. The immune
protective effect of the Mediterranean diet
against chronic low-grade inflammatory
diseases. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug
Targets. 2014; 14(4): 245-254.
32. Bao W, Bowers K, Tobias DK, Hu FB, Zhang
C. Prepregnancy dietary protein intake,
major dietary protein sources, and the risk of
gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective
cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36(7): 2001-
2008.
33. Bales C. What you eat signicantly impacts your
heart health. A low-fat diet, plus more fruits,
grains, nuts, sh and poultry instead of red meat,
yields cardiovascular health benets. Duke Med
Health News. 2011; 17(8): 4-5.
34. Esposito K, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G,
Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Mediterranean
diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic
benets. Endocrine. 2016; 56(1): 27-32.
35. Köksal E, Yalçın SS, Pekcan G, Özbaş S, Tezel
B, Köse MR. Complementary feeding practices
of children aged 12-23 months in Turkey. Cent
Eur J Public Health. 2015; 23(2): 125-130.
36. Lorin J, Zeller M, Guilland JC, Cottin Y, Vergely C,
Rochette L. Arginine and nitric oxide synthase:
regulatory mechanisms and cardiovascular
aspects. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014; 58(1): 101-
116.
37. Donma MM, Donma O. Promising link between
selenium and peroxisome proliferator activated
receptor gamma in the treatment protocols of
obesity as well as depression. Med Hypotheses.
2016; 89: 79-83.
38. Estévez M. Oxidative damage to poultry: From
farm to fork. Poultry Sci. 2015; 94(6): 1368-
1378.
... Poultry meat is considered one of the most popular sources of animal protein with a high nutritional value and healthy ingredients for the people of the whole world due to their biological importance in cell regeneration and maintaining human health [1]. e poultry industry is one of the important elements in a country to fulfill animal protein demand, and researchers have made their efforts to contribute to their development by increasing production and health efficiency and eliminating problems that are exposed to them, including oxidative stress stimulated by heat stress [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent interest in carotenoids has increased due to their antioxidant and production performance. Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid abundantly distributed in microalgae, which is described as a highly potent antioxidant. Therefore, recent studies have tended to investigate the role of antioxidants in improving metabolic processes and physiological functioning of the body. It is now evident that AST could significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help to maintain a healthy state. Moreover, AST also could improve the performance of broiler chicken by increasing the daily feed intake, followed by improvement in the food conversion rate.
... The high level of protein, complete amino acid composition, essential micronutrients, and low levels of fat in poultry meat provide a healthy diet for different groups of people [1]. These features reduce the risk of obesity and prevent malnutrition and cardiovascular diseases in humans [2]. However, poultry meat consumption may be limited among the elderly because of the mastication and swallowing challenges due to different oral impairments [3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of minimal thermal processing techniques such as sous vide technology to improve the quality of meat-based foods has gained a special focus in recent years. A proper combination of temperature and time parameters in sous vide processing plays an important role in the water-holding capacity, texture properties, and juiciness of the meat. The present study aimed to assess the impact of the one-step and two-step sous vide processing on different quality properties of chicken breast with special emphasis on the cooking loss, color, texture properties, protein solubility, and lipid oxidation. According to the results, chicken breast treated with a two-step temperature (50 and 60 °C) showed improved texture parameters (shear force, hardness, chewiness, and gumminess), lower cooking loss, acceptable redness values, and decreased lipid oxidation levels than the chicken breast treated with the one-step temperature of 60 °C. Moreover, the two-step sous vide technique revealed significantly higher total protein solubility of the chicken breast than the one-step sous vide. Based on pasteurization values, the two-step sous vide technique was equally safe as the one-step sous vide technique for vegetative cells’ inactivation for the main pathogens of interest (C. perfringens and L. monocytogenes).
