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JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN INDIA- LATEST TRENDS AND ENTAILING AMENDMENTS IN JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT

PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
ISSN 2454-5899
© 2018 The author and GRDS Publishing. All rights reserved. 1365
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Agarwal, 2018
Volume 3 Issue 3, pp.1365-1383
Date of Publication: 3rd February 2018
DOI-https://dx.doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2018.33.13651383
This paper can be cited as: Agarwal, D. (2018). Juvenile Delinquency In India- Latest Trends And
Entailing Amendments In Juvenile Justice Act. People: International Journal Of Social Sciences , 3(3),
1365-1383
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN INDIA- LATEST TRENDS AND
ENTAILING AMENDMENTS IN JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT
Deepshikha Agarwal
Associate Professor, University School of Law and Legal Studies, GGS IP University, Delhi,
India
deepshikha_agarwal@yahoo.com
Abstract
Juvenile delinquency is a serious offence and it is detrimental for the social order in any country.
There is a trend of increase in juvenile crimes world-over, with more and more involvement of
the youth in violent crimes. India shows similar trends of increasing rate of violent crimes
committed by the juveniles. It is a very serious concern for the nation and solutions to end the
problem need to be sought very carefully. Indian legal system and judiciary has responded to
these trends and has brought some amendments in the laws pertaining to juvenile justice in
India. This paper aims at looking at the causes of juvenile delinquency and explanations given by
scholars from various fields to explain the problem. The analysis of statistical data available at
official sites indicates increasing involvement of the juveniles in heinous crimes. To contain the
problem of juvenile delinquency in India, the Act pertaining to Juvenile Delinquency has been
amended and now trial of juveniles involved in heinous crimes is held as adults.
Keywords
Delinquency; Juvenile Justice System; Juvenile Justice Act; Juvenile Justice Board
1. Introduction
Children are the rock of any nation on which it’s future is built. They become the leaders
of the country, the creators of national wealth, who care for and protect the human community of
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the land to which they are rooted. These children across the world develop at different rate and
develop different world- view. They increase their ability to think abstractly and develop their
own views regarding social and political issues. They develop ability to indulge in long- term
planning and goal setting. There is also a tendency of making comparison of self with others.
They yearn for separate identity and independence from parents. This is the age when peer
influence and acceptance becomes very important. They also develop strong romantic/ sexual
ideas, and tend to show indulgence in Love and long- term relationships.
However, these are normal changes and there are no anomalies generally. Problems arise
when these juveniles develop delinquent tendencies, and get into law and order problems. There
occurs to be a very strong relationship of crime/ deviance with age- according to Hirschi and
Gottfredson (1983), the age- crime relationship is universal. The general observation is that
criminality/ delinquency peaks in adolescence and diminishes with age, This pattern of crime
common across historical, geographical and cultural contexts. Indulgence in conventional crimes
is more widespread in teenage and young adults. Most of these offenders disengage from crime
after a brief career in crime. However, for some types of crime, there are older peak ages, and
they decline relatively more gradually
Juvenile crimes have become such common phenomena that they raise serious concern in
any nation. In common terminology, juvenile is a child who has not attained a certain age at
which he can think rationally and often understand the consequences of his/ her act. Hence, the
juvenile can’t be held liable for his/her criminal acts. A juvenile delinquent may be regarded as
a child who has allegedly committed /violated some law, under which his/her act of commission
or omission becomes an offence.
Under the Indian Laws, Section 2 (k) of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of
Children) Act, 2015 (referred generally as JJ Act) juvenile is a person who below 16 years. Prior
to JJ Act of 2015, the age bar for juveniles was 18 years (Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of
Children) Act, 2000, 2006, 2012). In fact, the age of the juvenile under the Indian legislations has
taken variation in temporal and spatial perspectives. It varies from 14 to 18 years under different
laws and different Indian states.
2. Research Issues Covered
This study is purely based on doctrinal research. Relevant books, journals and on-line
research articles have been consulted for the same. It aims to delve into some of the causes/
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reasons for juvenile delinquency and the theoretical prepositions given by different scholars to
understand the problem. It looks into the evolution of Juvenile Justice Act and Juvenile Justice
System in India, and important provisions in the Act. To understand the latest trends in juvenile
delinquency, statistical data from National Crime Records Bureau (official site for data on crimes
in India) has been taken and analyzed. Further, this data has been linked with latest amendments
made in the Juvenile Justice Act. All analysis in this paper is based on statistical data available.
Empirical study of juvenile delinquency through visits to Juvenile Homes and Juvenile Boards
(Courts) is proposed by the author in the coming years to get a deeper insight into the problem.
3. Reasons for Juvenile Crimes
Interdisciplinary studies on juvenile delinquency reveal that across the world, many
behavioral changes occur in the juveniles/ adolescents, which are related to the sudden changes
in their body due hormonal surge, associated with puberty. The changes are most apparent in
physical parameters, such as change in height and weight of the adolescents, and are soon
followed by other sexual and physical changes of maturity. These physical changes are
accompanied by mental changes also.
3.1 Social Factors
Sometimes, the juveniles develop delinquent sub- culture due to cultural deprivation and
status frustration that they go through (Albert Cohen, 1955). They often adopt the delinquent
tendencies due to peer pressure. According to Walter B. Miller (1958), some youth (usually
belonging to lower class) turn the mainstream culture up- side down, thus whatever is valued and
is regarded as positive generally by the is society given up by these youth, and is replaced by just
the opposite value system. Thus, if certain morals are upheld by society, juvenile delinquents
give up these values and try to excel in the areas of toughness, over- smarting the others and
indulge in things that give them excitement (defined as focal concerns by Miller). Delinquent
sub- culture theory has been applied in latest studies in the United States (Ling Ren, Hangowel
Zhang et al, 2016), where new area of attitude of the juvenile towards the Police in China has
been focused.
Cloward and Ohlin (1960) feel that juveniles develop different delinquent tendencies
depending upon what opportunities are available in their surroundings. The youth may become
criminals if they have opportunities to learn illegal activities. They may indulge in acts of street
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brawls and hooliganism if the lack these opportunities, or are not able to excel in the area of
organized crime.
Other studies indicate that social factors such as poverty and low education are also
responsible for juvenile delinquency (Ombato, John Onyango et al 2013). Habits of substance
abuse also make the youth vulnerable to offending. Broken families are directly related to higher
rates of delinquency. The negative role of family has also been highlighted in other studies
(World Youth Report, 2003). The report indicates that the juvenile who receive less familial
supervision, or who live in dysfunctional family settings or in disadvantaged families have more
chances of getting involved in delinquent behavior.
