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Factor structure of the integral readiness of aerobics athletes (women)

Authors:
  • Украинский государственный университет железнодорожного транспорта
  • Mariupol State University

Abstract and Figures

The aim of the work is to develop the principles of team completion in sports aerobics using methods of factor and cluster analysis. Material and methods. Participants in the study. The study involved 24 aerobics athletes (women) – members of the national team and its reserve for sports aerobics in Kharkov. Methods of research: Aerobics athletes were performed complex examination to determine the functional state of the body of athletes (arterial pressure, parameters of pulsometry, testing on the treadmill), psychophysiological state (determination of the time of a simple and complex reaction in various modes of signal delivery). Physical development, vestibular stability and physical readiness were also determined. For the processing of data, methods of mathematical statistics were applied the computer programs "EXEL" and "SPSS". Mathematical and visual models of aerobics of each group were constructed. Results. Using factor analysis in the structure of the complex preparedness of women, four main factors were identified: 1 - The factor "Parasympathicotonia"; 2 - Factor "Mobility of the nervous system "; 3 - Factor "Force"; 4 - Factor "A sense of time". The individual factor structure of athletes' preparedness was revealed, for which the percentage values of the severity of each factor in each athlete were determined. All athletes have a different severity of various factors, indicating that there are significant individual differences. On the basis of the data obtained, groups of athletes can be formed for appearances in various competitive categories. Conclusions. Factor analysis allows to determine the overall and individual structure of athletes' preparedness. The data obtained with regard to the individual preparedness structure can be used for associations of athletes in groups for participation in different competitive categories.
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Journal of Physical Education and Sport
®
(JPES), 17 Supplement issue 5, Art 227, pp. 2188 - 2196, 2017
online ISSN: 2247 - 806X; p-ISSN: 2247 – 8051; ISSN - L = 2247 - 8051 © JPES
2188 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corresponding Author ZHANNETA KOZINA, E-mail: zhanneta.kozina@gmail.com
Original Article
Factor structure of the integral readiness of aerobics athletes (women)
ZHANNETA KOZINA
1
, TATYANA SHEPELENKO
2
, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
3
, VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH
4
,
OLENA REPKO
1
, TATYANA BAZILYUK
5
, IRINA SOBKO
6
, ANATOLII GUBA
1
, ANDRII
PROKOPENKO
1
, MIKOLA TRUBCHANINOV
1
, IVAN STASIUK
7
, KATERINA MULIK
8
1
Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
2
Ukrainian State University of Railway Transport, Ukraine
3
Mariupol State University, Ukraine
4
Mykhailo Kotsyubynskyi Vinnitsa State Pedagogical University, Ukraine
5
Kiev National University of Technology and Design, Ukraine
6
Kharkov National Economic University, Ukraine
7
Kamyanets-Podolsky National University named after Ivan Ogienko
8
Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture
Published online: November 24, 2017
(Accepted for publication November 15, 2017
DOI:10.7752/jpes.2017.s5227
Abstract
The aim of the work is to develop the principles of team completion in sports aerobics using methods of
factor and cluster analysis.
Material and methods. Participants in the study. The study involved 24 aerobics athletes (women)
members of the national team and its reserve for sports aerobics in Kharkov.
Methods of research: Aerobics athletes were performed complex examination to determine the
functional state of the body of athletes (arterial pressure, parameters of pulsometry, testing on the treadmill),
psychophysiological state (determination of the time of a simple and complex reaction in various modes of
signal delivery). Physical development, vestibular stability and physical readiness were also determined. For the
processing of data, methods of mathematical statistics were applied the computer programs "EXEL" and "SPSS".
Mathematical and visual models of aerobics of each group were constructed.
Results. Using factor analysis in the structure of the complex preparedness of women, four main factors
were identified: 1 - The factor "Parasympathicotonia"; 2 - Factor "Mobility of the nervous system "; 3 - Factor
"Force"; 4 - Factor "A sense of time". The individual factor structure of athletes' preparedness was revealed, for
which the percentage values of the severity of each factor in each athlete were determined. All athletes have a
different severity of various factors, indicating that there are significant individual differences. On the basis of
the data obtained, groups of athletes can be formed for appearances in various competitive categories.
Conclusions. Factor analysis allows to determine the overall and individual structure of athletes'
preparedness. The data obtained with regard to the individual preparedness structure can be used for associations
of athletes in groups for participation in different competitive categories.
Key words: individual, algorithm, aerobics, factor, analysis.
Introduction
Sports aerobic is one of the youngest sports that is still being formed. In this sport there are many
unsolved problems (Andreu, JMP., 2015; Chen, H. X., 2014). This is due to the fact that the main contingent of
athletes was provided by an influx from other sports (Giovanelli, N, Taboga, P, Rejc, E, Lazzer, S., 2017;
Mayorga-Vega, D, Montoro-Escano, J, Merino-Marban, R, Viciana, J., 2016). Therefore, the training of athletes
in aerobics is built by analogy with the training in other types of gymnastics (Nyberg, G, Meckbach, J., 2017;
Sindiani, M, Eliakim, A, Segev, D, Meckel, Y., 2017). However, in the process of increasing competition, this
approach to the training of athletes can no longer provide high-level achievements.
Currently in the scientific literature, much attention is paid to aerobics as a means of improving health
and improving the functional state of people.