... The method of [19], was used to estimate the loss during cooking of the whole carcass by roasting in an electric oven at 160 ° C for 6.5 minutes and by applying the following equation: -Loss during cooking (%)= ×100 ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was conducted to add low levels of Astaxanthin to the feed on some physical and chemical traits of broiler carcasses raised at 42 days of age. 240 unsexed chicks, one day age, used the ROSS 308 strain, which was distributed randomly into five treatments by 48 chicks/treatment, and each treatment was divided into three replicates (16 chicks/replicate). The chicks were fed on three diets that included the initiator, growth, and final (23, 21.5, and 19.44% crude protein), respectively. Representative energy has amounted to 3000.5, 3100.7, and 3199.25 kcal/kg feed, respectively. Astaxanthin powder was added to the diet at levels 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/Kg of feed (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments group), respectively. The results show the following: The treatments with Astaxanthin has recorded a significant improvement (P <0.01) in the percentages of liquids loss during cooking, drip and thawing loss, a significant increase in water holding capacity and pH in favor of the nutrient addition treatments compared to the control group. It, also, showed a significant improvement in the chemical traits of the Myoglobin and cholesterol concentration of minced chicken meat for the Astaxanthin treatments compared to the control group. It is concluded from the present study that the addition of low levels of Astaxanthin to broiler feed during the 42-day rearing period gave the best results in the physical and chemical traits of the carcass.
... Poultry meat and its products are considered one of the most important sources of animal protein with high nutritional value and a health food ingredient for the people of the world. It has biological importance in building the body and maintaining human health [2], but this development has been accompanied by some basic problems such as stress, which is one of the stresses that cause great economic losses in the poultry industry [3], which causes a decrease in product performance. The immune system and the deterioration of the meat quality of broilers as a result of the weak digestive system's ability to digest and absorb nutrients, the peripheral vessels expand and the blood flow decreases. ...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment was conducted at the poultry farm/Department of Animal Production/College of Agriculture/Al-Qasim Green University And for two experiments, The first for the period from 27/4/2019 to 7/6/2019 and the second from 1/7/2019 to 4/8/2019 for the second experiment to see the effect of adding different levels of astaxanthin to the broiler diet on some immune characteristics of broilers raised under environmental conditions Natural and elevated. Use 240 unsexed birds of one day age ROSS 308 strain, distributed randomly into five treatments by 48 birds/treatment and the birds of each treatment were divided into three replicates (16 birds/replicate). The chicks were fed on three diets that included the initiator, growth and final 23, 21.5 and 19.44% crude protein respectively, and the representative energy was 3000.5, 3100.7 and 3199.25 kcal/kg feed, respectively, in addition to the astaxanthin powder at levels 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg/kg of feed for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments, respectively. The results of the first trial showed a significant superiority (P<0.05) for treatment T2 in the relative weight of the fabrichia gland and for the fabrichia index, and significant superiority for treatment T5 and T3 in the size standard of antibodies directed against Newcastle disease, while treatment T2 and T3 outperformed the size criterion of antibodies directed against camboro disease compared With the control treatment T1, and the second trial, the additional factors T2, T3, T4 and T5 achieved significant superiority (P<0.01) in all the immunological characteristics studied by treatment T1. It is concluded from this study that the addition of astaxanthin to the broiler meat diet led to an improvement in the immune characteristics of broilers raised under normal and elevated environmental temperatures.
... Chicken meat is an animal product that is important for human nutrition, has a variable and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals that make poultry meat a valuable food. (Donma et al.,2017). Chicken meat is the ideal medium for bacterial growth due to its high moisture content, richness in nitrogenous compounds (essential amino acids, proteins), a good source of minerals, vitamins, and other growth factors. ...
