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Abstract

MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a community based MPA with low tourism pressure in Vanuatu, and a government managed MPA with relatively high tourism pressure, in Saint Martin. Assessments were made on six ES: fish biomass, scenic beauty, protection against coastal erosion, bequest and existence values, social capital and CO 2 sequestration, which were quantified via different approaches that included experimental fishery, surveys and benefit transfer. Total operating costs for each MPA were collected and the benefit-cost ratio and return on investment based on 25-year discounted projections computed. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on MPA impacts, and discount rates (5%, 7% and 10%). The investment indicators all showed positive results with the impact on the tourism ES being the largest estimated for all MPAs, highlighting the importance of this relationship. The study also demonstrated a relatively high sensitivity of the results to different levels of impacts on ES, which highlights the need for reducing scientific knowledge gaps.

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... While marginal changes are known to be the correct metric to value MPAs, they are rarely measured in practice. This is due to the complexity of underlying ecological nonlinearities, limited understanding of bio-physical linkages, and requirements for simplify ing assumptions that reduce the accuracy of these estimates (Barbier, 2012;Bateman et al., 2011;Pascal et al., 2018). Non-linearities in service provision occur over time and space, and there are also likely scale and threshold effects depending on numerous vari ables, which are often poorly understood. ...
... Economists often therefore need to use proxies or make simplifying assumptions to undertake these studies. Sensitivity analyses should be conducted to clarify the effect of assumptions on results, although this is rarely done in practice (Pascal et al., 2018). ...
... There remain significant uncertainties regarding MPA impacts on fishery yields, tourism revenues, coastal protection, and other ESs (Boersma & Parrish, 1999;Pascal et al., 2018;Russi et al., 2016). Generally there is also insufficient understanding of MPA impacts on the provision of supporting and regulating services, which makes them the least amenable to valuation, especially for climate mitigation, coastal protection, and water quality (Barbier, 2012;Hanley, Hynes, Patterson, & Jobstvogt, 2015;Jobstvogt, Watson, & Kenter, 2014;Keller et al., 2009). ...
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) remain one of the principal strategies for marine conser­ vation globally. MPAs are highly heterogeneous in terms of physical features such as size and shape, habitats included, management bodies undertaking management, goals, level of funding, and extent of enforcement. Economic research related to MPAs initially mea­ sured financial, gross, and net values generated by the habitats, most commonly fish­ eries, tourism, coastal protection, and non-use values. Bioeconomic modeling also gener­ ated important insights into the complexities of fisheries-related outcomes at MPAs. MPAs require a significant investment in public funds for design, designation, and ongo­ ing management, which have associated opportunity costs. Therefore cost-benefit analy­ sis has been increasingly required to justify this investment and demonstrate their bene­ fits over time. The true economic value of MPAs is the value of protection, not the re­ source being protected. There is substantial evidence that MPAs should increase recre­ ational values due to improvements in biodiversity and habitat quality, but assumptions that MPAs will generate such improvements may not be justified. Indeed, there remains no equivocal demonstration of spillover in fisheries adjacent to MPAs, due in part to the variability inherent in ecological and socioeconomic processes and limited evidence of tourism benefits that are biologically or socio-cultural sustainable. There is a need for carefully designed valuation studies that compare values for areas within MPAs compared the same areas without management (the counterfactual sce­ nario). The ecosystem service framework has become widely adopted as a way of charac­ terizing goods and services that contribute directly or indirectly to human welfare. Quan­ titative analyses of the marginal changes to ecosystem services due to MPAs remains rare due to the requirements of large amounts of fine-grained data, relatively undeveloped bio-physical models for the majority of services, and the complexities of incorporating ecological non-linearities and threshold effects. In addition while some services are syner­ gistic (so that double counting is difficult to avoid), others are traded off. Such marginal ecosystem service values are highly context specific, which limits the accuracy associated with benefits transfer. A number of studies published since 2000 have made advances in this area, and this is a rapidly developing field of research. While MPAs have been promoted as a sustainable development tool, there is evidence of significant distributive impacts of MPAs over time, over different time scales and between different stakeholders, including unintended costs to local stakeholders. Research sug­ gests that support and compliance is predicated on the costs and benefits generated lo­ cally, which is a major determinant of MPA performance. Better understanding of socioeconomic impacts will help to align incentives with MPA objectives. Further research is needed to value supporting and regulating services and to elucidate how ecosystem ser­ vice provision is affected by MPAs in different conditions and contexts, over time and compared to unmanaged areas, to guide adaptive management.
... CBA is considered a relevant tool in environmental public and private decision-making (Alam, 2008;Feuillette et al., 2016;Pearce, Atkinson & Mourato, 2006) because it sets the decision to spend scarce public or private financial resources under a social accounting framework (Cordes, 2017). It has been applied to many different fields (Pascal et al., 2018;Paulrud & Laitila, 2013; Piñeiro-Chousa, L opez-Cabarcos, Romero-Castro & V azquez-Rodríguez, 2021), but its presence in the scientific literature related to IED derogations is practically non-existing. ...
... In a CBA on environmental investments, all the relevant private and social benefits and costs should be estimated and included in the analysis, requiring the valuation of environmental goods or services that have no market value (Pascal et al., 2018;Pearce et al., 2006). To conduct this study, various CBA frameworks were taken as a reference, some specifically related to the IED and the analysis of the proposals for derogations to the IED (EA (Environment Agency), 2017; EPA (Environment Protection Agency), 2016; European Commission, 2006Commission, , 2015HM Treasury, 2018). ...
... This should be mainly related to the establishment of clearer criteria on the SDR to be considered in the CBA of investments in environmental protection and the improvement of the reference frameworks for estimating damage costs and the uplift factor. There are many uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the impacts of pollution on health, ecosystem services, and their derived direct and indirect social and economic impacts, so more research is needed to reduce these uncertainties and knowledge gaps (Pascal et al., 2018). The considerable uncertainties that arise in the estimation of damage costs must also be accounted for (Bachmann, 2020). ...
Article
Environmental regulation forces many industrial sectors to explore alternative innovative compliance investments to internalize environmental externalities without hindering competitiveness. The impacts of air emissions associated with climate change and other global and local sources on health and ecosystems are a main concern. Under the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), the European Union requires that industrial facilities obtain an operating permit linked to specific emissions levels that can be reached through application of the best available techniques (BAT). Some flexibility is allowed in the choice of these BATs, and in some cases, derogations can be obtained if a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) accounting for all private and social costs and benefits reveals that the BAT option results in disproportionate costs. CBAs depend on complex variables that are subject to a high degree of uncertainty, such as the social discount rate (SDR), the private weighted average cost of capital (WACC), and the value of the social or external costs derived from changes in air emissions. Through a case study comparing two alternative compliance options in a fictitious nonferrous metal plant (a BAT with disproportionate costs and a more cost-efficient and cost-effective derogation proposal), this study applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to improve the understanding of how the former uncertain variables affect the surplus net present value (SNPV) of the derogation option. The results can be considered by plant operators and policy-makers to design more transparent and balanced licensing processes, which can improve environmental protection without damaging economic competitiveness.
... Such positive intentions must however be coupled with concrete initiatives that both protect the ocean from its many stressors and involve marine stakeholders whose livelihoods depend on it. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered the most promising tools in the management toolkit for protecting ecosystems and allowing for their services to be utilized in sustainable ways (Halpern, 2003;Angulo-Valdes and Hatcher, 2010;Mumby and AR, 2010;Pascal et al., 2018a). For MPAs to be successful however, effective management fueled by adequate financing is essential (Edgar et al., 2014;Watson et al., 2014;Gill et al., 2017). ...
... Positive experiences with nature conservation in parts of Africa, shows that they can improve service through professional management and marketing, reduce the need for public subsidies, and mobilize capital for investment in park infrastructure and biodiversity. Pascal et al. (2018a), Pascal et al. (2018b presented a list of marine protected areas under collaborative management with non-profit entities in the Caribbean, and discussed a select few. Their research showed that many of these protected areas succeeded in becoming financially sustainable, while also demonstrating positive social and ecological impacts. ...
... The design of the collaborative management agreement for the DR MPA with an impact investment solution was based on a combination of a desk study as well as interviews with local stakeholders. The desk study reviewed the existing literature on: a) Collaborative management experiences for Protected Areas worldwide including design recommendations (Carlsson and Berkes, 2005;Saporiti, 2006;Svensson et al., 2009;Jones et al., 2011;Zurba et al., 2012;Hatchwell, 2014;Lindsey et al., 2014;Regan et al., 2016) and in the Dominican Republic, b) Documented MPAs with successful business model (Saporiti, 2006;Svensson et al., 2009;Lely et al., 2013;Gill et al., 2017;Pascal et al., 2018a; UN Environment, ISU et al., 2018) and, c) Conservation finance guides with a focus on protected areas (Bovarnick et al., 2010;The Katoomba Group, 2010;UNDP and GEF, 2012;The World Bank, 2014;Walsh et al., 2016;UNDP, 2018). d) Official statistics, economic reports, market surveys and technical reports to collect data on the socio-economic context of the MPA, the threats to the marine ecosystems, the tourism market, and MPA user fee levels in the country and in the region. ...
Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promising examples of Nature-Based Solutions that can protect diversity while delivering ecosystem services. However insufficient funding for effective management and expansion of MPAs remains a challenge and one that particularly affects developing countries. During the last ten years, a community of investors seeking positive social and environmental impacts alongside financial returns, have stepped in to help fill this marine conservation financing gap. An innovative collaborative management approach has been recently implemented in the Dominican Republic for one of the largest MPAs in the Caribbean. Blended finance solutions mixing catalytic, development and impact finance have been used to cover the up-front capital needs. MPA revenues are being generated for MPA management and investor returns, via a range of sustainable finance tools including fees paid by visitors. The solution offers interesting outcomes that uses catalytic and development finance to mobilise commercial impact finance into MPAs. From a Government point of view, the approach provides empirical evidence of how non-public funding can become part of the financing options for a country’s MPA network, reducing the financial burden on Public Budgets. Scalability of the approach seems limited by the number of MPAs with tangible business models.
... More research on the management of PAs (Eagles 2014) and new decision-making tools (Duke, Dundas, and Messer 2013;Pascal et al. 2018;Weaver and Lawton 2017) are needed. As far as the contribution to regional development is concerned, the possibility of developing decision-making models based on an economic or monetary valuation of alternative decisions or strategies related to the tourism use of PAs, such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA), is highly interesting (Banerjee, Cicowiez, and Moreda 2019). ...
... Visitors' preferences, especially regarding nature-based experiences (Moyle et al. 2017), should also be integrated into PA management (Alves et al. 2017;Mandić 2019). Two main alternative profiles of visitors can be identified: mass or casual tourists, and conservation-focused or eco-tourists (Dabezies and Ballesteros-Arias 2013;Pascal et al. 2018;Viteri Mejía and Brandt 2015). Perceptions of crowding have also been investigated (Barrio and Loureiro 2018;León et al. 2015;Marsiglio 2016;Rathnayake 2015). ...
... Conservation costs should also receive greater attention in conservation planning (Armsworth et al. 2011), especially in small (Armsworth et al. 2011) and island (Roberts, Cresswell, and Hanley 2018) PAs. Previous research has applied CBA to the analysis of public investments in tourism (Banerjee, Cicowiez, and Moreda 2019) to justify the economic value of national parks (Mayer 2014), marine PAs (Pascal et al. 2018), or rural landscapes (Cortignani et al. 2018) and to analyse the feasibility of forest conservation (Lindhjem et al. 2015), coastal management (Alves et al. 2017), and the restoration of contaminated sites (Alam 2008;Paulrud and Laitila 2013). ...
Article
Tourism entrepreneurship has not received sufficient attention in the context of protected areas (PAs). It needs careful management to avoid conflicts with conservation objectives and positively contribute to regional development. Traditional management approaches based on the strict application of the carrying capacity principle are suboptimal. An adaptive management framework has been demanded, but it has been scarcely adopted in practice or explored in previous research. Moreover, appropriate decision-making tools are lacking. This study proposes a combination of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and real options analysis (ROA) to support the sustainable tourism entrepreneurship development in PAs under an adaptive management framework. Costs are related to the conservation and restoration activities, and benefits to the use and non-use value placed by visitors on it, measured through visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainable tourism. The proposed model also embraces uncertainty and flexibility, considering visitors’ WTP and tourism demand as the primary sources of uncertainty. Through the analysis of the sustainable tourism management of Ons Island, part of the Marine-Terrestrial National Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia, we exemplify the power of a combined CBA-ROA approach and derive implications for policymakers, PA managers, tourism entrepreneurs, and researchers.
... In spite of the variety of management measures implemented, such as ecosystem based management, integrated coastal zone management, marine spatial planning and watershed management (Mcleod et al., 2019) coral reef health continues to decline and inadequate finance has been identified as a cross-cutting factor, undermining conservation action (Bladon et al., 2016;Gill et al., 2017). Private sector financing mechanisms for coral reef conservation are scarce (Pascal et al., 2018a(Pascal et al., , 2018bMeyers et al., 2020). However PES might provide a way for conservation funds to be generated from non-public sources Bos et al., 2015) if coastal protection can meet PES requirements. ...
... Social parameters must also be taken into consideration and while not being the focus of this paper, knowledge of potential beneficiaries (buyers) and providers (sellers) of the ES are required to showcase an example of a PES scheme. A variety of stakeholders would benefit from coastal protection, however, for most Caribbean Islands with the importance of tourism and its strong relationship to coastal protection, the most obvious beneficiaries are coastal hoteliers, who desire beach presence as a selling point for their businesses (Uyarra et al., 2005;Pascal et al., 2018aPascal et al., , 2018b, as well as governments. Sellers of the service for the MPA Proxy, will most likely be MPA Managers, who, while not owning the marine space, are designated by governments to manage them. ...
Article
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an emerging tool intended to solve a range of ecosystem management inefficiencies, by linking conservation action to payment. Such schemes have not been tested to our knowledge, for coral reef derived coastal protection, which is a key Ecosystem Service (ES) for many nations bordered by tropical coral reefs. Coral health is deteriorating globally, as are their ES and inadequate finance is identified as a cross cutting factor stymieing management action. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of PES for coastal protection, with a focus on the scientific requirements. Key PES elements related solely to ecological processes were isolated, the role of coral reefs in protecting beaches reviewed and priority management options for improving reef health synthesized. Outputs indicate that there is adequate scientific knowledge to satisfy a PES. While there is limited ability to prove and quantify causality between management actions and ES delivery, PES criteria can be satisfied with the substitution of a management proxy, rather than payments being conditional on ES measurements. Management, both passive and active, would focus on aintaining reefs that already have a protective function and front stable beaches, above a functioning threshold.
... Top-down government regulations can further be perceived as confrontational, as they often revolve around restricting and banning certain practices without full transparency or buy-in from relevant stakeholders, including resource users (Jones, 2012;Gaymer et al., 2014). In contrast, voluntary agreements, in the right local context, can be more effective for jointly achieving conservation and human well-being goals (Wiley et al., 2008;Begossi et al., 2011;Pascal et al., 2018). ...
... The utilisation of MCAs in Fiji to conserve marine resources for continued use by the tourism industry represents a larger opportunity to translate the ecosystem services provided by the marine environment into an effective tool for biodiversity protection and sustainable fisheries management, and build mutually beneficial private sector-community partnerships. There have been numerous studies quantifying the monetary value of ecosystems services within the tourism industry (Castaño-Isaza et al., 2015;Lange, 2015;Hynes et al., 2018;Pascal et al., 2018), but limited research has been conducted as to how this value can be converted into effective conservation through MCAs in practice. The case studies in this study provide a typology of arrangements that can be translated into conservation practices which benefit the environment, tourism operators, and local communities. ...
Article
The marine environment is vital for Fiji's tourism sector, yet industry and community partnerships to conserve it have largely gone unrecognised. A study from March to October 2017 documented the extent and scale to which 'Marine Conservation Agreements' (MCAs) between tourism operators and indigenous, resource owning communities are used in Fiji, and their contribution to biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. More than half of operators (69.1%) interviewed had been involved, were involved, or were becoming involved, in some form of MCA, focused on temporary or permanent no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). MPAs established through MCAs covered an estimated 26,625 ha, of which 21,000 ha comprised deep water and offshore reefs within two large marine reserves, and 5625 ha comprised mostly nearshore shallow fringing reefs and slopes. Only 28% of tourism-based MCAs included explicit economic incentives to the resource owners such as some level of payment, provision of infrastructure, or employment opportunities directly related to marine conservation. The remaining 72% supplied broader benefits such as sustainable marine resources or general employment in the tourism sector. Although MCAs are in place in Fiji with implied and not formal or explicit conditionality, they contribute to natural resource management and should be counted in global biodiversity targets.
... It includes the sustainable management and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of natural disasters and climate change" (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2009). Previous studies have shown that EbA measures can have a positive impact on human well-being (Dadvand & Nieuwenhuijsen, 2019;Hudson, Pham, & Bubeck, 2019; UN Environment, 2019), and can be cost-efficient (Browder et al., 2019;IFRC, 2011;Jongman, 2018;Lo, 2016;Pascal et al., 2018). As EbA is more inclusive and accessible for vulnerable groups of society than hard infrastructure, and because ecosystems support the livelihoods of those directly depending on natural resources, it benefits people especially vulnerable to natural hazards (DKKV, 2019;Hudson et al., 2019). ...