Gurieieva A.M., Klopov R.V. (2014) described the factor structure of the physical state of female
students at the beginning of the academic year and proposed a rational balance of methods of developing
physical skills necessary for drawing up a program of recreational aerobics for women students in higher
education. The authors managed to determine the most important factors affecting the health status of freshmen.
Factor analysis allowed to indicate the ratio of methods used in the program of recreational aerobics, which are
designed to develop physical skills in active leisure. Golod N. R. (2015) singled out the main provisions of the
comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation for students of a special medical group on the basis of motor
impairment. The program of rehabilitation of students included: changing the way of life; morning hygienic
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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gymnastics; kinesitherapy (use of yoga, functional training); Aerobic exercises (swimming, Nordic walking,
jogging, health aerobics); massage. Thus, a number of scientific developments on recreational aerobics closely
intersect with the problems of sports aerobics and can be used in the training process of aerobic athletes.
However, the problems of sports aerobics are only beginning to be considered in depth in scientific research.
Nehra N. K. (2014) analyzed the causes and precautions for sports injuries in sports aerobics. The
author points out that irrational movements, non-standard grounds and unreasonable methods of teaching lead to
injuries. Among injuries, the most common are muscular and ligamentous deformities, injuries of the ankle and
knee joint. Injuries to the hip muscles are the most common. The author also points out that the main cause of
sports injuries is an inadequate warm-up.
Nunez R. A. et al. (2013) found that the most common injuries are limb injuries. The author points out
that there is little scientific basis in this sport. The greatest amount of research on the sports aspect of aerobics is
concentrated in Spain. Qiu Q. E. et al. (2012) conducted an experimental study of the mechanical properties of
the only sports shoes used in aerobics. The anti-skid properties of Reebok and Huakang shoes were also studied,
and the mechanical effect of sports shoes for aerobics was evaluated.
Chen L. Y. (2017) proposed a method for reconstructing movements in aerobics, based on a three-
dimensional vision of motion. The author suggests the use of computer visual recognition technology to extract
the characteristic image point of the body of an athlete-aerobist. This makes it possible to obtain the main
features of the outline contour edge, and then the motion is evaluated from four positions in three-dimensional
space. The results of the simulation show that the proposed method, which is used to extract images of body
positions for processing a three-dimensional evaluation of the shape of the body of athletes, can significantly
improve the efficiency of motion estimation, as well as its correction during training.
Fan C. (2014) showed that one of the main elements in sports aerobics are jumps. In this case, not only
the height of the jump, but also the speed of jumping and the position in the air is of great importance. The
author suggests a technique for teaching aerobics, which involves not only the use of jumping exercises to
improve skills in the performance of the relevant elements, but also the use of other special exercises to improve
the ability to control the body in the air, jumping techniques, etc. The technique proposed by the author was used
in the experimental group and has shown its effectiveness.
Hu C. F. and Y. Xiang (2013) point out that the main purpose of aerobics is to show people the beauty
of art and movement, to give the opportunity to enjoy the beauty of motor movements. Jiang G. P. et al. (2012)
investigated jumping with obstacles in sports aerobics. The authors showed that in the take-off phase there are
two peak phases of manifestation of the maximum strength of the thigh and shin. The peak phase of the hip
muscle strain manifests itself in the preparatory phase of the jump, and the shin - at the stage of repulsion. In the
phase of flight, various segments of the body have a different effect on the effect of rotation. In the landing
phase, the maximum rotational moment of the hip joints is much larger than that of the other joints. The author
recommends using the received data when teaching the technique of jumping movements in aerobics.
Li A. (2014) analyzes the physiological and psychological characteristics of high-class athletes in sports
aerobics that have been injured and suggests appropriate rehabilitation measures to develop scientific
foundations for building a training process in sports aerobics and rehabilitation after sports injuries. The author
points out that the causes of sports injuries are complex and multifaceted. The author analyzed the psychological
causes of sports injuries, which makes it possible to facilitate effective rehabilitation of athletes.
Zarebska A. (2016) found that dance aerobics, one of the most common practices in the world of adult
fitness, provides sufficient incentives for training to increase the explosive force necessary to increase the jump
height. The author reveals the genetic conditionality of the training effect of jumping. Yan F. F. (2016) proposed
a method for the decoration of complete sets of competitive aerobics with three participants. The author points
out that competitive aerobics is a kind of sports object, combined with music, sets of movements, technical
complexity and self-efficacy, which is characterized by fitness, strength and physical beauty. The trio is one of
the categories of sports aerobics. The author has realized the influence of performances in threes on the
development of competitive aerobics. The results show that competitive aerobics has the following aspects:
sportswear, temperament, body shape, physical quality and others. Xiang F. F. and P. Shi (2016) analyzed the
importance of strength for maintaining the body's position in aerobics. The paper offers functions and warnings
for strength training in aerobics. In the aerobic position of the body during the whole process of movement, the
correct body posture is the action of the factor "health, strength, beauty". Important is the speed, rhythm,
amplitude, position of the center of gravity. The pose can reflect the artistic achievements of athletes, affects the
overall judge's evaluation. In motor postures, the referee pays more attention to movements. The authors
analyzed the importance of developing strength in terms of body position.
