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Objective: The aim of this study was to identify fatty acids in a sacha inchi oil sample.Methods: Sacha inchi oil was obtained of sacha inchi seeds using the cold pressing method. Fatty acids analysis was carried out using the gas chromatography with a mass selective detector and using the database Library NIST14.L to identify the compounds.Results: Sacha inchi seeds have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids with 34.98% of ɷ6 α- Linoleic and 47.04% of ɷ3 α- Linolenic. Sacha inchi seeds only have 3.98% of palmitic acid.Conclusions: Sacha inchi seed is a good source of fatty acids ɷ3 and ɷ6, being ɷ3 and ɷ6 in a good proportion. Sacha inchi oil can be used to elaborate functional foods.
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Vol 11, Issue 2, 2018
Online - 2455-3891
Print - 0974-2441
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

Received: 04 October 2016, Revised and Accepted: 10 October 2016

 The aim of this study was to identify fatty acids in a sacha inchi oil sample.
 Sacha inchi oil was obtained of sacha inchi seeds using the cold pressing method. Fatty acids analysis was carried out using the gas
chromatography with a mass selective detector and using the database Library NIST14.L to identify the compounds.
Sacha inchi seeds have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids with 34.98% of ɷ6 α- Linoleic and 47.04% of ɷ3 α- Linolenic. Sacha inchi
seeds only have 3.98% of palmitic acid.
 Sacha inchi seed is a good source of fatty acids ɷ3 and ɷ6, being ɷ3 and ɷ6 in a good proportion. Sacha inchi oil can be used to elaborate
functional foods.
Sacha inchi, Pluketeniavolubilis, Fatty acids, Gas chromatography - mass selective detector, Methyl ester.

Sacha inchi (Pluketeniavolubilis L), also named Inca peanut, is a plant
that grows in the wild being native of the rainforests in the Andean
region of South America. This plant belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family
and is composed of nineteen species [1]. It is known that sacha inchi
seeds have a high content of oil (35–60 %) and proteins (27%) and
contain heat-labile substances with a bitter taste [2].
Different studies have reported unsaturated fatty acids in sacha inchi
seeds, being around 93% unsaturated fatty acids of the total fatty
acids. In particular, high levels of essential fatty acids (EFA) were
found, namely, C18:3 ω3 (α-Ln, cis, cis,cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic
acid; α-linolenic) and C18:2 ω6 (L, cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic
acid; α-linoleic) fatty acids, accounting approximately of 47 % and
37%, respectively, of the total fatty acids [3,4]. EFAs are intermediate
metabolite in the synthesis of some many compounds in the human
organism, such as prostaglandin E1 and its derivate. Several studies
have reported that ω-6, and especially, ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids have
beneficial effects on human health by preventing several diseases such
as cancer, coronary heart disease, and hypertension [5,6]. The aim of this
work was to characterize the composition of fatty acids methyl esters
(FAMEs) present in sacha inchi oil samples cultivated in Ecuador by gas
chromatography–mass selective detector (GC-MSD). The knowledge
acquired in this study will help to determine the potential of sacha inchi
seed oil to be commercially exploited for industrial applications and
incorporation into functional foods to help human health.

Oil extraction
Sacha inchi was cultivated in Amazon Ecuadorian. Sacha inchi oil sample
was obtained using the cold pressed method from sacha inchi seeds.
Oil was then stored at 4.0 ± 2°C. Oil extraction was conducted using a
Soxhlet apparatus during approximately 5 h with hexane as solvent,
with a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1/7 m/v. After the extraction process,
the flask contents were filtered, and the liquid fraction containing the
lipid extract and solvent was poured into a 250-mL flask of a rotary
film evaporator to remove the solvent. The obtained oil was collected,
evaporated under nitrogen, weighed, and stored in sealed amber glass
vials at -20°C until analysis [7].

The fatty acid composition of oil extracted from sacha inchi seeds
was analyzed by injecting FAMEs [8] into an Agilent Technologies
7980Asystem GC (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA) equipped with a MSD 5977A
GC/MSD, an auto-sampler7693, column (60 m × 250 µm × 0.25 µm,
Agilent 122-7062). The oven temperature was programed as follows:
From 80°C, ramp 1: To 100°C at 20°C/min during 1 min; ramp 2: At
200°C at 25°C/min during 10 min; and ramp 3: At 250°C at 2°C/min.
The injector and detector temperatures were set at 250°C. Helium was
used as carrier gas at a linear flow velocity of 1.4 mL/min.