... Therefore, creating a good understanding and valuation of the various benefits of EbA is key. In this respect, a growing body of literature shows that EbA can be a cost-effective solution for DRR and CCA (IFRC, 2011;Jongman, 2018;Pascal et al., 2018). Pilot projects were a solution suggested by policy-makers that can help to raise awareness among decision makers and communities in order to overcome the above mentioned barriers. ...
Article
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In recent years, nature-based solutions are receiving increasing attention in the field of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation as inclusive, no regret approaches. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) can mitigate the impacts of climate change, build resilience and tackle environmental degradation thereby supporting the targets set by the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement and the Sendai Framework. Despite these benefits, EbA is still rarely implemented in practice. To better understand the barriers to implementation, this research examines policy-makers' perceptions of EbA, using an extended version of Protection Motivation Theory as an analytical framework. Through semi-structured interviews with policy-makers at regional and provincial level in Central Vietnam, it was found that EbA is generally considered a promising response option, mainly due to its multiple ecosystem-service benefits. The demand for EbA measures was largely driven by the perceived consequences of natural hazards and climate change. Insufficient perceived response efficacy and time-lags in effectiveness for disaster risk reduction were identified as key impediments for implementation. Pilot projects and capacity building on EbA are important means to overcome these perceptual barriers. This paper contributes to bridging the knowledge-gap on political decision-making regarding EbA and can, thereby, promote its mainstreaming into policy plans.
... As for evaluation methods, existence and bequest values are often assessed in monetary terms through stated preference models such as contingent valuation methods and willingness to pay exercises (for instance: Pearce, 2007;Yang et al., 2008;Gan et al., 2011;Huang and Wang, 2015), or through benefit transfer methods when site-specific information is not available (as in Pascal et al., 2018). Non-monetary, socio-ecological methods include stakeholders surveys, community mapping (Raymond et al., 2009), participatory geographic information (as in Vieira da Silva et al., 2021). ...
Book
Full-text available
Identifying and planning green infrastructures at the regional scale can be considered an intentional way of spreading the positive impacts of environmental conservation policies across spatial contexts much more complex and larger than protected areas. In this volume, a methodological approach is defined and experimentally implemented into the Sardinian region (Italy), in order to identify both a regional green infrastructure, and a network of ecological corridors, conceived as edges connecting the regional protected areas. This approach supports spatial decision-making processes aimed at addressing environmental hazards connected to landslides and floods, as well as at establishing effective spatial planning rules. OPEN ACCESS BOOK - available from https://series.francoangeli.it/index.php/oa/catalog/view/814/662/4727
... One study estimated that the mean WTP for MPA for coral reef ecosystem services ranges from US$3 to US$27 per respondent (Kirkbride-Smith et al. 2016). However, for resilience management estimates to become more informative, a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is crucial (Pascal et al. 2018). We did not conduct a CBA because of lack of data. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience management is gaining support as resilience studies proliferate. Quantification of resilience could help decision makers understand the complex dynamics of resilience and adopt resilience management. However, most quantifications have focused on resilience as an attribute of social-ecological systems, such as thresholds and safe operating spaces. Although informative for planning and implementing effective resilience management, they do not inform decision makers if people accept and support this management. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how people perceive resilience. We applied three metrics to measure how people perceive resilience: (1) an economic valuation of resilience, (2) motivations behind valuing resilience, and (3) the relative importance of resilience compared with other ecosystem services. We adopted coral reef ecosystems in Okinawa, Japan for our analysis. Coral reef ecosystems, which are rich in marine genetic resources (hotspots), have become endangered because of increasing anthropocentric pressures, and resilience is becoming an accepted method in coral reef ecosystem management. Our study revealed that an ex-ante willingness to pay (WTP) for expected benefits from a resilience management program ranged from 3439 to 5663 JPY for mean WTP and from 1615 to 2579 JPY for median WTP (cf. 100 JPY = 0.891 USD in 2017). Primary motivations, i.e., human values, underlying the valuation of resilience were conservation and self-transcendence, which overlap with some ecosystem services such as culture, bequest, education, coastal protection, sanitation, and habitat. Resilience is highly important compared with the other 10 coral reef ecosystem services. These findings could help decision makers plan and implement an effective, acceptable, and supported resilience management program.
... Furthermore, qualitative studies are particularly important for providing explanations and contexts for indicators, which alone cannot tell the full story 25,27 . While social scientists are increasingly called on to assess human well-being outcomes of MPAs 28 , MPA development and management continues to primarily take place without consistent quantitative or qualitative monitoring of well-being outcomes 29,30 . We need to move towards ensuring the long-term well-being of people and communities that depend on marine systems, and to develop appropriate studies and indicators to capture the multidimensional outcomes of MPAs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas are advocated as a key strategy for simultaneously protecting marine biodiversity and supporting coastal livelihoods, but their implementation can be challenging for numerous reasons, including perceived negative effects on human well-being. We synthesized research from 118 peer-reviewed articles that analyse outcomes related to marine protected areas on people, and found that half of documented well-being outcomes were positive and about one-third were negative. No-take, well-enforced and old marine protected areas had positive human well-being outcomes, which aligns with most findings from ecological studies. Marine protected areas with single zones had more positive effects on human well-being than areas with multiple zones. Most studies focused on economic and governance aspects of well-being, leaving social, health and cultural domains understudied. Well-being outcomes arose from direct effects of marine protected area governance processes or management actions and from indirect effects mediated by changes in the ecosystem. Our findings illustrate that both human well-being and biodiversity conservation can be improved through marine protected areas, yet negative impacts commonly co-occur with benefits.
... Protected areas are a cornerstone of biological conservation [9]. Globally, the sharp increase in the number and extent of marine protected areas (MPAs) over the last few decades has contributed to increases in fish abundance and has alleviated the impacts of fishing on marine ecosystems [10,11]. In contrast to the conservation practices of marine environments, the use of freshwater protected areas (FPAs) for the conservation of freshwater environments has been relatively limited [12][13][14]. ...
Article
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Background: The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world and suffers from extensive anthropogenic impacts. The fishes in the Yangtze River are essential for the sustainable development of freshwater fisheries and the conservation of aquatic biodiversity in China. However, the fishery resources in the Yangtze River Basin have shown rapid decline due to various human activities. In recent years, nature reserves and germplasm resource reserves have become important means to protect fishes in the Yangtze River. However, nature reserves and germplasm resource reserves that regard freshwater fishes as the main object of protection are not common and have been rarely studied in China. In this paper, a hydroacoustic method and systematic conservation planning tool (Marxan) were combined to evaluate the effectiveness of reserves based on the spatial and temporal patterns of mature fishes in the middle reach of the Yangtze River (MRYR) from 2010 to 2017. Results: The hydroacoustic survey results indicated that in the longitudinal direction, low densities of mature fish species were observed in the Jingzhou (S2) and Jianli (S4, S5, S6) sections, whereas high densities of fish were observed in other sections, such as the Yichang (S1), Chenglingji to Huangsangkou (S7-S12), and Hukou (S15) sections. Among the regions preferred by fish, S7, S10 and S12 were non-reserves. No significant difference in mature fish density was observed between the non-reserves and nature reserves, and a similar result was obtained between the non-reserves and germplasm resource reserves. In Marxan, the optimal conservation sites selected for habitat restoration, such as the Chenglingji, Dengjiakou, Zhuankou, Hankou, Yangluo, and Huangsangkou sections, which are located in non-reserves, were identified in the MRYR. Conclusions: The Chenglingji, Dengjiakou, Zhuankou, Hankou, Yangluo, and Huangsangkou sections, which are located in non-reserves, play equally important roles in the conservation of fish populations in the MRYR. Our results indicated that further optimization is urgently needed for the currently protected areas in this region. These areas should be designated as reserves, and classification protection mechanisms should be adopted to strengthen the effectiveness of fish conservation in the MRYR.
... From an ecological perspective, effective conservation of coral reefs can increase or maintain key ecosystem parameters such as fish abundance or coral cover and maintain ecosystem processes and functions [14]. MPAs enhance ecosystem services provided by coral reefs and clear and strong impact assessments (monitoring and evaluation) can provide decision makers with better information [15]. ...