Thus, there are problems in the construction of the training process in sports aerobics. The greatest
attention is paid to physical training of athletes, problems of traumatism and rehabilitation after trauma, analysis
of the biomechanical structure of various movements, the use of interactive technologies. However, the problem
of determining the factor structure of the athletes' complex preparedness remains practically unlighted. The
purpose of the work is to determine the factor structure of the preparedness of aerobic athletes (women).
Materials and methods
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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Participants. 24 aerobic athletes (women) participated in the study - members of the national team and
its reserve for sports aerobics in Kharkov.
Methods of research: Athletes (aerobics athelet) underwent a comprehensive examination to determine
the functional state of the body of athletes (blood pressure, indicators of variation pulsometry, testing on the
treadmill), psychophysiological state (determination of the time of a simple and complex reaction in various
modes of signal delivery). They also determined physical development and physical readiness; vestibular
stability. For the processing of data, methods of mathematical statistics using the computer programs "EXEL"
and "SPSS" were applied. Mathematical and visual models of aerobics of each group were constructed.
For the analysis of vegetative regulation of cardiac activity, variational heart rate (Variability of the
rhythm of the heart)
The signal was recorded on a portable cardiographic device called "Cardiolab +" (Computer
electrocardiograph "Cardiotest" allows to register 12 channels standard ECG, ECG in the lead system by Neb
and Frank, Dialog box "Complex" Dialog box "Lens" http://www.dx-sys.com.ua/en/products/). Its basis is 3; 6;
12-channel cardiograph + phonocardiograph Cardio CE + on the basis of a handheld computer (or pocket
personal computer) PAQ 3870 with a module for wireless transmission of Bluetooth information. A continuous
heart rate monitor of the Polar model with the appropriate software was also used. The recording was carried out
for 5 minutes in the supine position after a 5-minute rest.
The subsequent processing of cardio intervals allowed to determine a number of statistical
characteristics of heart rate variability [19]: From the parameters of the heart rhythm determined:
1. Mo (the modality of the duration of the RR-intervals) is the most common interval between the teeth
RR (c);
2. AMo (amplitude of the mode of the duration of RR intervals) is the percentage expression of the
number of intervals that are most often encountered, to the total number of measured intervals (in this case 100
RR intervals were used) (%);
3. Delta x is the variation in the duration of the RR-intervals, that is, the difference between the largest
and the smallest value of the RR-intervals (s);
4. The stress index (cu) of regulatory mechanisms (IN) was determined by the formula
IN = AMo / 2Mo•∆x (1),
where:
∆x is the value of the variation span of the duration of the RR-intervals (s),
Mo is the value of the mode of the duration of the RR-intervals (s),
AMo is an indicator of the mode amplitude of the duration of the RR-intervals (%).
When analyzing the parameters of the heart rhythm, we were guided by the fact that these heart rate
indicators reflect the different contribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic
nervous system to the process of regulation of cardiac activity. The mode (Mo) of the duration of the RR-
intervals indicates the resultant effect of regulatory influences, reflects the most stable level of functioning in the
given conditions. The variation range reflects the range of possible deviations of the random process variant and
is determined mainly by the severity of the respiratory fluctuations of the heart rhythm, therefore this indicator is
considered an indicator of the activity of the autonomous mechanism of the regulation of the heart rhythm. The
amplitude of the mode (AMo) of the duration of the RR intervals allows one to judge the activity of the central
mechanism of the regulation of the heart rhythm, since an increase in the number of identical cardiac cycles is a
consequence of stabilization of the heart rhythm, a decrease in the spread of values, i.e. indicates a decrease in
the effects of autoregulation. Thus, an increase in the AMo indices of the duration of the RR-intervals and IN
indicates an increase in the tone of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, and an increase in the
variation span of the duration of the RR-intervals increases the effect of the parasympathetic division of the
autonomic nervous syste.
In our study, testing was also conducted to determine the time of simple and complex reactions to sound
and visual incentives. The time of a complex reaction was determined in the test mode with feedback. The time
of a complex visual-motor reaction in the mode of determining with feedback, the latent period of the reaction
time, the standard deviation, the number of errors, the minimum exposure time, and the time of attainment to the
minimum exposure were determined. In determining the strength and mobility of the nervous system, the
following provisions were adhered to: the fewer errors in sub-modes of a complex visual-motor reaction with
feedback, the higher the strength of the nervous system; the shorter the time in the modes of a complex visual-
motor reaction with feedback, the higher the mobility of the nervous system (Korobeynikov, G., Mazmanian, K.,
Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010).
The vestibular stability was determined with the help of the mechanical Barany chair. The rotation was
performed manually for 20 s at a speed of 2 revolutions per second. Every 2 seconds, heart rate was recorded
using a photocell. The heart rate was recorded after completion of rotation for 10 seconds every 2 seconds. The
increase in heart rate after the beginning and the end of rotation was regarded as an adequate reaction to rotation,
which is the inclusion of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, the decrease in heart rate after
the beginning and the end of rotation was regarded as an inadequate reaction to rotation, which is activation of
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system (motion sickness). When processing data using factor
analysis, the heart rate was selected in the second second after the start of rotation and the heart rate at the
second second after the end of rotation (Pomeshchikova, I., Iermakov, S., Bartik, P., Shevchenko, O., Nosko, M.,
Yermakova, T., & Nosko, Y., 2016).