Sacha inchi fruits either in immature or mature state have a four-point,
five-point, and six-point stars, respectively, with a seed inside each start
point (Fig. 1a and b). It is then necessary to remove the skin of the fruit
before obtaining the sacha inchi oil (Fig. 1c and d).
Sacha inchi oil sample was obtained with cold pressing method, and
fatty acids were subsequently methyl esterified. Fatty acids from sacha
inchi were identified using GC/MSD. The precursor ions were compared
to three database Library NIST14. L. Five majority peaks were identified
with their associated retention time: C16:0 with a retention time of
19.332 min; C18:0 with a retention time of 26.005 min; C18:1c with a
retention time of 26.869 min; C18:2 with a retention time of 28.644 min,
and finally, C18:3 with a retention time of 31.122 min (Fig. 2).
The concentration of fatty acids was calculated with a peak area
percentage. FAMEs were characterized as follows: C16:0 palmitic acid
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.
org/licenses/by/4. 0/) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.15515
Research Article
        CURSIVE PLUKENETIA VOLUBILIS
L.
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Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 11, Issue 2, 2018, 379-381
Carrillo et al.
with 3.98% of fatty content, C18:0 stearic acid with 3.12% of fatty
content, C18:1c oleic acid with 8.58% of fatty content, C18:2 linoleic
acid (LA) with 34.98% of fatty content, and finally, C18:3 linolenic acid
with 47.04% of fatty content (Table 1).
When the sacha inchi fatty acid composition is compared with some
common vegetable oils, it can be seen that only olive oil has a high
content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and C18:1 named oleic acid
with 77.6% of oleic acid. Sacha inchi oil has only a content of 8.58%
of oleic acid. Sacha inchi has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs). Olive oil contains few omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids
with 9.0% and 1.0%, respectively (Table 2). Oleic acid is recommended
as an intake of monounsaturated fatty acids to reduce the risk of
cardiovascular diseases.
On the other hand, sacha oil contains a high content of omega 6 and
omega 3 fatty acids. The optimum ratio of those two fatty acids, omega
6 and omega 3 is 1:1 and 4: 1 [10]. The ratio found in sacha inchi oil of
omega 6:omega 3 is 1:1.3.
Many of the chronic conditions, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes,
cancer, obesity, autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma,
and depression are associated with an increased production of
thromboxane A2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin (IL) -1α, IL-6,
tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and C-reactive protein. The previous
molecule levels increase with increases in omega-6 fatty acid intakes
and decrease with increases in omega-3 fatty acid intakes [11,12].
Sacha inchi oil contains more omega-3 in its composition. Therefore,
sacha inchi can be a good candidate to prevent different diseases such
as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and others.

Lipids are a major component of the human diet. EFAs are crucial
dietary constituents for normal growth, development, and maintenance
of internal homeostasis. High quantities of EFA may be found in plant
seeds distributed in many regions of the world. These plants can
provide oils with a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids
that prevent cardiovascular diseases through several mechanisms [13].
The consumption of saturated fat in Ecuador is high, and the balance
ɷ3 and ɷ6 is not correct in many processed foods. Dietary EFA
includes LA, an n‒6 FA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an n‒3 FA.
These EFA cannot be synthesized by the human body being necessary
to supply them through dietary intake [14-16]. More importantly, EFA
is metabolized with very long-chains (VLC) PUFAs. For instance, LA is
converted to VLCPUFA arachidonic acid, and ALA is converted to both
VLCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Both EFA
and their associated VLCPUFA metabolites are important for various
body functions, including growth, immunity function, and cognitive
development [17,18].
The results obtained in this study are in accordance to fatty acids levels
from sacha inchi seeds reported in different studies.  Fanali et al., 2011,
has reported 36.2% of linolenic acid (ɷ6) and 46.8% of linoleic acid
(ɷ3) [2]. Fanali et al. only reported 4.0% of palmitic acid content.
Fig
Table


 
ratio (%)