3.2 Psychological Factors
There are psychological explanations to delinquency also, which can be well understood
through Freudian concepts of id, ego and super-ego. When the id (the instinctive element of
individual’s personality) becomes too strong, and the super- ego becomes weak (the socially
taught element of personality) the ego develops into anti- social person (K. S. Williams 2012).
Sometimes when the self- control and social control through primary groups becomes weak, the
juveniles develop delinquent tendencies. The breakdown of the social institutions has also been
connected to deviance and delinquency (Chris Knoester and Dana L. Haynie, 2005). There can a
strong link between psychological condition of the youth and delinquent tendencies. Study of
female inmates in Bangladesh showed very high incidence of psychiatric disorder among the
offenders of Female Juvenile Center (Maruf et al, 2015). These offenders also showed high
incidence of substance abuse.
David Brandt (2006) has extensively talked about the social and psychological factors
responsible for delinquency in India. Under the social factors it has been noted that the social
environment has a strong impact on deviating tendencies of the juveniles. Amongst these
neighborhood ties and social organization can be important determinant in the delinquent
behavior of the juvenile. This is highlighted in the study conducted by He Len Chung and
Laurence Steinberg (2006). The study indicates that when the neighborhood ties are weak and
the social organization factors are not effective, the social control over the members of the
society becomes weak, thus leading to delinquent tendencies. Along with the weak
neighborhood, ineffective parenting and association of the youth with deviant peers leads to
higher rates of offending.
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3.3 Biological Factors
The biological explanations suggest that individuals are influenced by their biological/
genetic make- up. They are not exactly the captives of biological designing, but it does render
these individuals inclined towards delinquent tendencies. The hormonal changes in the body of
the juveniles are responsible for their impulsive and rebellious behavior. Ecological/
environmental and economic parameters also play important trigger points in lives of the
juveniles. But usually it’s the combination of these factors that together creates situation of
juvenile delinquency.
4. Relevance of Socio- Psychological Studies in Creating Need for
International Instruments
All these researches done in the area of juvenile delinquency under various academic
disciplines created the need for a strong instrument at international level that could lay down
guidelines for various countries to deal with the situation.
The United Nations Convention on Rights of Child (CRC) was laid down in 1989, which
became a landmark in the international Human Rights legislations. It clearly indicated the rights
of the children and why they should be protected. This rights approach shielded in the CRC
entailed changes in the area of social; justice, equity and empowerment of the young members of
society.
The CRC is a legally binding agreement that sets out the civil, political, economic, social
and cultural rights of every child, irrespective of their race, religion or abilities. Consisting of 54
articles, it sets out children’s rights and sets out children’s rights and how governments should
work together to protect these rights. Ever since the convention was adopted in 1980, 194
countries have signed up the Convention. All the countries that ratified to UNCRC are bound by
International law and its implementation. Committee on CRC sees to it that countries which have
signed up the UN convention abide to the norms of the Convention.
India ratified to the CRC in 1992 and since then it has been bringing out various
legislations to cover the rights of children. Juvenile Justice Act in India is one such legislation
which clearly and extensively deals with issues of erring children.
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5. Brief Evolution of Juvenile Justice Legislations in India
Some authors have evaluated the origin and development of Juvenile Justice in India
(Mousami Dey, 2014). Prior to coming of British in India, the actions of children were governed
under existing Hindu and Muslim laws, where the respective families of the person concerned
were held responsible for monitoring the actions of their children. In India, the need for new
legislations for children was felt under the British rule. Some specific laws were passed between
1850 and 1919, like the Apprentice Act (1850), the Code of Criminal Procedure (1861) and the
Reformatory School Act (1876 and 1897).
Under the Apprentice Act (1850), it was held that destitute or petty offenders in the age
group of 10 and 18 years should be dealt with separately- the convicted children were required to
work as apprentices for businessmen. Section 82 of the Indian Penal Code of 1860 also
recognized the special status of children. It set age limits on criminal responsibility and excluded
children younger than 7 from culpability. The children between 7 and 12 years of age were
considered to have sufficient maturity to understand the nature of their actions under certain
circumstances.
The Code of Criminal Procedure of 1861 allowed for separate trials of persons younger
than age 15 and their treatment under the reformatories rather than prisons. It also laid down
provisions of probation of the young offenders. Such attempts marked the changing attitude and
approach of state to juvenile delinquents, and the transition from penal to reformative
philosophy.
In this regard, the Reformatory School Act 1876 and 1897 came as harbinger of such
legislations. Under the Act, the provisions were laid down for putting the delinquents in the
reformatory schools for a period of two to seven years. However, as they attained 18 years of
age, they were shifted to adult prisons. Provision for treatment and rehabilitation of young
offenders was laid down in the 1897 Act.
There was no national legislation under the British rule. However, certain provinces came
up with their own legislations to deal with juvenile delinquency (like Bombay, Madras and
Pondicherry).
After India got independence, Juvenile Justice policy in India got structured around
the mandates prescribed under various articles of Indian constitution (Article 15 (3), 21, 24,
39 (e) & (f), 45 & 47). The Indian Juvenile justice policy was also guided by various
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International Covenants such as UN Convention on Rights of Child (CRC) and Beijing Rules,
or UN Standard Minimum Rules for Administration of Juvenile Justice. The important law for
neglected and delinquent children in India was passed Central Child’s Act (1960), which
prohibited imprisonment of children under any circumstances. It declared children’s courts
and child weld welfare board to be two important bodies that would deal with such children.
In 1986, the central government of India passed a central Act, called the Juvenile
Justice Act of 1986. It was a social legislation that aimed to provide care, protection,
treatment and rehabilitation for delinquent and neglected children. It also looked into
adjudication of juvenile matters. It created juvenile courts for the offenders and juvenile
welfare boards for the non- offenders/ neglected children.
The juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act was passed in 2000. It
provided for a uniform legal framework of justice across the country. The main objective of
the new Act was to ensure that no child (up to the age 18 years) offender is lodged in jail.
The Act also made provisions for the infrastructure and machinery for care, protection and
rehabilitation of children. The Act was again amended in 2006 and then in 2010.
The Juvenile Justice Act, apart for providing for care, protection, rehabilitation and
development needs also makes the juvenile adjudication and disposition system child friendly.
It enables the Juvenile Justice Board (earlier called Juvenile Court) in taking a multi-
disciplinary approach when conducting inquires. Under the Act, Child Welfare Committee has
been established to cater to the needs of vulnerable children.
New Act dealing with Juvenile delinquency came in 2015, about which a discussion will
be held later in this article.