Statistical analysis. The digital material was processed using traditional methods of mathematical
statistics. For each indicator, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation S (standard deviation) were determined.
When processing the primary materials of this study, in addition to calculating primary statistics, a
factor analysis of the test indicators was carried out. The received data were processed by the generally accepted
methods of mathematical statistics with the help of Microsoft Excel programs, SPSS. Differences were
considered significant at a significance level at p<0.05.
Results
With the help of factor analysis, carried out by the method of the main components, in the structure of
the complex preparedness of women – aerobics athletes, four main factors were identified by Kettel's "rocky
oscillation" method. To characterize each factor, the indicators included in it were analyzed.
The following indicators were included in the first factor (32.5% of the total dispersion) (Table 1): heart
rate for 2 seconds with rotation on the Barany chair (r = -0.96), heart rate for 90 seconds with recovery after
performing the standard load on; the rhythm of the RR intervals (r = -0.93), the RR-interval fashion (r = -0.88),
the rotational heart rate on the armchair (r = -0.86), Heart rate of rest (r = -0.78); the heart rate immediately after
the rotation on the Barany chair (r = -0.73).
In the factor structure of the preparedness of women to the first factor included indicators that are
identical to the factor structure of the preparedness of men (Shepelenko, T., Kozina, Z., Cieślicka, M., Prusik, K.,
Muszkieta, R., Sobko, I., Ryepko, O., Bazilyuk, T., Polishchuk, S., Osiptsov, A., & Kostiukevych, V., 2017).
But it should be noted that these indicators came with the opposite sign of correlation in comparison with men.
In addition, the first factor in women included indicators such as "Variation width RR intervals" (r = 0.93),
"Fashion RR intervals" (r = -0.88), "Heart Rate" (r = -0.78). All these indicators reflect the level of regulation of
autonomic balance from the central nervous system. So, the decrease in the heart rate of rest, the average index
of resting heart rate, the increase in heart rate at the start and immediately after the end of rotation on the Barany
chair, reducing the mode of RR intervals and increasing the variational scope of RR intervals indicate the
activation of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. That is, in women, as in men, the first
factor included indicators of autonomic balance regulation by the central nervous system. But in women, the
number of these indicators is greater, and they, unlike men, show the activity of the parasympathetic part of the
nervous system. Perhaps this is due to the fact that in a state of rest women are more relaxed in comparison with
men. Based on the foregoing, the first factor was called "Parasympathicotonia" (Fig. 1).
The second factor (27.6% of the total dispersion) included indicators such as the response time of the
reaction in the mode of determining with feedback (r = -0.97), the total test response time in the feedback mode
(r = - 0.93), the minimum exposure time of the signal in the feed reaction in the mode of determining with
feedback (r = -0.81), the mean value of the reaction time of the choice (r = -0.74), the mean time of the reaction
to sound (r = -0, 64). It should be noted, that to this factor included indicators that reflect the mobility of nerve
processes. The lower the values of these indicators, the greater the mobility of the nervous processes. Since in
this factor all these indicators came with a negative correlation coefficient, we can conclude that this factor
reflects the mobility of the nervous processes. Therefore, the second factor was called "Mobility of the nervous
system."
To the third factor (22.14% of the total dispersion) in the structure of the complex preparedness of
women included the following indicators: jump height (r = -0.95), the number of errors in the test for the
response rate in the reaction in the mode of determining with feedback (r = -0 , 85), body weight (r = 0.82),
brush strength (r = 0.71), degree strength (r = 0.69), body length (r = 0.66) (Table 1). It should be noted that the
indicators included in the third factor, mainly reflect the level of development of power capabilities, in particular,
explosive force, absolute force, as well as the strength of the nervous system. This factor included the strength of
the nervous system (the number of errors when performing the test on the response rate in the feedback mode) (r
= -0,93). Since the strength of the nervous system correlates with the indicators of physical strength, it can be
noted that in women, as in men (Shepelenko, T., Kozina, Z., Cieślicka, M., Prusik, K., Muszkieta, R., Sobko, I.,
Ryepko, O., Bazilyuk, T., Polishchuk, S., Osiptsov, A., & Kostiukevych, V., 2017), the strength of the nervous
system and physical strength are integral manifestations of the overall psychophysical structure of the body.
Based on the received data, the third factor was called "Strength" (Fig. 1).
The fourth factor (16.06% of the total dispersion) included such indicators as the error of reproduction
of time intervals 1 s (r = 0.94), age (r = -0.52) (Table 1). The main factor that created this factor is an error when
playing back a time slot of 1 s. since this indicator entered the fourth factor with a negative correlation sign, it
can be noted that the smaller the error, the less time to play the time interval. The age of athletes also entered this
factor with a negative correlation sign. This suggests that athletes of the younger age tend to accelerate in the
subjective sense of time. According to the characteristics of the indicators, the fourth factor was called "A sense
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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of time" (Fig. 1). Then, an individual factor structure of athletes' preparedness was revealed, for which the
percentage values of the severity of each factor in each athlete were determined (Table 2).