Conference Paper
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Coral reef health is an important indicator for the assessment of sustainable protected coral reef management and conservation. Indicator will include some community properties namely coral cover and life forms. Coral cover information is basic data in sustainable marine protected area management. This study aims to determine coral cover in the marine protected area of Tidung Island, Seribu Islands. Data retrieval was carried out in the highly protected area with 3 repetitions at a depth of 5 to 10 meters using the Line Intercept Transect (LIT) method. The results showed that the lifeform was dominated by Coral Foliose (62.56%), other than that it was identified as Coral Encrusting, Acropora Branching, Coral Branching, Coral Massive, Coral Mushroom, and Coral Submassive. Observations identified 9 family and 15 genera with excellent hard coral cover percentage (82%). Coral cover percentage others consisting of abiotic (4.11%), algae (0.85%), dead coral with algae (4.41%), soft coral (3.31%), sponge (2.27%), others (3.05%). Marine protected areas are prohibited areas for tourism and fisheries, nevertheless, with a high percentage of coral cover, Tidung Island MPA can be a spawning ground, feeding ground, nursery ground, thus will creating new fishing grounds which indirectly has an impact on improving the community economy from fish catches.
... Additionally, the lack of data on economic impacts of PAs can have negative long-term consequences on a society's perceptions of the economic value of parks and inhibit the creation of new parks (McNeill et al. 2018). Recently, researchers have paid attention to capturing the economic and financial (Mahajan and Daw 2016;Pascal et al. 2018;Weigel et al. 2015), socio-economic (Cundill et al. 2017;Rosales 2018), and ecological economic (Hussain et al. 2010) benefits of terrestrial and marine park tourism development. Tourism development within PAs has been interrelated with well-being (Gabriel 2019;Azara et al. 2018), community development Spenceley et al. 2017), and poverty alleviation (Medina-Muñoz et al. 2016). ...
Article
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This study analyses the economic effects of the protected natural areas and discusses the implications for public and private sector organisations involved in nature-based tourism development. To do so, we apply the Hedonic pricing method to address the variations of hotel prices with regard to the impacts of location and other proposed site characteristics, i.e. attributes of National Park (NP) Plitvice Lakes. The research results reveal a linkage between unique environmental and site-specific attributes and hotel rates. Hotels located close to the territory of the NP charge premium prices, whereas increasing distance from the territory of NP reduces the positive impact. This distance decay effect builds on hotels’ expectations regarding the opportunities for taking advantage of the NP. We argue that protected areas (PAs) are constituents of the integrated tourism product, influencing the price of the complementing tourism services, visitors satisfaction, and destinations competitiveness. The study places value on non-traded resources, which is often a prerequisite for acknowledging their importance and for the inauguration of policies promoting sustainable use. Thus, the findings have potentially significant implications for the design of pricing systems for hotels and accommodation service providers, the development of governance and fiscal policies, and the creation of marketing strategies for tourism destinations.
... We cataloged and present here (Tables 2A,B, 3) each piece of literature based on scope, environment considered (marine or terrestrial), the costs reported, type of data, and eligibility for inclusion in our quantitative comparison. Papers and articles include projections for real cases, estimations for hypothetical scenarios, and observations from ongoing efforts Some studies are site-or region-specific, in which case their geographic focus is also referenced Rojas-Nazar et al., 2015;Pascal et al., 2018). Other studies have used a collection of case examples or data sets to construct cost models to both identify variables that influence costs, as well as to project costs of ...
Article
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Reaching protected area (PA) coverage goals is challenged by a lack of sufficient financial resources. This funding gap is particularly pervasive for marine protected areas (MPAs). It has been suggested that marine conservationists examine examples from terrestrial protected areas (TPAs) for potential solutions to better fund MPAs. However, the funding needs for MPAs and TPAs have not been directly compared, and there is risk of management failures if any such differences are not properly considered when designing MPA financial strategies. We perform an in-depth literature review to investigate differences in distribution of costs incurred by MPAs and TPAs across three primary categories; establishment, operational, and opportunity costs. We use our findings to conduct a snapshot quantitative comparison, which we complement with theoretical support to provide preliminary insight into differences between MPA and TPA costs, and how these may influence financial strategies most appropriate for each type of PA. Our research suggests that TPA costs, and thereby funding requirements, are greater for the time period leading up to and including the implementation phase, whereas MPAs have higher financial requirements for meeting long-term annual operational costs. This may be primarily due to the prevalence of private property rights for terrestrial regions, which are less frequently in place for ocean areas, as well as logistical requirements for enforcement and monitoring in a marine environment. To cement these suggestions in greater analytical certainty, we call for more thorough and standardized PA cost reporting at all stages, especially for MPAs and PAs in developing countries. The quantity and quality of such data presently limits research in PA sustainable finance, and will need to be remedied to advance the field in future years.
... The economic benefits of expanding MPA coverage are the maintained or enhanced flows of ecosystem services that are provided by protected marine ecosystems [6,45,46]. The marine ecosystems included in our assessment are coral reefs, coastal wetlands and mangroves. ...
Article
Marine ecosystems and the services they provide contribute greatly to human well-being but are becoming degraded in many areas around the world. The expansion of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has been advanced as a potential solution to this problem but their economic feasibility has hardly been studied. We conduct an economic assessment of the costs and benefits of six scenarios for the global expansion of MPAs. The analysis is conducted at a high spatial resolution, allowing the estimated costs and benefits to reflect the ecological and economic characteristics and context of each MPA and marine ecosystem. The results show that the global benefits of expanding MPAs exceed their costs by a factor 1.4-2.7 depending on the location and extent of MPA expansion. Targeting protection towards pristine areas with high biodiversity yields higher net returns than focusing on areas with low biodiversity or areas that have experienced high human impact.
... Wakefield and Myers, 2018;EU, 2016) and for marine protected areas (e.g. OECD, 2017;Pascal et al., 2018). Prioritisation through SCBA of restoration projects can also assist policy makers to make informed decisions when the demand for ecosystem restoration is high and resources are scarce (Blignaut et al., 2014). ...
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Deep-sea ecosystems are facing degradation which could have severe consequences for biodiversity and the livelihoods of coastal populations. Ecosystem restoration as a natural based solution has been regarded as a useful means to recover ecosystems. The study provides a social cost-benefit analysis for a proposed project to restore the Dohrn Canyon cold water corals and the deep-sea ecosystem in the Bay of Naples, Italy. By incorporating ecosystem service benefits and uncertainties related to a complex natural-technological-social system surrounding restoration activities, the study demonstrated how to evaluate large-scale ecosystem restoration activities. The results indicate that an ecosystem restoration project can be economic (in terms of welfare improvement) even if the restoration costs are high. Our study shows the uncertainty associated with restoration success rate significantly affects the probability distribution of the expected net present values. Identifying and controlling the underlying factors to improve the restoration successful rate is thus crucial.
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The socio-cultural valuation of forest ecosystem services is a useful tool to generate knowledge and help balance the different interests of stakeholders with respect to the management of these services. The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of global research on the economic valuation of forest ecosystem services through a review of the existing literature on this topic. The results show that socio-cultural valuation has gained importance in recent years. There is a wide disparity between the countries conducting the research and those being studied. Inconsistency has been observed in the definition and classification of services provided by forests, as well as a lack of unanimity on the reference framework to be applied. The main methodological approaches in the socio-cultural valuation of forest services are participatory mapping, social media analysis, the Q method and free listing. For the collection of primary information, the dominant methodologies are focus groups, semi-structured interviews and online surveys. Finally, this study demonstrates that socio-cultural valuation has great potential to improve the legitimacy of forest ecosystem management decisions and to promote consensus building.
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The African coastline is bordered by highly valuable marine ecosystems, but the environmental degradation due to anthropogenic pressure alter the benefits that they render to people. Our paper aims at assessing the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs, and kelp forests present in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) of Africa. After the mapping of coastal marine habitats, our valuation relies on the transfer of value of all ecosystem services from reference monetary unit values, extracted from the literature. A habitat function-ality index based on the assumption that a higher population density and a higher demographic growth rate lead to a decrease in the functionality and services of marine habitats was then defined and incorporated into the valuation. The surveyed coastal habitats cover about 117,000 km2, with seagrass beds being by far the most extensive habitat. Present all along the coasts of Africa, their surface area represents about 62% of surveyed coastal habitats, followed by the mangroves (23%), coral reefs (15%). Kelp forests are only present in the southern Benguela Current LME. We estimated the annual value of the LME’s coastal ecosystem services at 814 billion USD. Coral reefs have the highest value (588 billion USD/year), followed by seagrass beds (135 billion USD/year), mangroves (91 billion USD/year), and kelp forests (0.4 billion USD/ year). The results show that ecosystem services from the four coastal habitat types had the highest value in the Agulhas Current LME, representing 38% of the total value, followed by the Red Sea LME (28%) and the Somali Coastal Current LME (10%). The three LMEs of the Atlantic side represent 15% of the total estimated value. Our paper highlighted many gaps that remain to be filled in terms of mapping and ecosystem services assessment in Africa. Nonetheless, our esti-mated values can facilitate dialogue between decision-makers and managers, and between countries sharing the same habitats and marine resources, toward better management of these ecosystems.