6. Important Provisions under the Indian Juvenile Justice Act
The Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 defines, under section 2 (I) defines juvenile in conflict
with law as a juvenile who is alleged to have committed an offence and is under 18 years of age
(and above the age of 10 years) on the date of commission of crime. Under the various Indian
laws, there is no consensus over the definition of child, which creates confusion and dilemma
over the legal treatment of the children.
Under section 2 (d) the same Act, there is another category of children- “Children in
Need for Care and Protection” referred. These children are defined as the ones who are found
without any home or settled place or abode and without any ostensible means of subsistence.
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They may be street children/ indulging in beggary, child laborers, orphaned/ abandoned/ destitute
children, abused children/ trafficked children, children suffering from physical deformity/ mental
illness or victims of conflict and disaster situations. The Indian JJ Act acts all such children and
legally protects their rights, at least on paper. R. N. Choudhary (2005) talks about various laws
that are prevalent in reference to juvenile justice in India. S. K. Bhattacharya also discusses about
the juvenile justice in India (2000).
The need to incorporate the second category of children came from preventive approach
of the JJ Act. The children who live under the condition of destitution, or under difficult
situations, are very vulnerable to commit crime. Any trigger point in their lives can push the
offender button, and they may convert into delinquents. So, keeping up to the philosophy
prevention is better than cure, the JJ Act of India has made provisions for including both
category of children, both who are offenders, or those who are quite likely to indulge in deviant
acts should be treated under the Act.
The two category of children are also treated by different institutions- juvenile offenders
under the Juvenile Justice Board, and the vulnerable children under the Child Welfare
committee.
The Juvenile Justice Board consists of a metropolitan judge, or judicial magistrate of first
class, and two social workers, at least one of whom should be a woman. Under the Act, there are
also provisions for a Special Juvenile Police Unit in every police station. All these personnel
must be preferably trained in child psychology, or should have sensitivity in child related
matters.
If the juvenile is a co- accused with an adult/ adults, joint trial of the juvenile offender
cannot be held along with adult criminals. Further, the Juvenile Justice Act in India restricts the
apprehension of juveniles, stipulates bail as a right to the offender, irrespective of the fact that
the offence is bailable or not.
Further, the trials of the juvenile offenders are held in a very informal manner, where the
offender cannot be cannot be brought to the Juvenile Justice Board handcuffed. The police
officials or other government personnel are dressed informally. The identity of the offender is
always concealed, and in no case media can mention the name of the offender in newspapers or
on news channels. After the trial, the offenders are kept under the observation homes or Special
homes. Children in need for Care and Protection are sent to Children’s homes.
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All these child friendly measures of Indian government are indicative of the fact that
government does not want to jeopardize the lives of the young criminals, and wants to give them
all a chance for improvement. All the provisions are very much in line with juvenile
jurisprudence.
7. Juvenile Delinquency in India- Current Trends
The legal definition of child affects how the courts in a country deal with offenders. As
per the international norms, and also under the juvenile Justice System in India, a minor or a
child cannot be tried in the same manner as an adult. A child is treated as doli incapax, with no
mens rea- he/ she is not capable of understanding consequences of his/ her actions.
Keeping this logic in mind, children are dealt under juvenile justice system, and not under
the adult criminal justice system. They can never be given imprisonment or death penalty.
Hence, under the Indian legal system, Art. 40 (3) (a) of CRC requires State Parties to promote
establishment of minimum age below which child is presumed not to have capacity to deviate the
penal law. Age of criminal responsibility is held to be 7 years- child below 7 years cannot be
considered a child in conflict with law section 82 of IPC, 1860. Thus, nothing is an offence
done by a child between 7 and 12 years, who has not attained sufficient maturity to judge the
nature and consequences of his/ her conduct, and did not know that what s/he was doing was
wrong - Section 83 of IPC, 1860.
However, juvenile delinquency has been increasing in capital city Delhi and other places
in India at an alarming rate. The involvement of the juveniles in serious offences like murder,
attempt to murder, kidnapping and abduction has raised concerns in the nation. After the
December 2012 Gang rape in Delhi (or Nirbhaya case, as it was commonly called), many
debates and discussions pointed to the softer approach of Juvenile Justice System to serious
offences. It has been found that the youngsters can be as brutal as the adults, which forced the
people to reanalyze the definition and approach to juvenile delinquents in India. Due to access to
internet, the psychiatrists feel that aspirations of adolescents and adults are becoming at par (D.
Ghosh, 2013).
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data indicates that there has been an
increase in crimes committed by juveniles, especially by those in the 16-18 years’ age group.
NCRB data given below shows the trends of juvenile offences.
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Table 1: Cases registered against Juvenile in conflict with law and Crime Rate under IPC
during 2015- 2016
Year
Cases Registered
Percentage cases of
Juvenile in conflict with
law to total cognizable
Crimes
Against
Juveniles in
conflict with
law
2005
18939
1.0
1.7
2006
21088
1.1
1,9
2007
22865
1.1
2.0
2008
24535
1.2
2.1
2009
23926
1.1
2.0
2010
22740
1.0
1.9
2011
25125
1.1
2.1
2012
27936
1.2
2.3
2013
31725
1.2
2.6
2014
33526
1.2
2.7
2015
31396
1.1
2.5
Source: NCRB
As it is evident from the data in table 1, there is an increase in number of cases registered
against juveniles in conflict with law. From 2005 to 2015, this number has increased from 18939
to 31396 (in category of Against Juveniles in conflict with law) and from 1822602 to 2949499
(Under total cognizable IPC Crimes). Though the Percentage cases of Juvenile in conflict with
law to total cognizable Crimes has ranged from 1.0 to 1.1, the Rate of crime under cases of
Juveniles in Conflict with law has increased from 1.7 to 2.5.
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Table 2: Cases registered in India against Juvenile in conflict with law under different crime
heads of IPC during 2015
S.no.
Types of crime
No. of cases
1.
Murder (Section 302 IPC)
853
2.
Attempt to commit murder (Section 307
IPC)
980
3
Culpable Homicide not amounting to
murder (Section 304 IPC)
36
4
Attempt to commit Culpable Homicide
(Section 308 IPC)
60
5
Rape (Section 376 IPC )
16988
6
Kidnapping and Abduction
1630
7
Dacoity
193
8
Robbery (Section 392 To 394, 397 And 398
IPC)
1358
9
Criminal Trespass/Burglary (Section 457 To
460 IPC) (Total)
2605
Table 3: Juveniles Apprehended under IPC and SLL Crimes by Age Groups & Sex During 2015
S.no.