Table1 - Return matrix of components of aerobic athlete testing (women) (n=24)
Factor number, contribution to the general variance
Name of metrics 1
32,5%
2
27,6%
3
22,14%
4
16,06%
HR with a rotation on the Barany chair, beats·min
-1
-0,96
HR repeat after 90 seconds after work, beats·min
-1
-0,95
Variation of RR intervals, s 0,93
Mo RR intervals, s -0,88
HR after turning on the Barany chair after 10 seconds,
beats·min
-1
-0,86
HR rest, beats·min
-1
-0,78
HR after turning on the Barany chair, beats·min
-1
-0,73
The time of the selection reaction in the mode of determining
with feedback, ms -0,97
Reaction selection reaction in the mode of determining with
feedback, total time test run, ms -0,93
The time of response on the minimum exposure in the test of
the reaction in the mode of determining with feedback, ms -0,81
The time of the reaction of choice, the average value, s -0,74
Reaction time to sound, average value, s -0,64
Jump height, sm -0,95
The time of the selection reaction in the mode of determining
with feedback, errors, quantity -0,85
Body weight, kg 0,82
Brush force, kg 0,71
Strength force, kg 0,69
Body length, sm 0,66
Error playing time intervals 1 s, s -0,94
Age, year -0,52
Fig. 1. Factor structure of aerobic athletes (women) (n = 24) (4 factors are distinguished):
1 - "Parasympathicotonia", 32.5%;
2 - "Mobility of the nervous system", 27,6%;
3 - "Strength"; 22.14%;
4 - "A sense of time"; 16.06%
5 - Other factors; 1.7%
Table 2 shows that all athletes have a different severity of various factors, indicating that there are
significant individual differences. Like men (Shepelenko, T., Kozina, Z., Cieślicka, M., Prusik, K., Muszkieta,
R., Sobko, I., Ryepko, O., Bazilyuk, T., Polishchuk, S., Osiptsov, A., & Kostiukevych, V., 2017), this should be
manifested in different styles of performances and the need to use individual programs for the preparation of
aerobics athletes.
As can be seen from Table 1 and Figure 1, the greatest contribution to the total variance is made by the
first and second factors, from which it is logical to conclude that the most significant in the structure of fitness of
aerobics athletes are indicators of vegetative balance, reflected in the parasympathetic tone, and indicators of
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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mobility of the nervous system. Less significant, though important enough, are indicators of strength and a sense
of time that can be explained by the peculiarities of the female body.
Table 2 - Individual expressiveness of factors in the structure of fitness of aerobics athletes (women) (% of
maximum expressiveness factor in the sample) (n = 24)
№ athletes Parasympathicotonia Mobility of the
nervous system Strength A sense of time
1 87,14 25,34 11,15 34,14
2 63,12 50,18 98,97 57,43
3 65,11 55,17 65,14 65,42
4 82,54 79,81 69,34 32,34
5 54,76 85,43 53,13 45,65
6 75,11 35,34 27,13 44,17
7 100 62,15 27,15 65,18
8 53,12 84,26 54,23 41,47
9 43,23 69,15 64,44 100
10 85,34 25,43 21,11 86,98
11 96,53 61,23 23,43 67,78
12 55,45 55,16 66,65 33,33
13 76,14 39,19 26,17 21,11
14 67,18 57,16 35,56 14,44
15 34,13 75,46 46,67 55,56
16 78,97 100 77,78 46,67
17 74,14 14,87 92,22 68,89
18 85,13 27,87 100 24,44
19 84,23 24,67 11,11 32,22
20 85,46 51,34 67,78 43,11
21 44,16 78,65 48,89 51,16
22 34,16 78,65 48,89 51,16
23 76,14 97,45 56,17 54,24
24 72,53 19,43 84,13 66,27
Discussion
This study is based on the concept of individualization training athletes (Zhanneta, K., Irina, S.,
Tatyana, B., Olena, R., Olena, L., & Anna, I., 2015; Kozina, Zh.L., Prusik, Krzysztof, & Prusik, Katarzyna,
2015; Kozina, Z., Sobko, I., Yermakova, T., Cieslicka, M., Zukow, W., Chia, M., . . . Korobeinik, V., 2016;
Korobeynikov, G., Mazmanian, K., Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010). The concept involves the use of an
algorithm, which consists of the following stages:
- testing of athletes, including a set of tests of at least 10;
- definition of the general structure of preparedness of sportsmen by the factorial analysis. Identification
of the main factors and drawing up their characteristics;
- conducting a hierarchical cluster analysis of test scores;
- determination of individual factor values.
- on the basis of individual factor values and cluster analysis, the compilation of individual
characteristics of athletes.
According to this concept, multidimensional analysis methods were used, in particular, factor analysis
to determine the structure of the preparedness of athletes and to identify the leading qualities of athletes and the
distribution of aerobic athletes in groups according to individual features of the functional state, complex
preparedness and psychophysiological characteristics.
The testing was carried out on functional and psychophysiological parameters of women aerobics
athletes.
Using factor analysis, carried out by the method of the main components, in the structure of the
complex preparedness of men, four main factors were distinguished by Kettel's "rocky oscillation" method. To
characterize each factor, the indicators included in it were analyzed. Factors in the structure of aerobic fitness
athletes were named as follows: 1 - Factor "Parasympatheticotonia"; 2 - Factor "Force"; 3 - Factor "Mobility of
the nervous system"; 4 - Factor "A sense of time". Then, an individual factor structure of athletes' preparedness
was revealed, for which the percentage values of the severity of each factor in each athlete were determined. All
athletes have a different severity of various factors, indicating that there are significant individual differences.