bound

19.332 3.98 C16:0 Palmitic acid
26.005 3.12 C18:0 Stearic acid
26.869 8.58 A9 - C18:1c Oleic acid
28.644 34.98 A9,12- C18:2 Linoleic acid
31.122 47.04 A9,12,15- C18:3 Linolenic
acid
GC/MSD: Gas chromatography/mass selective detector, FAMEs: Fatty acids
methyl esters
Fig


a
c
b
d
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Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 11, Issue 2, 2018, 379-381
Carrillo et al.
Gutiérrez et al., 2011, reported 33.4% of linolenic acid (ɷ6), 50.8% of
linoleic acid (ɷ3), and 4.4% of palmitic acid [19]. Bondioli and Bella,
2006, reported 33.67% of linolenic acid (ɷ6), 50.73% of linoleic acid
(ɷ3), and 3.79% of palmitic acid [20]. Sacha inchi oil can be a good
alternative in Ecuador to be used in the food industry due to its high
nutritional quality.

This study was supported by Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ecuador
(Project CPU-1373-2014-UTA) and (Project Canje de DeudaEspaña-
Ecuador). This work has been reviewed in the English edition by Emilio
Labrador. Carrillo W thanks to Abraham Sánchez to supply sacha inchi
seeds.

Quinteros MF, Carpio C, Morales D, Vasquez G and Carrillo W conceived
and designed the experiments. Silva M and Alvarez M performed the gas
chromatography analyses. Carrillo W wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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20. Bondioli P, Bella LD. Alpha linolenic acid rich oils. Composition of
Plukenetiavolubilis (Sacha Inchi) oil from Perú. Riv Ital Sostanze
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Tabletable oils
 Vegetal oil      
[9] Olive oil 13.8 1.4 2.8 71.6 9.0 1.0
[9] Sunflower oil 5.2 0.1 3.7 33.7 56.5 0.0
[9] Palm oil 44.8 0.0 4.6 38.9 9.5 0.4
[9] Soybean oil 10.1 0.0 4.3 22.3 53.7 8.1
[9] Corn oil 11.6 0.0 2.5 38.7 44.7 1.4
Sacha inchi oil 3.98 0.0 3.12 8.58 34.98 47.04
... To date, positive outcomes have been recognized from consuming the plant or the components present in the seed, shell and leaves. It is worth highlighting its contribution of energy and proteins, generation of lipid mediators with immunomodulatory activity, regulation of cholesterolaemia, brain function and blood pressure (16,(23)(24)(25), and antioxidant and antitumor potential (26)(27)(28)(29)(30). Due to the aforementioned, it is relevant to explore in detail the benefits of this Amazonian plant. ...
... linoleic (C18:2, ω-6) and linolenic (C18:3, α-isomer, ω-3) acids constitute the majority of the lipid component, with the latter being even significantly greater than that registered for oil from other plant species, like palm, corn, soy and sunflower (24). Likewise, the compositional analysis of the sacha inchi seed cultivated in the department of Putumayo, Colombia, reveals a predominantly lipid content ((42.75±0.5) ...
... Regarding the chronic inflammatory diseases, it has been reported that ω-3 fatty acids exhibit potent immunomodulation activity attributed to the amount and type of eicosanoids derived by its consumption. Sacha inchi should also have this potential since its composition is based primarily on the content of the PUFAs (23)(24)(25). For instance, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (ω-3) competes enzymatically with arachidonic acid (ω--6) for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in the synthesis of prostanoids and leukotrienes, leading to diminished prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), thromboxane A2 (TXA 2 ) and leukotriene B4 (LTB 4 ) levels, involved in the processes of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, induction of inflammation, chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion. ...
Article
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Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis Linneo) is an ancestral plant originating in the Amazon jungle that has been adopted as a food source due to its high nutritional value, which has gradually been attributed with potential benefits for human health. Diverse prospective studies have evaluated the effect of consuming components from the plant, derivatives from its seeds, leaves and shell on preventing the risk of cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammatory disease, dermatitis and controlling tumor proliferation, especially given its recognized high content of essential fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and vitamin E, showing antioxidant, hypolipemic, immunomodulation, and emollient activity, as well as the capacity to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. This review offers a complete description of the information existing on the use and biological activity of P. volubilis L., based on its essentially lipid components and evidenced on its use in the field of human health, in prevention, therapeutic, and nutritional contexts, along with industrial uses, making it a promising bioresource.