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The exclusive economic zone of the Cook Islands, nearly 1,960,000 km2 of ocean, is 7,000 times larger than the country’s land area of just 240km2. Coastal and marine resources provide the Government of the Cook Islands, businesses and households with many real and measurable benefits. This report describes, quantifies and, where possible, estimates the economic value of the Cook Islands’ marine and coastal resources. The key marine ecosystem services that are assessed in detail are: subsistence and commercial fishing; trochus; pearls; sand and coral aggregate; seabed minerals; coastal protection; tourism; recreation; and existence values related to marine biodiversity.
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China’s stature as the world’s major producer and consumer of seafood is legendary, but its long-standing tradition of protecting marine life domestically is virtually unknown. We present the most comprehensive database on area-based marine conservation in China including 326 sites that conserve 12.98% of China’s seas and address 142 conservation objectives. Twenty-two percent of shallow habitats (<10 meters) were fully or highly protected and 20% of waters 10 to 50 meters deep were conserved to some degree. Ecosystems in deeper waters (>50 meters) are critical to protect, yet <5% of these waters in China were conserved, primarily in areas with the highest chlorophyll-α concentrations. Habitats such as underwater canyons and seamounts beyond the continental shelf had no area-based protection. While China has made progress in marine protection within its boundaries, there is more work to be done to ensure that the full suite of marine life is safeguarded.
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Coastal and marine governance has been characterised as a ‘wicked’ problem due to difficulties in definition, uncertainty, and conflicting perspectives and values. Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA), which is an application of welfare economics, 'tames' such problems by assuming away many of these complexities. This article reviews the simplifying assumptions underlying SCBA in four major areas. First, welfare-economics and SCBA assume a utilitarian, consequentialist frame and a clear problem delineation, whereas wicked problems are difficult to define and delineate. Second, welfare economics can deal with risk and uncertainty as long as all policy alternatives, states of nature, and success criteria are known, whereas for wicked problems it is not known with certainty which alternatives are to be evaluated and by which criteria, and which states of nature are possible. Third, welfare economics can deal with a variety of perceptions as long as the legitimacy of each perception is uncontested, whereas in wicked problems some stakeholders' or experts' views are contested by others. Fourth, welfare economics can deal with a variety of preferences and hence conflicting interests, as long as all values are individual and substitutable, whereas in wicked problems some values cannot be substituted as they represent ‘sacred’ values such as religion and identity. Despite its limitations, however, the explicit definition of the assumptions behind SCBA make it a helpful benchmark to determine what makes a given problem in coastal and marine governance wicked.
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Throughout the text of this introduction to benefit cost analysis, emphasis is on applications, and a worked case study is progressively undertaken as an illustration of the analytical principles in operation. The first part covers basic theory and procedures. Part Two advances to material on internationally tradeable goods and projects that affect market prices, and part Three introduces special topics such as the treatment of risk and uncertainty, income distributional effects and the valuation of non-marketed goods. Instructors' resource web site: http://www.uq.edu.au/economics/bca
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The development and growth of tourism depend on its sustainability over time and on its benefits for destinations as a whole. However, calculating sustainability is not an easy task. This article focuses on the economic sustainability of tourism growth and, after an exhaustive review of the literature, proposes a quantitative mathematical model to measure it by analysing and calculating leakage in the hotel sector. Leakage analyses the amount of revenue generated by tourists that does not remain in the destination economy. Through a sample of 204 interviews with managers, this study validates the model created and calculates leakage in a mass tourism destination (the Valencian Region in Spain). The paper opens new areas of research in sustainability literature and will be of value to tourism planners and governments in their efforts to implement appropriate tourism development policies.
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Money speaks louder than words. Putting a monetary value on environmental and social impacts usually increases the chance of these impacts being taken into account in decision making. This toolkit provides clear guidance on how the value of the environment in small islands can be estimated and incorporated into planning and development decisions. It explains why you would undertake a study, who should be involved, how to implement the study and how to use the results. It also contains guidance on how to hire external consultants if expertise is not available in-house. It has been designed primarily for government officials and NGOs, although it is also useful for others wanting to estimate the value of ecosystems and ecosystem services. This toolkit is part of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee’s ‘Environmental Economics with the Overseas Territories in the Caribbean’ (EEWOC) project. The project aims to build capacity in UK Overseas Territories in the Caribbean in using economic tools to help make policies and decisions more sustainable. The development of this toolkit was jointly funded by the Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP) and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). OTEP is a joint programme of the UK Government Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development to support the implementation of the Environment Charters and environmental management more generally in the UK Overseas Territories. JNCC is the statutory adviser to the UK Government on UK and international nature conservation, including in the UK Overseas Territories.
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Social capital is an important ecosystem service, yet we lack common understanding of how it fits, and can be operationalized, within the ecosystem services framework. We review the literature to clarify the role of social capital in this context, establishing it as a multidimensional concept and a fundamental constituent of human well-being that is both supported by, and affects, all categories of ecosystem services. We then draw on qualitative and quantitative data to assess and value social capital as an ecosystem service and explore its role in facilitating management goals in a Malagasy locally managed marine area. We find high levels of social capital, gauged by trust, community involvement, and social cohesion. Results of a choice experiment show positive utilities associated with high levels of social cohesion. Respondents also ranked social cohesion higher than some provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services. Qualitative data suggest social capital increased as a result of the community based management institution, and has facilitated the success of marine management measures. Our results offer insight into the ways in which social capital can both affect, and be affected by, the management of natural resources, and how it can be assessed and valued as an ecosystem service.
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Without effective management, protected areas are unlikely to achieve the high expectations the conservation and development sectors have for them: conserving biodiversity and alleviating poverty. Numerous marine protected area (MPA) assessment initiatives have been developed at various spatial and temporal scales, including the guidebook How is your MPA doing? These management assessments have been useful to sites to clarify and evaluate their objectives, yet efforts to examine broader regional or global patterns in MPA performance are only beginning. The authors conducted exploratory trend analyses on How is your MPA doing? indicator data collected by 24 MPAs worldwide to identify challenges and areas for future work. Wide variability across sites with regard to the indicators examined and the constructs used to measure them prevented a true meta-analysis. Managers assessed biophysical indicators more often than socioeconomic and governance constructs. Investment by the conservation community to support collecting and reporting high-quality data at the site level would enable a better understanding of the variation in MPA performance, clarify the contribution of MPAs to both biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation, and help drive better MPA performance. The absence of rigorous and consistent monitoring protocols and instruments and a platform to turn raw MPA monitoring data into actionable information is a critical but under-recognized obstacle to cross-project learning, comparative analyses, and adaptive resource management.
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We review and confirm the claim that credible evaluations of common conservation instruments continue to be rare. The limited set of rigorous studies suggests that protected areas cause modest reductions in deforestation; however, the evidence base for payments for ecosystem services, decentralization policies and other interventions is much weaker. Thus, we renew our urgent call for more evaluations from many more biodiversity-relevant locations. Specifically, we call for a programme of research—Conservation Evaluation 2.0—that seeks to measure how programme impacts vary by socio-political and bio-physical context, to track economic and environmental impacts jointly, to identify spatial spillover effects to untargeted areas, and to use theories of change to characterize causal mechanisms that can guide the collection of data and the interpretation of results. Only then can we usefully contribute to the debate over how to protect biodiversity in developing countries.
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Marine reserves are quickly gaining popularity as a management option for marine conservation, fisheries, and other human uses of the oceans. Despite the popularity of marine reserves as a management tool, few reserves appear to have been created or designed with an understanding of how reserves affect biological factors or how reserves can be designed to meet biological goals more effectively (e.g., attaining sustainable fish populations). This shortcoming occurs in part because the many studies that have examined the impacts of reserves on marine organisms remain isolated examples or anecdotes; the results of these many studies have not yet been synthesized. Here, I review the empirical work and discuss the theoretical literature to assess the impacts of marine reserves on several biological measures (density, biomass, size of organisms, and diversity), paying particular attention to the role reserve size has in determining those impacts. The results of 89 separate studies show that, on average, with the exception of invertebrate biomass and size, values for all four biological measures are significantly higher inside reserves compared to outside (or after reserve establishment vs. before) when evaluated for both the overall communities and by each functional group within these communities (carniv- orous fishes, herbivorous fishes, planktivorous fishes/invertebrate eaters, and invertebrates). Surprisingly, results also show that the relative impacts of reserves, such as the proportional differences in density or biomass, are independent of reserve size, suggesting that the effects of marine reserves increase directly rather than proportionally with the size of a reserve. However, equal relative differences in biological measures between small and large reserves nearly always translate into greater absolute differences for larger reserves, and so larger reserves may be necessary to meet the goals set for marine reserves. The quality of the data in the reviewed studies varied greatly. To improve data quality in the future, whenever possible, studies should take measurements before and after the creation of a reserve, replicate sampling, and include a suite of representative species. Despite the variable quality of the data, the results from this review suggest that nearly any marine habitat can benefit from the implementation of a reserve. Success of a marine reserve, however, will always be judged against the expectations for that reserve, and so we must keep in mind the goals of a reserve in its design, management, and evaluation.