To determine the best options for combining aerobic athletes in groups for performances in different
competitive categories, factor analysis can be supplemented by cluster analysis of test indicators (Kozina, Z.,
Shepelenko T., Cieślicka M., Prusik K., Muszkieta R., Osiptsov A., Kostiukevych V., Bazilyuk T., Sobko I.N.,
Ryepko O.A, Polishchuk S.B., & Ilnickaya A.S., 2017). Results of cluster analysis are compared with individual
factor values, profiles of athletes are being compiled. On the basis of the data obtained, groups of athletes can be
formed for appearances in various competitive categories.
In our work, the process of teamwork in sports aerobics is based on the determination of individual
factor structure of the preparedness of each athlete and the results of cluster analysis of the distribution of
athletes to groups for performances in different categories of competition (Kozina, Z., Shepelenko T., Cieślicka
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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M., Prusik K., Muszkieta R., Osiptsov A., Kostiukevych V., Bazilyuk T., Sobko I.N., Ryepko O.A, Polishchuk
S.B., & Ilnickaya A.S., 2017). In our study, the methods of multivariate analysis for these purposes were not
used, and therefore the creation of the algorithm for the completion of teams in aerobic exercise is the first
developed problem. The analysis of literary data (Arziutov, G., Iermakov, S., Bartik, P., Nosko, M., & Cynarski,
W. J., 2016; Boichuk, R., Iermakov, S., & Nosko, M., 2017; Kriventsova, I., Iermakov, S., Bartik, P., Nosko, M.,
& Cynarski, W. J., 2017; Nosko, M., Razumeyko, N., Iermakov, S., & Yermakova, T., 2016; Osipov, A. Y.,
Kudryavtsev, M. D., Iermakov, S. S., & Jagiełło, W., 2017) showed that most authors in determining the basic
principles of constructing a training process one of the main consider the principle of combining team training
and individualization. At the same time, if cyclic and gaming sports already have some work on specific
recommendations for the construction of a training process for each team (Pomeshchikova, I., Iermakov, S.,
Bartik, P., Shevchenko, O., Nosko, M., Yermakova, T., & Nosko, Y., 2016; Zhanneta, K., Irina, S., Tatyana, B.,
Olena, R., Olena, L., & Anna, I., 2015), then sports aerobics is just beginning to develop the theoretical,
methodological and organizational foundations of the unity of team and individual approach to the training
process of athletes. In this regard, our work is a new direction in which the principle of unity of command and
individualization of the preparation of aerobists is transformed into a system that has its structure, algorithms,
mathematical apparatus.
From the analysis of literary data (Kozina, Zh.L., Prusik, Krzysztof, & Prusik, Katarzyna, 2015; Kozina,
Z., Sobko, I., Yermakova, T., Cieslicka, M., Zukow, W., Chia, M., . . . Korobeinik, V., 2016; Korobeynikov, G.,
Mazmanian, K., Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010) it was discovered that the problem of individual
differences has a rich history and goes far beyond the scope of a particular science, including the theory and
methods of physical education and sports. From this perspective, our work is an extension and complement of
existing knowledge about the individual nature of people and the possibility of using the individual
characteristics of athletes to create different groups depending on the tasks of the training process.
In particular, in our work we used the methodology presented in the works of Kozina Z. (2015, 2016,
2017) for individualization in gaming sports. From this point of view, the system of combining team and
individual approach to the process of preparation of aerobic athletes, presented in our work, is an extension and
complement of knowledge, presented in the works of Kozina Z. (2016). In our work we present the planning of
the training process taking into account the individual characteristics of the factor structure of athletes'
preparedness, their psycho-physiological and functional characteristics. The most widespread problem of
individualization is presented in psychology and psychophysiology (Korobeynikov, G., Mazmanian, K.,
Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010). In psychology distinguish different types of higher nervous activity
according to the properties of the nervous system. Individual differences of people are most fully covered in
differential psychology (Korobeynikov, G., Mazmanian, K., Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010). At the same
time, many authors note that none of the known properties of the nervous system is not exclusively dependent on
the genotype, since it is to some extent influenced by the environment.
The mentioned authors consider the problem of individual differences solely from the point of view of
psychological differences and do not concern the problem of individualization from the standpoint of human
analysis as a system that combines a set of different indicators (Korobeynikov, G., Mazmanian, K.,
Korobeynikova, L., Jagiełło, W., 2010). Therefore, from this point of view, our work represents a certain
novelty. It should be noted, however, that some authors (Nosko, M., Razumeyko, N., Iermakov, S., &
Yermakova, T., 2016) try to give an integral assessment of individuality, taking into account a wide range of
indicators. These indicators include the properties of the nervous system in conjunction with the predominance
of one of the cognitive types and the development of certain physical qualities and psychophysiological abilities.
However, in this case, the characteristic of individual differences is given for each group of indicators separately,
without their mutual integration. This is how the individual differences in sport are evaluated when schemes of
an individual structure of preparedness or competitive activity for each group of indicators are created
separately, and this structure consists of individual indicators, rather than factors, each of which includes a set of
interrelated indicators, as suggested in our study. In this regard, we propose an algorithm for constructing
individual models of complex preparedness, which allow us to evaluate individual differences in individual
indicators, but in a holistic manner, combining all measurable indicators into a single system.