... , [14], [15]. It is also noted for its highly digestible protein (24%-33%) rich with essential . ...
... [11], [13], [17]. Fatty acid composition is known to have a positive influence on human health as it is linked to the prevention of various diseases like arthritis, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and inflammatory skin diseases [7], [15], [18], [19]. Due to these properties, SI is attractive in the food, cosmetic, horticultural, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries [5], [13], [20], [21]. ...
... The polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) content i.e. linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were commonly reported to be high in SI [9]. The values obtained in this study were in the range reported by Kodahl [9] although the value of omega-6 fatty acids (44.82%) was higher than those of the omega-3 (35.89%) -a difference from other reported previous studies [8], [12], [14], [15], [18], [21], [23], [25]. ...
Article
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We investigated the macronutrient, selected mineral and fatty acid composition of Sacha inchi (SI) (Plukenetia volubikis L.) seeds harvested from the grounds of Crops Future, Malaysia. Macronutrient analysis was carried out on both fresh and roasted (160°C for 6 mins) SI seeds. Both fresh and roasted seeds were rich in crude fat (56.2%, 49.8%) and crude protein (23.8%, 25.0%) respectively. Fatty acid and some selected minerals analyses were carried out for the roasted SI seeds. Fatty acid analysis showed that the 18.6% of saturated fat was mainly made up of palmitic (4.64%) and stearic (12.9%) acids. The polyunsaturated fat amounted to 81.3% and was contributed mainly by linolenic (35.9%) and linoleic (44.8%) acids. The main minerals found were potassium (5179 mg/kg), phosphorus (3868 mg/kg), magnesium (3439 mg/kg) and calcium (1142 mg/kg). Comparison with other crops highlights SI's potential as a plant source of omega-3 and omega its macronutrient and mineral contents.
... Nuts protein can be a source of bioactive peptides that can be free after human digestion. When people include nuts in their diet, they can reduce and prevent cardiovascular diseases [ Table 2 [18,19] Olive oil 13.8 1.4 2.8 71.6 9.00 1.0 [18] Sunflower oil 5.2 0.1 3.7 33.7 56.5 0.0 [18] Palm oil 44.8 0.0 4.6 38.9 9.5 0.4 [18] Soybean oil 10.1 0.0 4.3 22.3 53.7 8.1 [18] Corn oil 11.6 0.0 2.5 38.7 44.7 1.4 [19] Sacha inchi oil 3.98 0.0 3.12 8.58 34.98 47.04 [20] Sambo oil 9.33 0.0 6.84 41.36 33.98 0.0 [21] Macadamia oil 9.11 12.48 3.93 63.36 3.22 1.69 [22] Walnut Juglans regia 7.80 ND 2.30 23.10 66.54 ND Kahai oil 7.0 0.0 3.47 18.59 68.04 2.90 ...
... Nuts protein can be a source of bioactive peptides that can be free after human digestion. When people include nuts in their diet, they can reduce and prevent cardiovascular diseases [ Table 2 [18,19] Olive oil 13.8 1.4 2.8 71.6 9.00 1.0 [18] Sunflower oil 5.2 0.1 3.7 33.7 56.5 0.0 [18] Palm oil 44.8 0.0 4.6 38.9 9.5 0.4 [18] Soybean oil 10.1 0.0 4.3 22.3 53.7 8.1 [18] Corn oil 11.6 0.0 2.5 38.7 44.7 1.4 [19] Sacha inchi oil 3.98 0.0 3.12 8.58 34.98 47.04 [20] Sambo oil 9.33 0.0 6.84 41.36 33.98 0.0 [21] Macadamia oil 9.11 12.48 3.93 63.36 3.22 1.69 [22] Walnut Juglans regia 7.80 ND 2.30 23.10 66.54 ND Kahai oil 7.0 0.0 3.47 18.59 68.04 2.90 ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to identify fatty acids present in a kahai oil sample cultivated in the Amazonian area of Ecuador.Methods: Kahai oil was obtained from kahai seeds using the cold pressing method. Fatty acids analysis was carried out using the gas chromatography with a mass selective detector and using the database Library NIST 14.L to identify the compounds.Results: Kahai seeds have 62.36% of total lipids. Kahai seeds have a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids with 68.04% of linoleic acid and 2.90% of linolenic acid. Kahai oil has 18.59% of monounsaturated fatty acids of oleic acid. Kahai oil only has 7.0% of palmitic acid and 3.47% of stearic acid.Conclusions: Kahai oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega 6 and has a good proportion of monounsaturated fatty acid omega 9. This oil can be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical and functional foods for their composition of fatty acids. Kahai oil can be an alternative of crop to indigenous communities in the Amazonian area of Ecuador.
... Se encuentra distribuida desde las Antillas menores, Surinam y el sector noroeste de la cuenca amazónica en Venezuela, Colombia hasta Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia y Brasil (Dostert et al., 2009). En el Perú se encuentra en estado silvestre en diversos lugares, como los departamentos de San Martín, Ucayali, Huánuco, Amazonas, Madre de Dios y Loreto (Triana et al., 2017;Carrillo et al., 2018;Bueno et al., 2018). Las semillas de sacha inchi están emergiendo como un alimento funcional debido a su rica composición de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, tocoferol y esteroles. ...