Types of crime
Below
12 years
12
16
years
16- 18
years
Total
1
Murder (Section 302
IPC)
13
283
796
1092
2
Attempt to commit
murder (Section 307
IPC)
10
342
1008
1360
3
Culpable Homicide
not amounting to
murder (Section 304
IPC)
1
15
25
41
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4
Attempt to commit
Culpable Homicide
(Section 308 IPC)
0
24
65
89
5
Rape (Section 376
IPC )
14
490
1337
1841
6
Kidnapping and
Abduction
11
288
1209
1508
7
Dacoity
0
45
256
301
8
Robbery (Section 392
To 394, 397 And 398
IPC)
22
431
1385
1838
9
Criminal
Trespass/Burglary
(Section 457 To 460
IPC) (Total)
81
1288
2263
3632
Table 2 shows number of cases registered all over India for the juveniles under various
crimes under different heads of IPC during the year 2015. These figures are pretty alarming.
Table 3 shows the figures for Juveniles Apprehended under IPC and SLL Crimes by Age Groups
& Sex during 2015 under different age categories. It is evident that involvement of juveniles in
the age group of 16- 18 years is very high.
Various reasons can be cited for this rise in juvenile delinquency. According to the
psychiatrists and women right activists, easy access to pornography and changing food habits can
be attributed as a cause for this change in behavior of juveniles, who show rising involvement in
sexual offences (Alok K. N. Mishra, 2013). It has been pointed out in the same discussion that
the youngsters are not able to control their biological impulses prompted by hormonal changes.
There are more rape cases in urban areas than in rural areas, as the societal control in the former
(cities) have weakened. This can be seen in the table 2 on various categories of crimes
committed by juveniles- a staggering 1841 number of cases of rape charges, the highest in all
types of crimes committed by the youth in year 2015.
Certain other reasons are cited in discussion on this rise in juvenile delinquency.
According to DNA (an English Broadsheet daily published from Mumbai India) correspondent,
the weakening social ties at community, peer and family level in India is responsible for this
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rising trend of juvenile crimes. The family as a basic unit of human society is specially getting
weaker in urban areas, with lesser family control on children. The community networking and
involvement in affairs of individual members has also become slack. Peers groups are becoming
less active, with the youth mainly spending time indoors watching television, or playing games
on mobiles or computer. The games involve lot of plots of violence, killing others etc, which
instills violence as normal in the young minds. The mind of the youth is place where lot of
information keeps gathering. There is no way to filter this information and tell the youth what
information is correct or what is not. Further, these days children fewer options of venting out
their frustration and negativities, leading to pent up teenage aggression.
8. Need for Amendments in Juvenile Justice Act
Due to this trend, legal definition of child under Indian legal system came under question.
Malvika Tyagi (2016) also feels that with trend of involvement of juveniles in violent crimes in
India, state intervention is required in terms of making amendments and in terms bringing in new
legal provisions. The new Juvenile Justice Act of 2015 took into cognizance the involvement of
juveniles in heinous crimes and brought out some amendments. Under the new legal provisions,
if a child of 16 years or above commits a heinous crime, a preliminary assessment of his mental
and physical maturity will be made by the Juvenile Justice Board. Level of maturity will be
matched to his capacity to commit such an offence, his ability to understand the consequences of
his offence and the circumstances in which he allegedly committed the offence.
The Juvenile Justice bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in 2014, after it was felt in the
post- Nirbhaya case that some action has to be taken against the increasing involvement of
juveniles in the age group of 16 to 18 in heinous/ serious crimes. The serious crimes have not
been in the Indian Acts per se, but they may be taken to mean the category of crimes which
would entail imprisonment for 7 years or more for adults. It was felt that JJ Act 2000 was flawed
with implementation issues, and the new bill intended to close these loop holes.
The bill introduced concepts from Hague Convention on Protection of Children and
Cooperation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption 1993. It was laid down under the bill of 2015
that the Juvenile Justice Board will decide whether a juvenile offender in the age group of 16 to
18 years should be treat as an adult. Those juveniles who commit heinous crimes such murder
and rape (which invite punishment of 7 years or more) should be treated as adults. However, if
the Board decides, the juvenile can be sent for rehabilitation.
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The earlier Acts dealing with Juvenile Justice in India have had serious implementation
issues (Ved Kumari, 2010) - the Bill (which became an Act) sought streamline the adoption
process of orphaned and abandoned children. Through the 2016 Act, foster care has been
introduced, under which families can take up responsibilities of juveniles in conflict with law, or
the orphaned or abandoned children.
The Act has made it mandatory for all states in India to set up Juvenile Justice Board and
Child Welfare committee in each and every district, with at least one woman member on board.
It also laid down that when any child is found committing a crime, he will be first sent for a
preliminary assessment of child’s capacity to commit crime (Here assessment is not same as
trial).
The JJ Act has paid lot of attention to preventive measures in controlling juvenile
delinquency. Keeping in mind the weakening family and community control on individual
members, the Act has emphasized on the role of family in controlling juvenile delinquency
(Prakash Haveripet, 2013). Family is the most fundamental structural and functional unit of
society. According to the Act, family plays a very crucial role in taking care, nurturing and
protecting the children. Thus, the children are groomed to become responsible members of
society. The family keeps the children away from bad habits, such as substance abuse, watching
pornography etc.
9. Conclusion
The Juvenile Justice Act of 2016 can be seen as a very progressive step of the Indian
government towards keeping pace with changing trends in juvenile crimes. The bold step under
the Act on treating the juvenile offenders found guilty of committing heinous crime as adults,
subject to the observations of the Juvenile Justice Board. The Justice Verma Committee took a
stand against the lowering of age of juveniles in conflict with law. It was observed in the report
that “Any attempt of reducing the age of juvenility, or excluding certain children from the
purview of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000 on the basis of nature
of the offence and age, will violate guarantees made under the Constitution and international
instruments, the United Nation Convention of Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
But the Suprme Court in India took a stand contrary to the suggestions and warnings of
the Committee. It was argued that the age of 18 years was fixed because of the expert notion of
psychologists that children/ juvenile up to this age are malleable and can be reformed through
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redeeming and restoring techniques. It was then argued that putting them with adult criminals
would re-socialize them into the world of crime and convert them into hard core criminals. The
Indian courts keep this fact in mind when dealing with offenders who are not habitual criminals.
The judges don’t want to burden the jails with criminals.
However, when the latest trends in juvenile delinquency in India are analyzed, in respect
of the age pattern and nature of offences committed, it appears that we need to review and amend
our juvenile justice policy (Shivani Goswami and Neelu Mehra, 2014). The same kind of trends
appeared in US and UK, with peaking of heinous crimes committed by the juveniles in the age
group of 16 to 18 years (McDowell, L. Gary, Smith, Jinney, 1999). US came up with a change in
its juvenile justice policy, with a shift from restorative to retributive methods. The same applies
to UK also. Here, a person under 18 years is tried by the youth court normally, but in instances of
serious offences, the case can be transferred to the Crown court.