... Poultry meat and meat products are considered one of the most important sources of animal protein with a high nutritional value and healthy ingredients for the people of the whole world because of their biological importance in building the body and maintaining human health (Donma and Donma, 2017). The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has counted these meat and meat products where healthy food for humans and the poultry industry has witnessed widespread interest by many researchers and breeders interested in developing this sector where a result of rapid growth and high efficiency in food transformation (Marangoni et al., 2015), However, this development was accompanied by some basic problems resulting from several causes such as heat stress, which is one of the stresses that cause major economic losses in the poultry industry (Hirakawa et al., 2020), where stress stimulates oxidation by producing free radicals and causing oxidative damage in the body. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted in the field of poultry, Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture, University of Al-Qasim Green for the period from 1/7/2019 to 5/8/2019. To know the effect of adding different levels of Astaxanthin to the diet of broiler chickens in the productive performance of broiler chickens. 240 unsexed chicks at one day of age used ROSS 308 strain randomly distributed on five treatments (48 chicks/treatment). The chicks were fed on the starting and final diet containing 22.74 and 20.16% crude protein, and representative energy of 3078 and 3125.2 kilograms price/kg feed, respectively, In addition to the Astaxanthin powder at levels 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg feed for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments, respectively. The addition treatments (T2, T3, T4 and T5) showed a highly significantly excelled (P <0.01) in both final body weight average, total weight gain, and the amount of cumulative consumed feed and improvement of feed conversion ratio significantly high, with a significant decrease in the total mortality of all adding treatments compared to control treatment (T1). It is concluded from this study that the addition of Astaxanthin to the broiler chickens diet has led to an improvement in the productive performance of broilers chickens reared under high environmental temperatures for 35 days.
... Poultry meat and meat products are considered one of the most important sources of animal protein with a high nutritional value and healthy ingredients for the people of the whole world because of their biological importance in building the body and maintaining human health (Donma and Donma, 2017). The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has counted these meat and meat products where healthy food for humans and the poultry industry has witnessed widespread interest by many researchers and breeders interested in developing this sector where a result of rapid growth and high efficiency in food transformation (Marangoni et al., 2015), However, this development was accompanied by some basic problems resulting from several causes such as heat stress, which is one of the stresses that cause major economic losses in the poultry industry (Hirakawa et al., 2020), where stress stimulates oxidation by producing free radicals and causing oxidative damage in the body. ...
Article
This study was conducted in the field of poultry, Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, the University of Al-Qasim Green for the period from 1/7/2019 to 5/8/2019. To know the effect of adding different levels of Astaxanthin to the diet of broiler chickens in the productive performance of broiler chickens. 240 unsexed chicks at one day of age used ROSS 308 strain randomly distributed on five treatments (48 chicks/treatment). The chicks were fed on the starting and final diet containing 22.74 and 20.16% crude protein, and representative energy of 3078 and 3125.2 kilograms price/kg feed, respectively, In addition to the Astaxanthin powder at levels 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg feed for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments, respectively. The addition treatments (T2, T3, T4, and T5) showed a highly significantly excelled (P <0.01) in both final body weight average, total weight gain, and the amount of cumulative consumed feed and improvement of feed conversion ratio significantly high, with a significant decrease in the total mortality of all adding treatments compared to control treatment (T1). It is concluded from this study that the addition of Astaxanthin to the broiler chickens diet has led to an improvement in the productive performance of broiler chickens reared under high environmental temperatures for 35 days.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite legislative advancements, domestic violence is still today a crime considered as "minor" by many, or often the actions that materialise it are not even recognised. The first steps in Portuguese legislation were taken by the Penal Code approved in 1982, which typified the crime of ill-treatment between spouses, and by the Law n. º 61/91 of 13th of August, which guaranteed “adequate protection to women victims of violence”. However, only in 2007, was the crime of Domestic Violence created, which shows, from 1982 until then, a long path of hesitations and slow social evolution concerning the consciousness of this crime’s seriousness. Until 2007, the crime of spousal abuse was integrated in a broader criminal arrangement, characterised by the abuse of persons. In 2009, with the typification of the crime of Domestic Violence and with the publication of the legal regime applicable to the prevention, protection, and assistance of victims, denominated as Law of Domestic Violence, a more consolidated phase was inaugurated, in both legal treatment and social intervention. Despite these evolutions, Portugal continues to witness an attitude of "social and collective consent" to some forms of Domestic Violence, oftentimes disguised in the acceptance and normalisation of gender inequalities. We have seen news stories where judgements are presented, within the scope of Domestic Violence cases, where discriminatory ideas against women and excuses for the crime of Domestic Violence are manifested. This is proof that some of the representatives of justice (the judges) do not accept what has already been legally approved in the Portuguese legal system. Similarly, recent studies on the population’s perception of domestic and gender-based violence show the abiding ideas and understandings of acceptance and normalisation of domestic and gender-based violence in Portuguese society. We intend to present the evolution of the typification of the crime of domestic violence in Portugal. Then, we intend to understand how this phenomenon has been perceived in Portuguese society. Therefore, we will be able to understand the continuities and ruptures between the legislative body and the social body in what concerns Domestic Violence and Violence against Women in Portugal.