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At the UN Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio in June 2012, world leaders committed to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (the high seas). Our analysis of gaps in high seas management indicates that a paradigm shift to a more systematic approach will be needed to safeguard high seas biodiversity from mounting threats. Experience from terrestrial and coastal areas indicates that a systematic approach to conservation planning and management can help to maintain ecosystem health and productivity while enabling sustainable use. Our analysis further demonstrates that the current legal regime on the high seas is insufficient to realize these objectives: management institutions have neither an adequate mandate for integrated planning nor the ability to effectively coordinate across multiple management regimes. We identify key elements for future high seas management and posit that a two-pronged approach is most promising: the development of an improved global legal regime that incorporates systematic planning as well as the expansion of existing and new regional agreements and mandates. This combined approach is most likely to achieve the required ecosystem-based, integrated and science-based management that world leaders at Rio acknowledged should underpin ocean management.
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Benefit-cost analysis can play an important role in legislative and regulatory policy debates on protecting and improving health, safety, and the natural environment. Although formal benefit-cost analysis should not be viewed as either necessary or sufficient for designing sensible public policy, it can provide an exceptionally useful framework for consistently organizing disparate information, and in this way, it can greatly improve the process and, hence, the outcome of policy analysis. If properly done, benefit-cost analysis can be of great help to agencies participating in the development of environmental, health, and safety regulations, and it can likewise be useful in evaluating agency decision-making and in shaping statutes.
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In Fiji, economic valuation has not yet been adopted as an aid to coastal resource management. Given increasing pressures on its coastal resources, particularly near urban centres, valuation of these resources may be crucial to assist decision-making at all levels. This paper presents estimates of the economic value of the main goods and services provided by the coastal ecosystems in a traditional Fijian fishing ground near the capital, Suva. Using catch surveys, a CV survey and secondary data sources, the value of fisheries, bequest value and coastal protection function provided by the coral reefs and mangroves within this area are estimated to provide net benefits of just over FJ$3m (US$1,795,000) per year. The coastal protection provided by the coral reefs and mangroves makes up the largest component of the total economic value (55%) followed by fisheries (44%). Bequest values only make up 1% of the TEV. However, if compared to household income, bequest values are significant, representing 6.8% of stated income. This is comparable to average expenditures on durable household goods and heating and lighting.Highlights► Pressures on coastal resources near urban centres in Fiji are increasing. ► The total economic value of a Fijian fishing ground near Suva is estimated. ► It comes to US$1.8m per year, (or $20m over 99-year horizon with 10% discount rate). ► These values can be used to inform management decisions about coastal resources.
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In the Philippines, coral reef fisheries provide livelihood for more than a million small-scale fishers who contribute almost US$ 1 billion annually to the country’s economy. The rapidly growing population needs increasing amounts of fish and other marine organisms. However, overfishing, destructive fishing methods and sedimentation have damaged or destroyed many reef areas. Fish catches have fallen well below the sustainable levels of healthy reefs. The economic losses to the coastal fishing population are considerable. Various programmes have and are trying to counter coral reef decline by establishing sustainable management regimes. The economic benefits of such programmes appear to exceed their investment costs. As an example, the start-up and maintenance costs of a successful island marine reserve project have been compared to the losses caused by reef destruction and the gains from reef management. The results clearly show that the economic benefits from a managed reef area due to higher catches and revenue from small-scale tourism far exceed costs. Coral reefs are also a major attraction for an increasing number of local and international tourists. In addition to providing income for the tourism industry, these reef visitors are often willing to contribute to the costs for reef management. The annual willingness-to-pay assessed in three popular diving destinations are significant. An estimated US$ 300 000 could be collected annually as entrance fees or donations in Mabini, Batangas alone. It is estimated that the 27 000 km2 of reef in their degraded condition still contribute at least US$ 1.35 billion annually to the economy. Reef management involving local fishing communities, local governments and other concerned organizations is a cost-effective way to alleviate the pressure on the numerous threatened coral reefs. In addition, economic valuation and cost-benefit analysis can provide essential information to support more investment in reef conservation.
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The size and composition of finfish yield from six Fijian reef fisheries was determined using catch records from a voluntary logbook scheme. A total of 172 Logbooks were issued for 30-day periods in October 1992 and February and June 1993 and they provided information on 1369 fishing trips. Catch records were weighted, using the results of contemporaneous fishing activity and fleet size surveys, to provide yield estimates for each fishing ground (qoliqoli). Yield from all qoliqoli was dominated by Serranidae and Lethrinidae which were favoured for consumption and sale. Yields were expressed on the basis of reef area for fish from different trophic groups. Macroinvertebrate-feeders and piscivores accounted for more than half the yield in all qoliqoli and there were significant differences in area specific yield between qoliqoli. There was no evidence of fishers adopting more powerful fishing techniques or catching fish from lower trophic levels in order to maintain yield from any qoliqoli. This suggested that the fisheries examined were all capable of sustaining the reported yields of up to 3.4 tonne km(-2) qoliqoli year (-1) or 10.2 tonne km(-2) coral reef year(-1) and that in sites where yields were less they might be increased sustainably.
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The carbon burial in vegetated sediments, ignored in past assessments of carbon burial in the ocean, was evaluated using a bottom-up approach derived from upscaling a compilation of published individual estimates of carbon burial in vegetated habitats (seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangrove forests) to the global level and a top-down approach derived from considerations of global sediment balance and a compilation of the organic carbon content of vegeatated sediments. Up-scaling of individual burial estimates values yielded a total carbon burial in vegetated habitats of 111 Tmol C y-1. The total burial in unvegetated sediments was estimated to be 126 Tg C y-1, resulting in a bottom-up estimate of total burial in the ocean of about 244 Tg C y-1, two-fold higher than estimates of oceanic carbon burial that presently enter global carbon budgets. The organic carbon concentrations in vegetated marine sediments exceeds by 2 to 10-fold those in shelf/deltaic sediments. Top-down recalculation of ocean sediment budgets to account for these, previously neglected, organic-rich sediments, yields a top-down carbon burial estimate of 216 Tg C y-1, with vegetated coastal habitats contributing about 50%. Even though vegetated carbon burial contributes about half of the total carbon burial in the ocean, burial represents a small fraction of the net production of these ecosystems, estimated at about 3388 Tg C y-1, suggesting that bulk of the benthic net ecosystem production must support excess respiration in other compartments, such as unvegetated sediments and the coastal pelagic compartment. The total excess organic carbon available to be exported to the ocean is estimated at between 1126 to 3534 Tg C y-1, the bulk of which must be respired in the open ocean. Widespread loss of vegetated coastal habitats must have reduced carbon burial in the ocean by about 30 Tg C y-1, identifying the destruction of these ecosystems as an important loss of CO2 sink capacity in the biosphere.
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Coastal coral reefs, especially in the Florida Keys, are declining at a disturbing rate. Marine ecologists and reef scientists have emphasized the importance of establishing nonmarket values of coral reefs to assess the cost effectiveness of coral reef management and remediation programs. The purpose of this paper is to develop a travel cost-contingent valuation model of demand for trips to the Florida Keys focusing on willingness to pay (WTP) to preserve the current water quality and health of the coral reefs. The stated and revealed preference models allow the marginal valuation of recreationists to adjust depending on current and planned trip commitments in valuing nonmarginal policy changes in recreational opportunities. The integrated model incorporates key factors for establishing baseline amenity values for tourist dive sites, including perceptions of reef quality and dive conditions, the role of substitute sites, and the quality and availability of tourist facilities and recreation opportunities. The travel cost and WTP model differ in identifying critical variables and provide insight into the adjustment of trip decisions across alternative destination sites and the valuation of trips. In contrast to the travel cost model, a measure of the availability of substitute sites and total recreation activities does not have a significant impact on WTP valuations reported by snorkelers. Snorkelers engage in a relatively focused set of activities, suggesting that these recreationists may not shift expenditures to other sites or other recreation activities in the Florida Keys when confronted with increased access costs for the snorkeling experience.
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Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments.