Article
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El sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) es una planta promisoria que requiere fortalecerse con prácticas agrícolas que garanticen una oferta futura de suficiente volumen en kilogramos por hectárea y calidad adecuada de semilla. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de las podas de formación sobre su rendimiento en el distrito Constitución, Provincia, Oxapampa, departamento de Pasco, Perú. Se aplicó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA), con 3 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: (T1) poda con dos ramas, (T2) poda con tres ramas y (T0) control sin poda. Se utilizó el ecotipo pinto recondo. Con un distanciamiento de 3 x 2 m y soporte de tutores. Las podas de formación se realizaron a los 60 días de la instalación en campo. Los resultados muestran que con el Tratamiento T2 se obtuvo 633,89 kg. ha-1 en el primer año y 1901,67 kg. ha-1 al segundo año, superando estadísticamente a los demás tratamientos. Las podas con tres ramasfavorecen el desarrollo de la planta y el incremento del rendimiento en menor tiempo.
... It has triangular-ovate leaves with many male flowers and single female flower in a thyrse. Meanwhile the fruits are star shaped with four-to six-points, with a seed inside each star points (Carrillo et al., 2018). Sacha inchi has been cultivated since 16th century in Peru and traditionally consumed due to its nutritional value. ...
Article
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Plukenetia volubilis or commonly known as sacha inchi is reported to produce wide range of health-promoting bioactive metabolites. These metabolites functions as supplements in eradicating various types of diseases. Sacha inchi has large edible seeds that are rich in phenolic content, minerals and essential fatty acid, such as omega 3 (ω-3), omega 6 (ω-6), omega 7 (ω-7), and omega 9 (ω-9). In vitro cultures could serve as alternative in producing many essential sacha inchi bioactive compounds. As an initial step towards initiating in vitro culture, the effect of 2,4-D and TDZ on inducing callus cultures were investigated. Two different explants, sacha inchi leaf and male flower were used in this study. Surface sterilization of sacha inchi was first optimized to overcome culture contamination. The most effective surface sterilization is by using 70% ethanol (30 seconds) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (8 minutes), which resulted in 82.5% and 95% survival rate for leaf and flower explants respectively. Next, for calli induction the explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D and TDZ, either alone or in combination and grown at 24 hours dark photoperiods. The morphology and size of callus were observed. The results obtained from the experiment varied depending on the treatments, producing either friable or compact calli of creamy white, pure white or brownish colour. For both, leaf and male flower explants, MS medium supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose in combination with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.005 mg/L TDZ recorded the best response in term of callus size, forming friable creamy white callus.
... Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is an oilseed that originated in the Amazon Rainforest in Peru. Traditionally, it has been grown in San Martín and other six Peruvian departments, but it is also being cultivated in several South American countries (Triana-Maldonado, Torijano- Gutiérrez, & Giraldo-Estrada, 2017;Carrillo et al., 2018;Bueno-Borges et al., 2018). However, due to its nutritional benefits and the market demand for application in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, this crop has experienced a remarkable expansion in South East Asia (Liu et al., 2014;Rawdkuen, Murdayanti, Ketnawa, & Phongthai, 2016;Minh, Trang, Trang, & Bach, 2019). ...
Article
Sacha inchi is a super seed primarily grown in the Amazon rainforest of Peru. One of the main products obtained from seeds is oil. This product is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols. The objective of this work was to authenticity evaluate of the Sacha inchi oil by means of characterization of phenols, volatile compounds, and sensory profile. The phenolic and volatile compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) and headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), respectively. A total of 16 phenolic compounds were detected in commercial Sacha inchi oils, while 54 compounds have been found in the volatile fraction. These compounds mainly correspond to notes generated by alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, and terpenoids. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two PCs account for 71.13% of total variance. Statistical analysis was used to observe the relationships between phenolic and volatile compounds; therefore, consequently, it has been found that 16 volatile compounds may have a significant influence upon overall perceived flavor and odor of the commercial Sacha inchi oils. According to the odor and flavor, the Sacha inchi oil is characterized by “green” odor notes, seed, dried fruit and rough.