Article
We aimed to assess the dietary composition of lunch meal using a posteriori derived dietary patterns and to determine the association of lunch composition with obesity in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 850 men and women in Tehran (aged 20-59 y). Dietary intakes were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls, and dietary patterns were identified via principal component factor analysis. For each identified pattern, scores were calculated for each participant and then classified into tertiles. Central obesity was defined WHO criteria. General obesity was defined as a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m ² . Three major dietary patterns were identified at lunch meal using 12 food groups: “Bread, grains and fat”, “Western”, and “Potato and eggs”. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants at the top tertile of the “Bread, grains and fat” dietary pattern had greater odds for a higher waist to hip ratio, compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.07). However, we found no association between ‘Western or ‘“potato and eggs” patterns and waist to hip ratio (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.28 and OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.42, respectively). None of the identified dietary patterns was associated when defining obesity with waist circumference or body mass index. In conclusion, participants had a greater chance of central obesity defined based on waist to hip ratio following a lunchtime pattern with a higher and positive loading factor for “Bread, grains and fat”.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents nutritive value of broiler meat and table eggs, as these animal products are used for human nutrition on a daily basis. In the Republic of Croatia, average consumption of poultry meat amounts to 18.3 kg and to 160 eggs per capita.The most quality parts of broiler carcass are breasts and drumsticks with thighs. Breast muscles contain 21-23% protein, 1.90-1.97% fat, 75.28-76.01% water and 0.74-0.77% collagen. Thigh muscles contain 4.70-6.05% fat, 19.03-19.93% protein and 0.91-1.13% collagen. White meat contains more potassium and magnesium and less zinc and iron than dark meat. In 100 g of edible egg part there is 12.5-13.5 g protein, 10.7-11.6 g fat and 1.0-1.1 g minerals. Caloric valueof eggs is 167 Kcal. Eggs contain high amount of essential amino acids, especially leucine, isoleucine, lysine, arginine, valine and phenylalanine. Furthermore, eggs contain many vitamins, especially A, D, E, K and B-complex, as well as various macroelements and microelements. Eggs and meat enriched with one or more functional ingredients - nutricines (polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, selenium and lutein) meet the criteria of functional food because of their added value and benefits for human health.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock–particularly poultry and poultry feces–may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection.
Article
Full-text available
Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose–insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20–23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30–0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28–30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.