In sports physiology and sports medicine, individual differences are classified according to the
peculiarities of the response to cardiovascular and nervous system loading. Our system and its emerging methods
and algorithms for the construction of individual programs allow combining physiological, psychological and
psychophysiological indicators into a single integral assessment of the individual characteristics of athletes.
In sports aerobics, athletes are combined into groups for performances in various competitive
categories. From the optimal selection of such teams depends on the success of the competitions. It should be
noted that in the presence of recommendations for the preparation of athletes in aerobics, the issues of individual
differences relating to other individual characteristics (psychological, physiological, psychophysiological) of
athletes are not covered, although this question is important for ensuring the success of competitions. Therefore,
the proposed algorithms for determining the leading factors that include a wide range of the analyzed indicators
in the structure of athletes' preparedness, seems a new approach to the problem of individualization of training.
ZHANNETA KOZINA, TATYANA SHEPELENKO, ANDREY OSIPTSOV
,
VIKTOR KOSTIUKEVYCH, OLENA
REPKO, TATYANA BAZILYUK, IRINA SOBKO, ANATOLII GUBA, ANDRII PROKOPENKO, MIKOLA
TRUBCHANINOV, IVAN STASIUK, KATERINA MULIK
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Conclusions
1. Testing was performed on the functional and psychophysiological characteristics of women aerobic
athletes. Using factor analysis in the structure of the complex preparedness of women aerobic athletes, four main
factors were identified: 1 - The factor "Parasympathicotonia"; 2 - Factor "Mobility of the nervous system"; 3 -
Factor "Strength"; 4 - Factor "A sense of time".
2. The individual factor structure of athletes' preparedness was revealed, for which the percentage
values of the severity of each factor in each athlete were determined. All athletes have a different severity of
various factors, indicating that there are significant individual differences.
3. On the basis of the data obtained, groups of athletes may be formed for performances in various
competitive categories.
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Purpose. To work out and experimentally test the effectiveness of tactical training means and methods in the initial stages of student- fencers' accelerated training. Methods. In the experiment 2nd year students from two academic groups at the university (n=50) participated. In their first year students undertook fencing training twice a week (2 hours per session). The first group (n=24) was an experimental group (EG), the second (n=26) the control (CG). At the beginning of the experiment the technical-tactic fitness of the students in both groups was approximately equal. The experiment lasted 7 months. All the students gave their written consent to participate in the experiment. Results. It was found that the exercises for distant manoeuvring, for non-defensive duels and for combat actions accelerate the formation of a personal combat style where the coach's instructions are accurately carried out. They also motivate sportspeople to achieve the correct execution of techniques. It was also found that a fencer's tactical thinking is formed and becomes a special combat skill where they are applied in relevant duel conditions. These requirements can be satisfied by athletes only after special training. We worked out exercises, which reflect almost the entire spectrum of tactical training for fencers. Conclusions. We have proposed a particular suite of fencing exercises to improve tactical thinking, and to expand the arsenal of combat actions as well as the circle of combat situations, preparatory actions, attacks and defences; behaviour in unexpected situations and sense of distance.
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Background and Study Aim: The part of specialists think that the accumulated wide scientific knowledge of judo has not become the object of profound scientific analysis. Growth of judo popularity in the world (mainly in sport dimension) inclines scientists to constantly seek new, effective and scientifically grounded means and methods of sportsmen’s training for competition functioning. One of the main barriers to the promotion of a global scale modern scientific knowledge about the judo are published important works on natural languages difficult due to the spelling (in Japanese, Russian, etc.). The aim of this article are the preferences topics of doctoral and postdoctoral theses on judo defended in Russian Federation universities in the period 2000-2016. Material and Methods: We analysed 67 dissertations (58 doctoral and 9 postdoctoral) of Russian scientists for period from 2000 to 2016, which had been devoted to different topics of judo training and competition functioning. The systemic structural analysis of dissertations based on sport sciences and sciences of martial arts experts opinion. Results: Out of 6 important topics dominates “T1” sportsmen’s tactic skilfulness, formation of high sport motivation, raising judo athletes’ general workability during trainings and competitions (32 dissertations) and “T2” sportsmen’s morphological functional and psycho-physiological characteristics, professional personality’s progress of judo athletes, increase of young people’s physical potential and defensive abilities (16 dissertations). (only 3) The least work (after 3) concerns: “T5” the problems of educations of coaches’ and referees’ and “T6” adolescents’ suitability for judo on the base of their morphological functional indicators and physical condition. Conclusions: Comparative analysis of Russian dissertations devoted to different aspects of sport judo will significantly enrich modern sport science and can become a starting point for further scientific researches in the field of science of martial arts. © 2017 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo and ARCHIVES OF BUDO.