... The content of SFAs in pitaya oil was slightly higher than in kahai and tocte oils. Other vegetable oils from Ecuador presenting low content of omega 6 than pitaya oil are corn oil (Zea mays L.) with a value of 52.68% of omega 6 [13], sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) with a value of 34.98% of omega 6 [23], sambo oil (Cucurbita ficifolia L) with a value of 33.98% of omega 6 [24], chia oil (Salvia hispanica L.) with a value of 31.03% of omega 6 [11], macadamia oil (Macadamia intergrifolia) with a value of 3.79% of omega 6 [12], and ungurahua oil (Oenocarpus bataua) with a low value of 1.60% of omega 6 [25]. In the production of pitaya pulp for export tons of seeds are generated as food waste. ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the composition of methyl esters fatty acids (FAMEs) in yellow pitaya (Hylocereus megalanthus) seeds cultivated in the Palora, Ecuador Amazonian region. Methods: Yellow pitaya oil was obtained from yellow pitaya seeds using the Soxhlet technique. FAMEs identification and quantification were carried out using the gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the database Library NIST14.L to identify the FAMEs present in yellow pitaya oil. Results: Yellow pitaya oil from Ecuador Amazonian region was analyzed by GC-MS, to obtain the five main fatty acids, palmitic acid (11.52%), stearic acid (4.29%), oleic acid (11.09%), vaccenic acid (3.08%), and linoleic acid (69.98%). Omega 6 was the most abundant fatty acid, total content in yellow pitaya seeds oil. Conclusions: Yellow pitaya seeds content a good proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 6). For their fatty acid composition, yellow pitaya seeds can be considered as healthy food and can be used in the food industry for different purposes. Regular consumption of yellow pitaya can improve human health.
... Tocte oil can also be used as a good source of fatty acids with possible biological activities. [16] Olive oil 13.8 1.4 2.8 71.6 9.00 1.0 [16] Sunflower oil 5.2 0.1 3.7 33.7 56.5 0.0 [16] Palm oil 44.8 0.0 4.6 38.9 9.5 0.4 [16] Soybean oil 10.1 0.0 4.3 22.3 53.7 8.1 [16] Corn oil 11.6 0.0 2.5 38.7 44.7 1.4 [17] Sacha inchi oil 3.98 0.0 3.12 8.58 34.98 47.04 [18] Sambo oil 9.33 0.0 6.84 41.36 33.98 0.0 [19] Macadamia oil 9.11 12.48 3.93 63.36 3.22 1.69 [20] Kahai oil 19.32 0.0 3.47 18.59 68.04 0.0 [21] Walnut Juglans regia 7.80 N.D 2.30 23.10 66.54 N.D Tocte oil 5.05 0.0 2.26 19.50 65.81 2.79 ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids composition in a tocte seeds oil (Juglans neotropica Diels) sample cultivated in Ecuador.Methods: Tocte oil was obtained from tocte seeds using the cold pressing method. Fatty acids analysis was carried out using the gas chromatography method with a mass selective detector (GC/MSD) and using the database Library NIST14.L to identify the compounds.Results: Methyl esters fatty acids were identified from tocte (J. neotropica Diels) walnut using the GC–MS analytical method. The total lipid content of tocte walnuts seeds of plants cultivated in Ecuador was of 49.01% of the total lipid content on fresh weight. Fatty acids were analyzed as methyl esters on a capillary column DB-WAX 122-7062 with a good separation of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid. The structure of methyl esters fatty acids was determined using the GC–MS. Tocte walnut presents 5.05% of palmitic acid, 2.26% of stearic acid, 19.50% of oleic acid, 65.81% of linoleic acid, and 2.79% linolenic acid of the total content of fatty acids in tocte oil. Fatty acids content reported in this study were similar to the data reported for other walnuts seeds.Conclusions: Tocte seeds are a good source of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tocte oil content oleic acid and with a good content of ɷ6 α-linoleic and ɷ3 α-linolenic. Tocte walnut can help reduce risk cardiovascular diseases in Ecuador for their good composition of fatty acids.
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to identify fatty acids in a sambo oil sample cultivated in Ecuador.Methods: Sambo oil was obtained from sambo seeds using the cold pressing method. Fatty acids analysis was carried out using the gas chromatography with a mass selective detector (MSD) and using the database Library NIST14.L to identify the compounds.Results: Sambo seeds have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids with 41.36% of oleic acid. Sambo oil has 37.77% of polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which 3.79% ɷ6 α- linoleic and 33.98% of ɷ3 α- linolenic. Sambo seeds only have 9.33% of palmitic acid.Conclusions: Sambo seed is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids with a good content of ɷ3 α- linolenic. This profile enables their use as a good and healthy oil to be used in the food industry in Ecuador.