Article
Full-text available
Allergy to poultry meat is rare and affects both children and adults. The prevalence of poultry meat allergy is unknown, but presumably is similar to that of red meat allergy. There is no close relationship between allergy to poultry meat and allergy to red meat. Poultry meat allergy may present as primary (genuine) food allergy or as secondary food allergy resulting from cross-reactivity. Secondary poultry meat allergy may arise in the context of bird-egg-syndrome, which is due to sensitization to serum albumins present in many tissues including muscle tissue and egg yolk (Gal d 5). Primary sensitization to serum albumin may happen via the respiratory tract through exposure to pet birds (mainly in adults) or within the context of egg allergy in early childhood. Due to the heat lability of serum albumins, reactions are often limited to the skin upon contact with raw meat. Symptoms from meat ingestion are rare and mostly mild, whereas systemic reactions are common after ingestion of raw or soft-boiled egg yolk. Primary poultry meat allergy is mainly seen in adolescents and young adults, though hypersensitivity may have started already at (pre)school age. Egg allergy is usually absent. Typical symptoms of primary poultry meat allergy include OAS (±dyspnea), gastrointestinal complaints, urticaria and angioedema. Severe anaphylaxis with cardiovascular symptoms is rare. Chicken and turkey meat are highly cross-reactive and responsible for most reactions, while duck and goose meat causes milder or no symptoms. Soups, sausages, and ham represent relevant allergen sources, too. Patients with poultry meat allergy unexpectedly often suffer from concomitant allergy to fish and possibly shrimp. Serum specific IgE against fish and shrimp is found in respectively 60 and 40 % of sera, suggestive of cross-reactive allergens in these foods. The allergens thus far recognized in genuine poultry meat are LMW proteins of 5–25 kDa. One of them has been identified as α-parvalbumin cross-reactive with homologous mammal α-parvalbumins but not with fish α-parvalbumins. Recently, myosin light chains, including 23 kDa MLC-1 (Gal d 7) and 15 kDa MLC-3, have been recognized as new major allergens in chicken meat. The high similarity of chicken MLCs with those from various fish species (∼65 %) might explain the clinical association of poultry meat allergy with fish allergy.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the breastfeeding and complementary feeding attitudes and practices of women with children aged 12-23 months in three different regions in Turkey. Methods: From 12 geographical regions (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics - NUTS 1), 3 regions were selected depending on the Turkish Demographic Health Survey 2003 (TDHS) results of nutritional status of children. Then, a weighted, multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used. In total, 1,486 children aged 12-23 months and mother pairs were enrolled. Mothers were face-to-face interviewed with trained health workers to collect information on breastfeeding practices, amount and types of complementary foods introduced and potentially related factors and demographic data filled in a questionnaire. Results: The percentage of ever breastfeeding was 98.7%, no differences were determined among regions for ever breastfeeding (p>0.05). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.1±2.4 months. The shortest duration of exclusive breastfeeding was found in the good nutritional status region as 4.8±2.4 months (p<0.05). Yogurt, bread, pasta, fruits and vegetables were the foods introduced to the majority of the children. Red meat, poultry and fish were introduced to children in later ages in the low nutritional status region compared to middle and good nutritional status regions. Complementary feeding is introduced earlier than 6 months of age. Conclusions: Raising awareness on appropriate infant and young child feeding practices should be a priority. Enhancing of mothers knowledge, attitudes and practices on breastfeeding and complementary feeding is needed.
Article
Full-text available
In this experiment, sepiolite (% 1.5 and % 3) and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS, % 0.1) were fed to layers each receiving 120 ppb aflatoxin, and were compared to control (K) and negative control (NK) groups. The experiment began at 26 wk of hen age and continued for 12 wk. Each of the five dietary treatments was randomly assigned to six replicates each included six hens. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in livability, live weight change, egg weight and feed intake between the groups. NK had worse feed conversion ratio than control (P<0.05). The addition of % 1.5 sepiolite resulted in an increase in egg production and egg mass in comparison to NK and MOS groups, and in an increase in feed efficiency (P<0.05). There were no differences between the groups in parameters characterizing egg quality, namely, in the ratio of cracked-broken eggs, albumen height, haugh unit, shape index, shell thickness, and shell resistance, moreover, in the colour (RYCF), shine (L) and yellowness (b) of egg yolk (P>0.05). Aflatoxin was not detected in eggs obtained from any of the groups. The pH of faeces of hens in the NK group was higher than that of birds in the K and the 3 % sepiolite-treated groups (p<0.05). The proportion of dry matter of the feces was the lowest in the NK group, nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not significant (p>0.05). The addition of MOS and sepiolite to the feed reduced the degree of digestion of aflatoxin by % 6-12. As a result, sepiolite supplementation to laying hen diets containing aflatoxins can be concluded that had the beneficial effects on hen performance.