In India, it is indicated from the crime trends that existing laws (prior to 2016) were not
proving to be a deterrent. The constant exposure of children to violence and lack of
understanding about the consequences of crime committed makes them quite prone to delinquent
tendencies. The problem gets worsened in absence of some adults in role of responsible
guardians to give them and help them in filtering the information that comes to them through
various sources.
In the face of fast pace of industrialization and globalization, the self-control and parental
control that was earlier sufficient to prevent individuals from committing offences has become
weak. The primary socialization that functioned through groups such as family, peer groups,
traditional neighbourhood ties, close kin circles is fast becoming ineffective in Indian society.
All this has lead to present trends in juvenile delinquency.
It is to be kept in mind that the legal sub- system is a part of the larger social system. Any
change in the larger whole, that is the society necessitates changes in the constituent parts or the
smaller sub- sub systems. Thus, when changes are occurring in the society at a fast pace, the
legal system has to go in sync with the society. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act
2015 has brought these changes.
10. Suggestions
Some suggestion can be made to deal with the issue of Juvenile Delinquency in India.
Though Indian government has been making lots of efforts to deal with the problem, and has
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taken progressive and bold steps in this direction, more effective measures are required with
respect to implementation. It has been found that though various provisions for juvenile justice
have been laid down, they are followed properly. For instance, the members of the Juvenile
Justice Board should be trained in child psychology and should be sensitized in child related
matters, more often they are incompetent in this area.
There are provisions for Special Police unit for dealing with Juveniles at every police
station. In reality, these special units are not functional. So, when there are cases of juvenile
delinquency or when neglected children are taken to police, the police department is not able to
handle the cases in expected manner. The police personnel are not very sensitive to the issues
that come up.
It is suggested that strong steps are taken to make effective implementation of the laws
pertaining to Juvenile Delinqunecy, so that we are able to deal with the problem in a holistic
manner.
It is also important to monitor the functioning of Observation Homes and Shelter Homes.
These special places meant for reformation of the juveniles/ children often become breeding
grounds for more offences. Rather than effectively handling the problem and counselling the
inmates, these places create atmosphere for resocialization of the juveniles into criminal/
delinquent world. Instances of inmates of Observation Homes indulging in serious offences are
quite many. For reformative and rehabilitative measures, it’s important that the situation is
handled very tactfully.
Community participation and sensitization in matters related to juvenile delinquency is
very important. In the administration of Juvenile Justice, preventive measures are very important.
For this, if people in society are sensitized about issues of neglected children and children living
in difficult situation, they can play important role in rehabilitation. Some informal bodies like
registered Residential Associations in different areas can be involved to report matters of
juveniles who indulge in deviant behaviour, or whose behaviour cannot be controlled effectively
by the parents.
It has been reflected earlier in this paper that families are important agents of social
control and socialization. So families, along with other primary groups in society can be more
effectively involved in preventive measures.
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This article has been based on doctrinal research, but the author intends to take the
research at the level of empirical data collection and provide a rich data base for further analysis
of the problem of juvenile delinquency.
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... A "juvenile" is an individual who is above the minimum age of criminal responsibility (varies internationally), below the age of criminal maturity and is legally able to commit a criminal offense. [12] In India, the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015, proposes "any person under the age of 18" to be considered a child [13] and the age of criminal responsibility to be at 7 years. [12] "Delinquent" is defined as a person who is found guilty, [14] while delinquency is the act of being involved in behaviors which are in conflict with the law by a minor. ...
... [12] In India, the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015, proposes "any person under the age of 18" to be considered a child [13] and the age of criminal responsibility to be at 7 years. [12] "Delinquent" is defined as a person who is found guilty, [14] while delinquency is the act of being involved in behaviors which are in conflict with the law by a minor. Thus, the concept of juvenile delinquency can be stated as when a child or young person is at fault of some offense or antisocial behavior or the demeanor of child is beyond parental control. ...
... In this context, the social factors contributing to juvenile delinquency may be the distorted family structure, poor educational background, lower social class, and influence of gangs and drug peddlers. [12] Further, the ongoing process of urbanization in developing countries with increased population density and degree of heterogeneity may have weakened the primary social relations, control, and cohesion that once existed in the society. These new patterns may influence the involvement of juveniles in criminal behavior. ...
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Personality is a relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, or actions that distinguish one person from another. The present study aims to profile the personality of juvenile delinquents using a projective technique to develop a perspective on the relationships between the individual characteristics and the array of crime committed by juvenile offenders. The study followed a qualitative design using Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) for the collection of data. The sample consisted of five male juvenile delinquents belonging to the age range of 16–18 years in Delhi. The data were analyzed using Leopold Bellack’s method of TAT analysis. The findings indicated that most of the people involved in criminal activities face relationship issues either with the family members or with peers. Social and cultural factors have emerged to be some of the major contributors to the act of delinquency by juveniles. The study can be replicated in schools and correctional homes to identify the psychopathic traits and develop appropriate strategies to reform the personality of the juveniles. Key words: Juvenile delinquents, personality, thematic apperception test
... In addition to physical and psychological harm to victims, the societal costs of the anti-social behaviour of these delinquent children are high (Cohen & Piquero, 2007 Delinquency can be classified into two types: Overt delinquency referring to violent offenses like murder, rape, and attacking someone with or without a weapon and covert delinquency referring to non-aggressive acts like pickpocketing, stealing, vandalism, and selling drugs (Hoeve et al., 2009;Loeber, 1996). Studies across the world have shown that various individual risk factors such as being male, substance use, antisocial attitude, low education, and poor attitude towards school., family factors like low socio-economic status, poor parenting, broken home, and separation from parents., the influence of deviant peers are linked to delinquency among justice-involved youth (Agarwal, 2018;Farrington, 2000;Tompsett & Toro, 2010;Werner & Silbereisen, 2003). Identifying the risk factors is a costeffective and efficient approach in the enhancement of prevention measures for delinquency. ...
... In our study, rape was the most frequently committed crime among JIA males. This is consistent with the NCRB data of India (Agarwal, 2018) which indicates a significant rise in this particular crime among the JIA males. There might be higher rates of offending this crime as the rape of minor girls is usually underreported by the victims because of fear, fear of loss of self-respect, family pressure, and social issues. ...