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ABSTRACT Benthic marine organisms are characterized by a bipartite life history in which populations of sedentary adults are connected by oceanic transport of planktonic propagules. In contrast with the terrestrial case, where ‘long distance dispersal’ (LDD) has traditionally been viewed as a process involving rare events, this creates the possibility for large numbers of offspring to travel far relative to the spatial scale of adult populations. As a result, the concept of LDD must be examined carefully when applied in a marine context. Any measure of LDD requires reference to an explicit ‘local’ scale, often defined in terms of adult population demography, habitat patchiness, or the average dispersal distance. Terms such as ‘open’ and ‘closed’ are relative, and should be used with caution, especially when compared across different taxa and systems. We use recently synthesized data on marine propagule dispersal potential and the spread of marine invasive species to draw inferences about average and maximum effective dispersal distances for marine taxa. Foremost, our results indicate that dispersal occurs at a wide range of scales in marine communities. The nonrandom distribution of these scales among community members has implications for marine community dynamics, and for the implementation of marine conservation efforts. Second, in agreement with theoretical results, our data illustrate that average and extreme dispersal scales do not necessarily covary. This further confounds simple classifications of ‘short’ and ‘long’ dispersers, because different ecological processes (e.g. range expansion vs. population replenishment) depend on different aspects of the dispersal pattern (e.g. extremes vs. average). Our findings argue for a more rigorous quantitative view of scale in the study of marine dispersal processes, where relative terms such as ‘short’ and ‘long’, ‘open’ and ‘closed’, ‘retained’ and ‘exported’ are defined only in conjunction with explicit definitions of the scale and process of interest. This shift in perspective represents an important step towards unifying theoretical and empirical studies of dispersal processes in marine and terrestrial systems.
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We present a new multivariate technique for testing the significance of individual terms in a multifactorial analysis-of-variance model for multispecies response variables. The technique will allow researchers to base analyses on measures of association (distance measures) that are ecologically relevant. In addition, unlike other distance-based hypothesis-testing techniques, this method allows tests of significance of interaction terms in a linear model. The technique uses the existing method of redundancy analysis (RDA) but allows the analysis to be based on Bray-Curtis or other ecologically meaningful measures through the use of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Steps in the procedure include: (1) calculating a matrix of distances among replicates using a distance measure of choice (e.g., Bray-Curtis); (2) determining the principal coordinates (including a correction for negative eigenvalues, if necessary), which preserve these distances; (3) creating a matrix of dummy variables corresponding to the design of the experiment (i.e., individual terms in a linear model); (4) analyzing the relationship between the principal coordinates (species data) and the dummy variables (model) using RDA; and (5) implementing a test by permutation for particular statistics corresponding to the particular terms in the model. This method has certain advantages not shared by other multivariate testing procedures. We demonstrate the use of this technique with experimental ecological data from intertidal assemblages and show how the presence of significant multivariate interactions can be interpreted. It is our view that distance-based RDA will be extremely useful to ecologists measuring multispecies responses to structured multifactorial experimental designs.
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a b s t r a c t Investing in urban natural assets can leverage relatively high economic value in city economies. It is not only the case for highly developed cities, but could also be the case for rapidly developing cities. This is the key message from a case study for the City of Cape Town in South Africa as presented in this paper. It was calculated that the leverage of municipal expenditure on maintaining and enhancing ecosystems is 1.2–2 times higher than the leverage of all municipal expenditure on the City economy. Investing and maintaining a City's natural assets or ecological infrastructure yields economically valuable services that could prove to be an important driver of value addition in a city's economy. It is conservatively estimated that for the City of Cape Town, natural assets yield a flow of ecosystem services valued in the order of R4 billion per annum, within a range between R2 billion and R6 billion per annum. Most of this value for the City of Cape Town is created through the tourism industry, but recreation in parks, open spaces and beaches, as well as specific industries such as film-making, also benefit substantially from the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems. Buffering services to better cope with natural hazards such as coastal surges, flooding and fires in urban contexts are important services from an insurance perspective. As entities focused on service provision and as enablers of economic growth and development, municipalities in rapidly developing urban centrums have the mandate and must create the opportunity to invest adequately in natural assets to maintain a healthy flow of ecosystem services to the benefit of people living in and visiting their cities. & 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Meta-analyses of published data for 19 marine reserves reveal that marine protected areas enhance species richness consistently, but their effect on fish abundance is more variable. Overall, there was a slight (11%) but significant increase in fish species number inside marine reserves, with all reserves sharing a common effect. There was a substantial but non-significant increase in overall fish abundance inside marine reserves compared to adjacent, non-reserve areas. When only species that are the target of fisheries were considered, fish abundance was significantly higher (by 28%) within reserve boundaries. Marine reserves vary significantly in the extent and direction of their response. This variability in relative abundance was not attributable to differences in survey methodology among studies, nor correlated with reserve characteristics such as reserve area, years since protection, latitude nor species diversity. The effectiveness of marine reserves in enhancing fish abundance may be largely related to the intensity of exploitation outside reserve boundaries and to the composition of the fish community within boundaries. It is recommended that studies of marine reserve effectiveness should routinely report fishing intensity, effectiveness of enforcement and habitat characteristics.
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Marine reserves are becoming a popular tool for marine conservation and resource management worldwide. In the past, reserves have been created with little understanding of how they actually affect the areas they are intended to protect. A few recent reviews have evaluated how reserves in general affect the density and biomass of organisms within them, but little work has been done to assess temporal patterns of these impacts. Here we review 112 independent measurements of 80 reserves to show that the higher average values of density, biomass, average organism size, and diversity inside reserves (relative to controls) reach mean levels within a short (1–3 y) period of time and that the values are subsequently consistent across reserves of all ages (up to 40 y). Therefore, biological responses inside marine reserves appear to develop quickly and last through time. This result should facilitate their use in the management of marine resources.
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Foreign aid has grown to become a $200 billion global enterprise, 1 and aid funding from traditional donor nations alone has increased more than 63 percent in the past decade. 2 In many sectors, the investment has paid off. At a time when the world population is climbing inexorably beyond 7 billion, we are now on track to actually reduce the number of people living in extreme poverty by more than half, from 1.3 billion to fewer than 600 million, in the decade from 2005 to 2015. 3 Meanwhile, long-sought progress is being made on basic needs such as access to safe water, sanitation, and nutrition, as well as on issues such as maternal mortality reduction, primary school completion, and gender parity in education. 4 The magnitude of this generation’s advances against some of humanity’s most pervasive and debilitating problems is unprecedented. That said, new and stubbornly persistent social and environmental problems continue to require investments that far exceed the coffers of governments and other donors. Just one of the challenges facing the developing world—adapting to climate change—is estimated to require an additional $70 billion to $100 billion per year. 5 Fortunately, however, such problems are not beyond the scale of global financial market resources. Commercial businesses and investors have the capacity to help address the needs of developing nations, and ever more private investors and entrepreneurs are seeing opportunities in doing so. ENTER IMPACT INVESTING There is growing optimism about business as a force for good in the developing world. A new momentum is building along with this around a breed of private investor that aims to solve social and environmental problems while making a financial return—impact investors. These investors have abandoned the long-held
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This paper presents the strategic landscape investment model (SLIM). This tool can be used to map optimal landscape treatment patterns at regional scales. Developed for New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, SLIM aims to maximise an indexed measure of environmental benefit within a budget constraint. The attributes considered include salinity, water yield, nitrogen run-off, phosphorus run-off, stream sediment concentrations, soil erosion and carbon sequestration. The modelling is undertaken spatially with a roughly 1 km2 grid covering NSW. With estimates of costs and benefits, maps of marginal environmental benefit per dollar expended can be constructed. These maps are used to define an optimal treatment pattern within the confines of a program budget. SLIM is demonstrated through an analysis of perennial pasture establishment on NSW grazing lands. It was found that the optimal treatment area is around 4% of the total treatable area, demonstrating the importance of careful investment targeting. Through sensitivity analysis it is found that the location of optimal landscape treatment patterns is relatively robust under numerous attribute weighting scenarios. The paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of SLIM considering how improved analytic capabilities could be added to future revisions.
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Past economic valuations of tropical marine parks inaccurately measure their economic benefits because they value the resource protected and not the protection provided. Instead, the economic benefit of a marine park should be measured as the savings from avoided losses in reef value that would result in the absence of park protection, net of any costs of protection. Proponents of marine parks posit that reef quality will decline in the absence of active park protection. The economic benefit of the marine park is the value of avoided reef degradation. An economic framework is developed to show how marine parks and protected areas ought to be valued. An example using data from the Bonaire Marine Park is given.