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Objective: The aim of this work was to determine the fatty acids content in corn seeds oil (Zea mays) sample cultivated in Ecuador.Methods: Corn oil was obtained from corn oil seeds using the cold pressing method. Methyl esters fatty acids analysis were carried out using the gas chromatography (GC) method with a mass selective detector and using the database library NIST 14.L to identify the compounds present in the corn seed oil.Results: Methyl esters fatty acids were identified from corn (Z. mays) seeds using the GC mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analytical method. Fatty acids were analyzed as methyl esters on a capillary column DB-WAX 122-7062 with a good separation of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid, and linolenic acid. The structure of methyl esters fatty acids was determined using the GS-MS method. Corn oil has a high content of linoleic acid (omega 6) with a value of 52.68% of the total content of fatty acids in corn oil and 29.70% of oleic acid (omega 9) of the total content of fatty acids in corn oil. The sample presented a value of 12.57% of palmitic acid.Conclusions: Corn oil shows a good content of fatty acids omega 6 and 9. The higher value was of omega 6 with 52.68% content. Corn oil has a good proportion of polyunsaturated of lipids (53.80%) and 14.86% of saturated lipids.
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In this short paper the oil obtained from the Plukenetia volubilis seeds, a plant belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae, is described. This crop is cultivated in several Countries of South America. For P. volubilis oil numerous classical chemical parameters were evaluated. The obtained data indicate that this oil can be classified as rich in alpha linolenic acid (> 50 %). For the commercial development of this product all available precautions must be taken to avoid or to slow down the oxidative degradation.
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The main biochemical function of the tocopherols is believed to be the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against peroxidation. A critical question that must be asked in reference to this is whether there is a biochemical link between the tocopherol levels and the degree of unsaturation in vegetable oils, the main source of dietary PUFA and vitamin E. We used a mathematical approach in an effort to highlight some facts that might help address this question. Literature data on the relative composition of fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3) and the contents of tocopherols (α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol) in 101 oil samples, including 14 different botanical species, were analyzed by principal-component analysis and linear regression. There was a negative correlation between α- and γ-tocopherols (r=0.633, P<0.05). Results also showed a positive correlation between linoleic acid (18:2) and α-tocopherol (r=0.549, P<0.05) and suggested a positive correlation between linolenic acid (18:3) and γ-tocopherol.
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A chemical characterization of the major components, namely, triacylglycerols (TAGs), polyphenols, and tocopherols in a Sacha inchi oil derived from cold pressing of the seed, is hereby reported. To tackle such a task, high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with photodiode array (PDA), fluorescence (RF), and mass spectrometry (MS) detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and with electrospray ionization for the analysis of TAGs and polyphenols, respectively, whereas RF detection was tested for the determination of tocopherol content. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were evaluated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. A 93% amount of total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated FAMEs with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic (L) and linolenic (Ln) accounting for approximately 50 and 36%, respectively. The main TAGs (>10%) were represented by LLnL, LnLnLn, and LnLLn; the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (22.2%). Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol was detected to be the most abundant component (over 50%). The polyphenolic composition was also investigated, and a total of 15 compounds were positively identified, through the complementary analytical information coming from PDA and MS data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report providing a thorough chemical characterization of a Plukenetia volubilis L. oil.