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Delinquent offenses among adolescents is an important public health concern worldwide and has been increasing at an alarming rate in India. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and pattern of delinquency among justice-involved adolescent (JIA) males and determine the associated socio-demographic factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out during the year 2016 to 2019 among 178 male inmates (aged 10–18 years) of an observation home situated at Berhampur city in the state of Odisha, India. More than half (52.8%) of the JIA males committed overt delinquent acts and 47.2% committed covert delinquent acts. Drug trafficking (34.5%) tops the list among different covert delinquent acts followed by stealing things (33.3%) whereas rape (62.8%) was the most frequently committed overt delinquent act followed by murder (25%). Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that older age {adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.05; 95% CI [1.73, 9.51]}, lower education status of mother (aOR: 2.81; 95% CI [1.09, 7.22]), single parenthood (aOR: 4.58; 95% CI [1.27, 16.58]), and non-supportive parenting (aOR: 3.13, 95% CI [1.44, 6.80]) were significantly associated with overt delinquency in JIA males. The prevalence of overt delinquency among JIA males was high. Interventional measures incorporating these determinants should be designed to address overt delinquency in this population.
... Chicago School of Thought, various scholars studied the crime scenario and their perceived causes in various countries at macro, meso and micro level. Even in India there are many crime studies from different perspective (for example, Agarwal, 2018;Bushra Bano, 2013;Chauhan Ritvik and Baraik Vijay Kumar, 2016;Gupta, Rajitha, Basu, and Mittal, 2012;Karmakar, 2017;Math et al., 2014;Rajesh and Punithavalli, 2012;Sahu and Srivastava, 2004). Most of these studies in India are related either to particular type of crime or particular method or particular aspect of crime. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
1. Introduction: The current research is intended to explore the geography of crimes in the Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. Geography of crime studies the spatial structure, environmental association, features of a place and their association with crime (Relph Edward, 1976). As defined by Georges (1978), geography of crime is defined as “the study of spatial manifestation of criminal acts. It is the study of social and cultural organization of criminal behavior in spatial perspective”. Geography of crime studies environmental factors surrounding to criminal events, community ecology and structure temporal aspects of crime along with spatial aspects, type of victim and offender and their neighborhood characteristics along with physical, social, economic and political factors (Kim, 2014, p. 1). Even the crime analysis in general sense advocates the dynamics of geography of crime. Crime analysis is the systematic study of crime and disorder problem, as well as other police-related issues – including sociodemographic, spatial and temporal factors- to assist the police in criminal apprehension, crime and disorder reduction, crime prevention, and evaluation (Boba, 2016). From this definition it seems that crime analysis incorporated the crime geography perspective in it. Therefore the current study analyses the occurred crimes in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction from the geographical perspective. Spatial-temporal analysis is considered to be an integral part in geographical studies and research. This research also included the spatio-temporal analysis using crime maps prepared by advanced GIS techniques. Besides this, socio-economic aspects of the crimes are also explored in the study. We have opted the deductive approach in the study where the validity of dynamics of crime geography has been checked in the analysis of crimes in the study area. We believe that this is a pioneering work in understanding crime geography in Indian context which can be applied to crime analysis at various levels in India and can use for international comparison. 2. Justification of Research: Spatial studies of various human and physical aspects and environmental, socio-economic and demographic factors influencing on them are lies at the core of geographical studies. Geography of crime studies crimes from geographical point of view and current research also tried to sought crime from the same perspective. Since Chicago school of criminology, various scholars studied the crime scenario and their perceived causes in various countries at macro, meso and micro level. Even in India there are many crime studies from different perspective (for example, Agarwal, 2018; Bushra Bano, 2013; Chauhan Ritvik and Baraik Vijay Kumar, 2016; Gupta, Rajitha, Basu, & Mittal, 2012; Karmakar, 2017; Math et al., 2014; Rajesh & Punithavalli, 2012; Sahu & Srivastava, 2004). Most of these studies in India are related either to particular type of crime or particular method or particular aspect of crime. But author didn’t come across any single study which incorporated the theories of crime geography empirically. Current search work with meso and micro-level analysis of crimes in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction from geographical perspective carried the deductive approach and tried the empirical assessment of theories of crime including social disorganization theory, routine activity theory and geometric theory of crime. Spatio-temporal aspects of crimes in the study region have explored via crime mapping with the help of various tools and techniques of GIS. Crime causation from social ecology and environmental criminology perspective also explained with the help of empirical assessment of theories of crime geography which include the socio-economic and demographic determinants of crimes in the study area. Our research explored spatial aspects of crimes, temporal aspects of crimes, testing of social disorganization theory, routine activity theory and geometric theory of crime. Our research would also help in crime preventive measures to for crime prevention, control, apprehension and reduction which indicate the applicability of the search in real world. 3. Study Area: The current study is confined to 'Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction' (ACPJ) which is located in and around of Ahmednagar city, which is a district place of Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra states in India. The latitudinal extent of the study area is 19º1’11’’ North Latitude to 19º9’18’’ North Latitude and longitudinal extent is 74º40'33'' East Longitude to 74º50’16’’ East Longitude. The study area holds 435,811 people (2011 Census of India) and 186.16 km2 area composed of three police sub-jurisdictions: Kotwali, Topkhana and Camp. ACPJ is composed both of urban and rural area where the urban area (Ahmednagar Municipal Corporation and Ahmednagar Cantonment Board) accounts 80 % population and 58 % geographical area out of the whole study region. The dominance of urban area in the study region has also persisted in the level of crime where more than 80 % crimes during the year 2011-2018 (study period) were registered in the urban sub-jurisdictions (Kotwali and Tofkhana). We have taken ‘block’ as a unit of analysis accounting total 26 blocks from three different administrative units including Ahmednagar Municipal Corporation (17 blocks), Ahmednagar Cantonment Board (1 block) and adjacent 8 villages (8 blocks). Distribution of block area is skewed with 7.16 km2 average area while the maximum and minimum area of the block is 30.89 km2 and 0.91 km2 respectively. Urban blocks held high population density than the rural counterparts. 4. Objectives: 1. To comprehend socio-economic and demographic profile of the study area in the context of crime studies 2. To carry out the spatio-temporal crime analysis and crime mapping of the study area 3. To find out the socio-economic and demographic determinants of crime pattern and crime distribution in the study area 5. Sources of Data: The present study based on both primary and secondary data. Required data and its sources are as given below.  Boundaries and Maps: • Base map of the Police Jurisdiction: Base map of the Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction (ACPJ) has been collected from the office of Sub-Divisional Police Officer of the Ahmednagar city. • Ward-wise map of Ahmednagar Municipal Corporation (AMC): This map has been collected from the official website of AMC. • Civil area map of Ahmednagar Cantonment Board (ACB): This map has been collected from the office of ACB. • Maps of adjacent eight villages: These maps were extracted from district census handbook and SOI toposheet.  Primary Data of Crime and Population: • GPS locations of crimes and criminals home base: GPS locations of criminal incidents based on their address mentioned in the crime register were collected with the help of GPS instrument. 