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Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove methodic of technical tactic training for elite female basketball players with hearing problems, considering their psycho-physiological characteristics. Material: in the research sportswomen of Ukrainian female combined basketball team with hearing problems (n=12) and healthy sportswomen (n=12) participated. Both teams participated in basketball championship of Ukraine. Age of sportswomen was 25–30 years. Results: it was found that female basketball players with hearing problems had confidently less latent period of simple and complex reactions to light irritator in comparison with healthy sportswomen. By results of tapping test basketball players with hearing problems showed higher frequency of movements than the healthy ones. We worked out methodic of technical-tactic training for female basketball players with hearing problems. When mastering tactic interactions, demonstrativeness method was accentuated. The authors’ video-aid with animation illustrations has been presented. For control of training process of female basketball players with hearing problems we used LED lighters. Conclusions: psycho-physiological characteristics of female basketball players with hearing problems are higher results in tests, which require activity of visual analyzer and standard movements.
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Purpose. The optimization of training judo practitioners in the techniques of the physical elements of judo based on the underlying principles and the informational-matrix training technology model, which was created to train sportspeople in motor skills. Methods. Two groups of students participated in the research: the experimental group (young men aged 18-20, n=30) and a control group (young men aged 18-20, n=30). All the necessary procedures to verify the uniformity of the groups were conducted (p<0.05). The experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014. We used statistical methods to determine the qualitative and quantitative indicators in the resulting research data of the research (X mean, t, p, s). Results. We substantiated the use of didactic laws in the training of Judo techniques. Adequate usage of goal-setting structural elements in the training of motor actions for the mastery of physical exercises was accentuated. The principle of functional redundancy and reliability in the execution of the Ura Nage throw was demonstrated. The possibility of applying didactic laws to training in counter attack for example, was shown. It was noted that when there was a high level of fatigue there was a reduction in the variability of effort differentiation. This phenomenon is recommended for use as a methodic technique in training and in the perfection of movements to increase their stability and reliability. We determined the degree of motor exercise mastery, which met its required outcome. A minimum number of exercise and cycle repetitions was set at an 80% skillfulness level (189-504 repetitions and 3-8 cycles). Such an approach to mastering martial arts techniques reduced training time by between 2.97 and 7.96 times. Conclusions. One of main factors in perfecting the training process is a consideration of didactic laws, the sports practitioner's individual features; his individual style. It is important to substantiate the optimal correlation of physical loads and a sports prac-titioner's rest intervals. Introduction Training in the elements of physical techniques is characterized the intensity and volume of training loads, which can result in positive or negative influences on mastering them. In this case the optimal correlation of different kinds of physical loads with the training stages, the sportsmen's age and abilities and their motivation for success is very important. The basis of the successful mastery of physical exercise is the adequate and reasonable application the goal-setting structural elements of motor action training theory. In judo and other kinds of wrestling the general approaches of the theory of sports [Podrigalo et al. 2016; Yesentayev 2016] and the theory of motor action training [Kolot 2016] are used. Each of these branches implies the application of the definite means and methods, asused in pedagogic aims. In judo practice the knowledge, received by means of personal multiple repetitions (including the fulfillment of a technique in more and more complex conditions, on not resisting the opponent or on a training dummy) are supplemented by appropriate skills. In this case the skill is the ability to correctly (not automatically , with attention concentrated on details) fulfill a new
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Relevance of the work associated with the need to develop special methods of teaching motor actions in climbing primary school children. The purpose of research - theoretical and experimental methodology to justify the construction of training process of young climbers 6-7 years at the initial stage of preparation. The study involved 42 children 6-7 years of age who are engaged in sports climbing club "Ant"; and the experimental and the control group consisted of twenty-one competitor, out of which 12 boys and 9 girls. The experiment lasted for seven months. Based on the analysis of the literature and the results of their own research methodology integral intellectual and spiritual development of young climbers 6-7 years it has been developed. Results. Formulatedmain provisions teaching motor activities of children 6-7 years: 1 - relying on creative thinking. 2 -broad application of basic movements; 3 - taking into account the ergonomic characteristics of the child; 4 - a holistic method of teaching. For climbing, this means that the child is better to give the job to climb up to a certain point. In the explanation is not necessary to dwell on the details of individual movements. Conclusions. The developed methods of teaching primary school children climbing proved to be effective for the development of motor skills and physical qualities for the development of psycho-physiological features of children.
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The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training.
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The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of an increasing-distance, interval-training programme and a decreasing-distance, interval-training programme, matched for total distance, on aerobic and anaerobic physiological indices. Forty physical education students were randomly assigned to either the increasing- or decreasing-distance, interval-training group (ITG and DTG), and completed two similar relevant sets of tests before and after six weeks of training. One training programme consisted of increasing-distance interval-training (100–200–300–400–500 m) and the other decreasing-distance interval training (500–400–300–200–100 m). While both training programmes led to a significant improvement in VO2 max (ES = 0.83–1.25), the improvement in the DTG was significantly greater than in the ITG (14.5 ± 3.6 vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p < .05). In addition, while both training programmes led to a significant improvement in all anaerobic indices (ES = 0.83–1.63), the improvements in peak power (15.7 ± 7.8 vs. 8.9 ± 4.7), mean power (10.6 ± 5.4 vs. 6.8 ± 4.4), and fatigue index (18.2 ± 10.9 vs. 7.0 ± 14.2) were significantly greater in the DTG compared to the ITG (p < .05). The main finding of the present study was that beyond the significant positive effects of both training programmes on aerobic and anaerobic fitness, the DTG showed significant superiority over the ITG in improving aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities. Coaches and athletes should therefore be aware that, in spite of identical total work, an interval-training programme might induce different physiological impacts if the order of intervals is not identical.