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hen's egg (HE) allergy develops during infancy. We investigated tolerance acquisition in Japanese children allergic to HE aging <6 years. Methods: In this retrospective study, 226 children born in 2005 with a history of immediate-type HE allergy underwent an oral food challenge (OFC). Tolerance was defined as no reaction to an OFC with half of whole heated HE or accidental HE consumption at home. Participants were divided into three groups based on age at tolerance acquisition: group I (<3 years) (n = 66), group II (3-6 years) (n = 98), and group III (prolonged allergic groups) (n = 62). Results: Tolerance acquisition occurred in 30% (66/226) by 3 years of age, 59% (133/226) by 5 years of age, and 73% (164/226) at 6 years of age. At 3 years, incidences of allergy-related complications (bronchial asthma, p = 0.02; atopic dermatitis, p = 0.04) were higher in the group III than in the group I. Anaphylaxis to any food occurred more frequently in the group III than in the group I (p = 0.03); anaphylaxis to HE was more common in the group III (p = 0.04). Egg white (EW)- and ovomucoid (OM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were higher in the group III than in the group I (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The group III experienced HE-related anaphylaxis and complications more frequently and exhibited sustained, high EW- and OM-specific IgE levels.
Article
In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4-62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source. Ducks and geese showed higher Hg levels than chickens. For all poultry species, the highest Hg concentrations were observed in liver (THg: 23.2-3917.1 ng/g; MeHg: 7.1-62.8 ng/g) and blood (THg: 12.3-338.0 ng/g; MeHg: 1.4-17.6 ng/g). We estimated the Hg burdens in chickens (THg: 15.3-238.1 μg; MeHg: 2.2-15.6 μg), ducks (THg: 15.3-238.1 μg; MeHg: 3.5-14.7 μg) and geese (THg: 83.8-93.4 μg; MeHg: 15.4-29.7 μg). To not exceed the daily intake limit for THg (34.2 μg/day) and MeHg (6 μg/day), we suggested that the maximum amount (g) for chicken leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 1384, 1498, 2315, 1214, 1081, 257, and 717, respectively; the maximum amount (g) for duck leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 750, 1041, 986, 858, 752, 134, and 573, respectively; and the maximum amount (g) for goose leg, breast, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, and blood should be 941, 1051, 1040, 1131, 964, 137, and 562, respectively.
Article
Considerable interest has been given to the significance of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) in macronutrient metabolism, however, there is not sufficient data concerning the interactions between PPARs and micronutrients. Investigations performed on PPARγ and one of the essential micronutrients selenium (Se) have shown that both parameters may lead to alterations in obesity-related or mood disorders. Therefore, it is plausible to consider PPARγ and Se together as a powerful combination during the treatment of two associated diseases; obesity and depression. PPARγ has been shown to be involved in the antidepressant-like activity. It is also an important parameter to be considered in obesity as the master regulator of adipogenesis. The mechanism of action of PPARγ is initiated by ligand binding which induces a conformational change in the receptor. Se is capable of alleviating inflammatory signaling pathways. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Depression is also defined as an inflammatory disorder. Inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) participate in the progression of depression. They are also obesity-associated parameters. Due to TNFα induced depressive-like behaviors and the positive association between this proinflammatory cytokine and obesity, TNFα-activated signaling pathways and those inhibiting them have recently gained importance as potential targets and therapeutic tools, respectively. More studies are necessary to develop compounds with therapeutic nature against depressive disorders and obesity. PPARγ is an important signaling pathway that occurs at the crossroads of depression and obesity. Se, aside from its anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antioxidative nature, affects also the way of PPARγ action. Se supplementation or fortification as well as the development of the partial agonists of PPARγ in which lipophilic Se compounds are used as ligand followed by experimental trials and human studies using the newly developed compounds will be promising approaches for future hope during the treatment of these diseases.