8202 locations of various crimes were found out of 9171 cognizable IPC crimes registered during the year 2011-2018. Offenders who arrested for committing any crime during the year 2011-2018 were considered for the further offenders study and GPS locations of their home addresses, as mentioned in the police record, were collected. 8738 GPS locations of offenders’ address were found and collected out of 13651 offenders. • Population characteristics of crime-prone and safe zone neighborhoods: Population data of personal and household characteristics with special emphasis on criminogenic characteristics (derived from crime theories) of the area were collected with the help of sample survey from the crime-prone and safe zone neighborhoods. Random sample survey was carried out in total 26 blocks (wards and villages) and information from the 1081 households was collected. Depending on the size of population information from nearly 30 to 70 households was collected from each block.  Secondary Data of Crime and Population: • Crime Data Collection: Data of cognizable IPC crimes registered during the year 2011-2018 has considered for the further analysis with the permission of concerned police authority. This data of crime has been collected manually from ‘crime entry registers’ (part I to V) and ‘arrest registers’ from three police stations of ACPJ. Crime entry registers includes the information regarding crime number, date and time of criminal incidents, type of crime and its IPC act/s, date and time of criminal incidence, address of criminal incident etc. Arrest registers includes the information regarding personal and demographic characteristics of accused such as age, gender, address, religion, caste, education occupation and addiction of accused. • Population characteristics: Population characteristics of study area were compiled from various sources. Population characteristics of Ahmednagar municipal corporation (AMC) has been collected from 2011 Ahmednagar district census handbook of as well as from official website of AMC. Population characteristics of Ahmednagar cantonment board (ACB) and adjacent eight villages of Nagar tehsil has been collected from 2011 Ahmednagar district census handbook. 6. Methodology: Following process has been carried out for the generation of base map and other aspects:  Obtaining of Satellite data and related attribute data  Remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information System used for the generation of base map and related data base from toposheet of Survey of India (SOI) and satellite data  Application of standard image processing techniques to identify spatial distribution of land use and land cover in the study area using GIS  Creation of GIS layers: Boundary of study area from the topographical maps and Google map for the study area using ArcGIS software. The following methods and techniques are used in the study for crime analysis. A) GIS Techniques: • Kernel Density Tool: Study adopted this tool in ArcGIS to extract the spatial distribution of density of crime using natural break method. This study is used to prepare crime maps for the spatio-temporal analysis of crimes. B) Cartographic Techniques: • Cartographic techniques such as bar graph and line graphs are used for the trend analysis of crimes. C) Statistical Techniques: • Crime Rate: Crime Rate = C/P * 100,000 Where C = No. of crimes in area, P = Total population of the area Crime rate is used for the trend analysis of crimes. • Multivariate Regression Estimates: y = b1x2 + b2x2 + ….. + bnxn + c Where b1’s (i = 1,2,…n) are the regression coefficient, which represent the value at which the criterion variable changes when the predictor variable changes. This method has been used in the study to estimate the impact of social disorganization variables on level of crimes in the study area. • Chi-Square Test: χ2 = ∑(O – E)2 / E Where ∑ means to sum up, O = each observed (actual) value, E = each expected value This test is used for the assessment of impact of socio-economic variables (grouped or dichotomous variables) on the level of crimes in the study area. • Mann-Whitney U Test: A Mann-Whitney U test is a non-parametric test. This test has been carried out in SPSS in crime trip distance analysis when independent variables were dichotomous in nature. • Kruskal-Wallis H test: A Kruskal-Wallis H test is a non-parametric test. It is used when independent variables were available in Likert-scale. This test is used in the crime trips distance analysis. D) Computer Programming: Distances between the location of offenders’ home and location of crimes have been extracted using coding in MS Excel macros. Total 8738 crime trip distances were extracted using this technique. E) Survey Method: Household sample survey has been carried out in all 26 blocks in the study region. In survey 1081 samples from the household have been collected. Socio-economic analysis of crimes has been carried out through statistical analysis on the data collected from the sample survey. 7. Major findings: Chapter-wise comprehensive findings are as follow. a) Chapter IV: Socio-Ecological Determinants of Crimes: Testing of social disorganization theory on data revealed the consistency of current results with this theory which underlined the applicability and validity of social disorganization theory for crime analysis in the study area. The level of education, income and occupation of people are seen associated with crimes in the study area. The degree of urbanization is found the most important correlates in the many crimes in the study. A good friendship network and residential stability of residents is found resistance for criminal activities in the neighborhood. Measures of social heterogeneity, family disruption and organizational participation are needed to be revised or changed in the context of study area but not because of their inconsistency with theory but because of the different social setup of traditional society like Ahmednagar city in more specific manner than the western society in which social disorganization concept have been structured. But testing of social disorganization theory revealed that spatial variations in crimes (at the neighborhood level) are associated with the socio-economic characteristics of the people and area. Hence induced constructive change in social ecology can reduce, control and prevent crimes at least in class I type cities like Ahmednagar city. The current study has shown the moderate association of crimes in the Ahmednagar police jurisdiction with many socio-structural characteristics of the area. This association is consistent with the CPTED aspect of crime study. Particularly some indicators of activity support, neighborhood control and surveillance dimension of CPTED have considerably differentiated the degree of crimes at the neighborhood level in the study area. The proximity of societal activities like public garden/sports ground, shopping complexes and school/college is seen significantly associated with the degree of crimes in Ahmednagar city. The diurnal crowd of outsiders is seen influenced on the degree of crimes at neighborhood level. Moderate effect of lighting and ownership of houses has been observed on the level of crimes in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. Indicators of access control and territoriality are needed to be revised or changed in the socio-structural context of small city like Ahmednagar. Overall these socio-structural variables are significantly associated with the degree of crimes at the neighborhood level in the study area. This suggest that modification or construction physical environment through social fabrication can prevent crimes in the first place in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. b) Chapter V: Spatial Analysis of Crimes Consistent with this dynamics of environmental criminology, the spatial distributions of crimes in the Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction are seen associated with the commercial, recreational and residential use of land, residential categories such as high-class to low-class residences or slums, location of transportation nodes and pathways and mobility of people within existing physical environment and congregation of transient population at nodes of work, shopping, recreation and transportation and pathways between them. Spatial variations in the distribution of crimes in Ahmednagar city have been observed according to the differences in degree of these factors. Beside this static physical environment, spatial concentration of crimes is also differentiated by proximity of offenders' home location. The spatial proximity of offender is found highly relevant correlates of crimes in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. Spatial differences in distribution of crimes are also observed according the individual characteristics of offenders including age of offenders and their solo or co-offending type. Among all aspects of