Article
Empirical results from experimental economics and neuroscience have uncovered regularities in human behavior that may provide a base for new approaches to welfare theory and economic policy. These empirical findings do not challenge basic economic concepts but they do imply that our assumptions about “rational behavior”, “opportunity cost”, and “social welfare” should be revised using sound scientific evidence and methods. This research has the potential to make benefit-cost analysis more reflective of how people value gains and losses, and more responsive to considerations of environmental and social responsibility.
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Habitat characteristics play a critical role in structuring reef fish communities subjected to fishing pressure. The line intercept transect (LIT) method provides an accurate quantitative description of the habitat, but in a very narrow corridor less than 1 m wide. Such a scale is poorly adapted to the wide-ranging species that account for a significant part of these assemblages. We developed an easy-to-use medium scale approach (MSA), based on a semi-quantitative description of 20 quadrats of 25 m2 (500 m2 in total). We then simulated virtual reef landscapes of different complexities in a computer, on which we computed MSA using different methods of calculation. These simulations allowed us to select the best method of calculation, obtaining quantitative estimates with acceptable accuracy (comparison with the original simulated landscapes: R2 ranging from 0.986 to 0.997); they also showed that MSA is a more efficient estimator than LIT, generating percentage coverage estimates that are less variable. A mensurative experiment based on thirty 50-m transects, conducted by three teams of two divers, was used to empirically compare the two estimators and assess their ability to predict fish–habitat relationships. Three-factor multivariate ANOVAs (Teams, Reef, Methods) revealed again that LIT produced habitat composition estimates that were more variable than MSA. Canonical analyses conducted on fish biomass data successively aggregated by mobility patterns, trophic groups, and size classes, showed the higher predictive power of MSA habitat data over LIT. The MSA enriches the toolbox of methods available for reef habitat description at intermediate scale (< 1000 m2), between the scale where LIT is appropriate (< 100 m2) and the landscape approach (> 1000 m2).
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Designation of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing as humans seek to combat overexploitation of marine resources and preserve the integrity of the ocean’s unique biodiversity. At present there are over 1300 MPAs. The primary legal responsibility for the designation of MPAs falls to individual countries, but protection of the marine environment at large scales is also critical because ocean circulation does not honor legal boundaries and often exceeds the influence of any one nation or group of nations. There are many reasons for establishing MPAs; the papers we surveyed principally referred to scientific, economic, cultural, and ethical factors. Two approaches predominated: fisheries management and habitat protection. Although the major threat to terrestrial systems is habitat loss, the major threats to the world’s oceans are fisheries overexploitation, coastal development, and chemical and biological pollution. MPAs may provide conservation of formerly exploited species as well as benefits to the fishery through leakage of ‘surplus’ adults (spillover) and larvae (larval replenishment) across reserve boundaries. Higher order effects, such as changes in species richness or changes in community structure and function, have only been superficially explored. Because many MPAs are along coastlines, within shipping lanes, and near human centers of activity, the chance of chemical and biological pollution is high. Use of MPAs to combat development and pollution is not appropriate, because MPAs do not have functional boundaries. The ocean is a living matrix carrying organisms as well as particles and therefore even relatively environmentally sensitive uses of coastal ecosystems can degrade ecosystem structure and function via increasing service demands (e.g. nutrient and toxics transformation) and visitation. Whether an MPA is effective is a function of the initial objectives, the level of enforcement, and its design. Single reserves need to be large and networked to accommodate bio-physical patterns of larval dispersal and recruitment. Some authors have suggested that reserve size needs to be extremely large — 50–90% of total habitat — to hedge against the uncertainties of overexploitation. On a local scale, marine protected areas can be effective conservation tools. On a global scale, MPAs can only be effective if they are substantively representative of all biogeographic zones, single reserves are networked within biogeographic zones, and the total amount of area reserved per zone is 20% or greater. The current size and placement of protected areas falls far short of comprehensive or even adequate conservation objectives.
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The purpose of this special issue of Ecological Economics is to elucidate the state-of-the-art and science of environmental benefit transfer and to assist in the design and reporting of future benefit estimation research. Compiling the insights of thirty-two international experts from seven countries, the special issue reviews the latest developments in transfer techniques, as well as ongoing efforts to standardize and validate them. Taken together, the papers in this special issue provide fresh answers to some long-standing questions, offer original research insights on state-of-the-art issues and identify fruitful areas for future research. This introductory paper provides background and context for the issues addressed by the contributing authors. Its purpose is to place the interdisciplinary thinking contained here in a comparative context, highlighting the need for integration and collaboration to maintain the momentum that has propelled environmental benefit transfer into a widely used approach for estimating the economic value of environmental goods and services worldwide.
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Although a priori company screening is a constitutive feature of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) funds, it is not easy to substantiate that such screening effectively differentiates between companies on the basis of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) calibre. Fundamentally, this is because CSR comprises several dimensions for which an undisputed aggregative model is lacking. We assess the robustness of companies' CSR rankings with respect to several modelling assumptions. We then build on Gini's transvariation concept to select/reject specific companies in the SRI eligible universe of assets. We illustrate our approach with some specific screening issues as confronted by the ethical advisory committee of a large Belgian bank.
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Characteristics, impacts and economic costs and benefits of blast fishing have been little investigated and they were therefore studied in Indonesia, at the scale of individual fishing households and of Indonesian society as a whole. Although illegal and highly destructive to coral reefs, blast fishing provides income and fish to a vast number of coastal fishers who claim that they have no alternative to make a living. Crew members in small-, medium- and large-scale blast fishing operations earned net incomes per month of US$55, 146 and 197 respectively. Boat owners in the same types of operations earned US$55, 393 and 1100 respectively. These incomes were comparable to the highest incomes in the conventional coastal fisheries. At the individual household level, the differences between the three types of operations show clear incentives for scale enlargement. The cost-benefit balance at the society level was calculated with an economic model. This analysis showed a net loss after 20 years of blast fishing of US$306 800 per km2 of coral reef where there is a high potential value of tourism and coastal protection, and US$33 900 per km2 of coral reef where there is a low potential value. The main quantifiable costs are through loss of the coastal protection function, foregone benefits of tourism, and foregone benefits of non-destructive fisheries. The economic costs to society are four times higher than the total net private benefits from blast fishing in areas with high potential value of tourism and coastal protection. This analysis of characteristics, impact and economics of blast fishing should help to raise the political will to ban blast fishing from Indonesian waters. Moreover, it allows for an evaluation of possible management solutions, taking into account their costs and the socio-economic framework that caused coastal fishers to start using explosives.
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Environmental protection is now an integral part of public policies, at local, national and global levels. In all instances, the cost and benefits of policies and projects must be carefully weighed using a common monetary measuring rod. Yet, many different categories of benefits and cost must be evaluated, such as health impacts, property damage, ecosystem losses and other welfare effects. Furthermore, many of these benefits or damages occur over the long term, sometimes over several generations, or are irreversible (e.g. global warming, biodiversity losses). How can we evaluate these elements and give them a monetary value? How should we take into account impacts on future generations and of irreversible losses? How to deal with equity and sustainability issues? This book presents an in-depth assessment of the most recent conceptual and methodological developments in this area. It should provide a valuable reference and tool for environmental economists and policy analysts.
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The coral reefs are presents in most of one hundred countries, with an area equivalent of France‘s. It’s one of the most varied ecosystems in the world. It admits in this area, especially in Guadeloupe, to be conscious of human activities impact on environment. From this perspective, an economic estimation of environmental heritage turned out to be essential for a sustainable management of natural’s actives. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the total economic value of Pigeon’s zone in Guadeloupe. This paper uses the contingent valuation method (CVM) to validate those arguments.
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The management of marine resources is often impeded by a lack of models to integrate ecological and economic information on exploited populations. We used available biological and economic data for an overexploited population of the leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea) to study if closing parts of the population to fishing would allow sustainable use and maximum economic benefits. Our results suggest that fishing should be closed in all spawning areas and in at least 50% of the adjacent areas. High non-consumptive benefits would be achieved with large closures because the abundance of the leopard groupers, which is an important attribute for SCUBA divers, would increase. In a no-take reserve, the welfare gains of divers seemingly could compensate for losses incurred by fishers if parts of their fishing grounds are closed. An adaptive management scheme could provide a way to incorporate newly available information into management decisions for the no-take reserve.
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As well as serving valuable biodiversity conservation roles, functioning no-take fishery reserves protect a portion of the fishery stock as insurance against future over-fishing. So long as there is adequate compliance by the fishing community, it is likely that they will also sustain and even enhance fishery yields in the surrounding area. However, there are significant gaps in scientific knowledge that must be filled if no-take reserves are to be used effectively as fishery management tools. Unfortunately, these gaps are being glossed over by some uncritical advocacy. Here, we review the science, identify the most crucial gaps, and suggest ways to fill them, so that a promising management tool can help meet the growing challenges faced by coastal marine fisheries.