crimes considered in the current study, the spatial correlates of crime have shown the utmost consistency with the spatial distribution of crimes in the Ahmednagar city at various levels. The results generated from spatial analysis of crime have visualized the actual spatial concentration of crimes and their spatial correlates which are considered to be the most important source for executing crime preventive strategies in the study area. Spatial analysis of crime can facilitate maximum crime prevention using the minimum policing resources which can save money, time and energy of the police organization. c) Chapter VI: Trend Analysis of Crimes The temporal aspect of crime has an equal importance like spatial aspect of crime and both cannot be separated from each other. Crime cannot be prevented fully by just knowing its places while ignoring its temporal patterns of occurrences. The current study observed the temporal variations in the occurrences of crimes in the study area which are seen associated with the hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal changes in the routine activities of the mainstream urban population such as work and leisure hours, weekdays and weekends, festivals, holidays, rainy season, summer and winter vacations. The inclusion of temporal aspect of crime along with the spatial aspect can strengthen the crime preventive strategies which can reduce maximum possible crimes in the Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. d) Chapter VII: Crime Trip Distance Analysis Crime trip distance analysis or journey-to-crime analysis reveals the factors responsible for differences in distance travelled by offenders for offending various crimes in Ahmednagar city police jurisdiction. The current study has mainly focused on the influence of personal characteristics of offenders on the crime trip distances travelled by offenders for offending various crimes in Ahmednagar city. This found that crime trips distances are relatively shorter suggesting that mainstream offenders are preferred to offend crime near their home locations than farther areas. Crime trip distances for serious crimes like murder, molestation and grievous hurt are observed relatively shorter than for property crimes like theft, burglary and robbery in Ahmednagar city. The crime trip distances travelled by offenders for offending various crimes in the study area are seen statistically significantly associated with the personal characteristics of offenders which includes the age of offenders, gender of offenders, offending type, age of offenders along with offending type, neighborhood proximity and locality of offenders. The results revealed in this analysis can become helpful to formulate the geographic profiling technique for predicting the location of offender/s based on earlier crime trips distances and their correlates. This can become the most important application of this study if used for criminal apprehension and future crime prevention in the Ahmednagar city. 8. Conclusion and Suggestions: The spatial distribution of crimes revealed that crime hotspots of the many crimes in the study area are concentrated around the core area of Ahmednagar city. This is the CBD of Ahmednagar city having many commercial, administrative, social and recreational nodes. With the increasing population these commercial nodes are expanding radially from the center and it could be possible that crime hotspots may expand simultaneously. Spatial proximity of offenders has been seen dominant correlates of spatial distribution of crimes in the study area. Rapidly expanding transportation nodes and pathways can facilitate offenders to come closer to targets without living nearby. This may become the negative impact of infrastructural growth of the study area. From any facets geometric theory of crime answered the spatial distribution of crimes and subsequent changes in the same due to inevitable spatial expansion of city life. Globalization has been changing the routine life of urban inhabitants. People are being busier in non-household activities with non-household members. This is withdrawing informal guardianship from society and in turn, supporting indirectly to illegal criminal activities. Routine activity theory revealed that all these changing activities are the cause of crimes at particular space and time. Ever changing physical-structural environment cannot become detached from the human environment and its socio-economic and demographic aspect. Social set-up of the area is changing rapidly like never before which resulting in to loosening of social ties among people, group and area. Additionally unequal distribution of resources regarding the materialistic life is leading many individuals into criminality due lack of resources and opportunity. And this is becoming cause for many individuals to involve in offending property crimes and personal crimes. These socio-economic and demographic determinants are addressed very well in social disorganization theory and present study found the association of crimes with the same theory. In nutshell, earlier theories of crime geography are still found valid to answer the causes of crimes in study area. The results from the present study can be used for crime reduction and crime prevention strategies in class-I type cities in Maharashtra states of India and it can be used for comparison also.
... The rate of crime has been illustrated as the highest as per the rise in the density of the population and as per the anonymity which have been maintained as per the record of the crime. Agarwal (2018) had opposed that the rate of crime which has been analyzed as per the statistical analysis showed that the highest rate of crime has been recorded at northern and southern regions in India. The demographic condition further depicted the criminal activities as per social and environmental conditions. ...
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This volume about juvenile delinquency in the United States and United Kingdom includes a foreword, nine chapters organized in three parts, and an afterword. Chapters 1 and 2 in Part I describe juvenile delinquency in both countries and the urgency of the current crisis. Chapters 3 to 6 in Part II deal with the two nations' juvenile justice systems, focusing on structural and ideological obstacles preventing reform. Presented in the final chapters in Part III are suggestions for reform in school, and juvenile justice setting that recognize the importance of character in causing delinquency.
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In this book, David E. Brandt examines the legal, psychological, and cultural issues relevant to understanding antisocial behavior in adolescence. Based on his own research and a broad analysis of recent work in the field, Brandt identifies the factors that are common in cases of delinquency. The discussion considers the long-term effects of social issues such as poverty as well as psychological issues such as the high levels of stress and anxiety suffered during childhood by many delinquents. He shows how a failure to meet the developmental needs of children-at both the family level and at a broader social and political level-is at the core of the problem of juvenile delinquency. Brandt concludes with an inquiry into how best to prevent delinquency. Programs that address the developmental needs of children, Brandt argues, are more effective than policing, juvenile courts, or incarceration.
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One of the few facts agreed on in criminology is the age distribution of crime. This fact has been used to criticize social theories of crime causation, to provide the foundation for other theories, to justify recent emphases on career criminals, and to support claims of superiority for longitudinal designs in criminological research. In the present paper, we argue that the age distribution of crime is sufficiently invariant over a broad range of social conditions that these uses of the age distribution are not justified by available evidence.
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which neighborhood-level family structure and feelings of family integration are associated with acts of violence among 16,910 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results from our hierarchical linear models indicate that adolescents who live in neighborhoods with lower proportions of single-parent families and who report higher levels of family integration commit less violence. We also find that neighborhood-level family structure shapes the extent to which social integration into family matters: In neighborhoods that are considered higher risk environments (i.e., contain greater proportions of single-parent families), family integration is often less effective in deterring youth violence than it is in lower risk environments.
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Juvenile Justice: An Indian Scenario
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