Article

High-intensity interval body weight training promotes different adaptations to combined training in body composition and muscle strength in young women

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Abstract

Objective: To confirm whether high-intensity interval training is an alternative time-efficient strategy for improving body composition and muscle strength in young women, we compared the effects of a high-intensity interval body weight training (HIBWT) with the effects of a combined training (COMT; aerobic and resistance exercises). Methods: In this study, 25 women were randomly allocated into two groups: HIBWT (n = 10) and COMT (n = 15). The HIBWT group performed a training protocol (length time 20. min) consisting of ten sets of 60 s of high intensity exercise (30. s of stepping up and down on a step and 30s of squatting up and down with body weight as fast as possible) interspersed by a recovery period of 60. s of low intensity exercise. The COMT group performed a training protocol (length time 60-min) consisting of a 30 min walk of moderate intensity following by five resistance exercises (three sets of 8-12 repetitions at 70% of 1RM, with a 1.5-min rest period between sets and exercises). All training sessions were performed in the university gym facility three days a week (no consecutive days) for 12 weeks. Body fat (DXA), muscle mass (DXA) and muscle strength (1RM) were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Both groups reduce similarly body fat percentage. Both groups increased (P <. 0.05) muscle mass and muscle strength; however, COMT showed greater muscle strength gains and HIBWT showed greater muscle mass gains. Conclusions: HIBWT and COMT promote fat mass loss and muscle mass and strength gains in young women. However, HIBWT promotes greater muscle mass gains than COMT, whereas COMT promotes greater muscle strength gains than HIBWT.

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... If pre-and post-intervention data were provided only in figures or not provided within the paper, the authors were contacted via email for further information. Where authors were uncontactable or did not respond [32][33][34][35][36], the online tool WebPlotDigitizer was used to manually extract data from the reported figures. ...
... HIMT seems to promote muscular fitness adaptations to an extent; however, select findings demonstrate reduced improvements compared to other concurrent training modes [35,36,42]. Select styles of HIMT (i.e. ...
... The authors attributed this outcome to greater load prescription of 70% 1RM in the concurrent training protocol compared to no resistance (bodyweight exercise) in the HIMT protocol. Similarly, Carneiro et al. [35] observed greater improvements in muscular strength in the concurrent training group (using loads of 70% 1RM) compared to the bodyweight HIMT group. Expectedly, these findings further indicate that external resistance can provide a more potent stimulus than bodyweight training alone [35,42]. ...
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Background High-intensity multimodal training (HIMT) is emerging as a popular training method that combines aerobic and resistance training throughout a single exercise session. The current literature is limited by a lack of terminology that broadly encompasses all styles of combined aerobic and resistance training. The magnitude of chronic or long-term (i.e. ≥ 4 weeks) effects of HIMT participation on aerobic and muscular fitness also remains unclear. Additionally, one of many complex reasons for the growing popularity of HIMT may be attributed to the affective response to exercise, namely levels of enjoyment. However, this concept is not yet well understood across all styles of HIMT. A comprehensive systematic review is required to synthesise the available literature and attempt to provide an operational definition of HIMT to capture the breadth of combined training styles that exist. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the chronic effects of HIMT participation on aerobic and muscular fitness and to compare HIMT to established concurrent training methods. Enjoyability and other adherence-related subjective responses were also examined in HIMT participants. This review critically assessed the level of evidence and feasibility of current HIMT guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus to identify studies up until March 2021. Results A total of 20 studies were included for review. Studies generally reported moderate to large effects on aerobic fitness and subjective responses in favour of HIMT interventions. Mixed outcomes were demonstrated in muscular fitness. These results should be treated with caution due to high risk of bias among included studies. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the chronic effects of HIMT participation on aerobic, and musculoskeletal adaptations and subjective responses, in particular exercise enjoyment. Research conclusions are limited by heterogeneity of experimental protocols and outcome measures. Furthermore, the inability of the literature to make adequate comparisons between various styles of HIMT and other concurrent training protocols limits understandings of the efficacy of HIMT. Registration This systematic review was registered on the Open Science Framework (10.17605/OSF.IO/2RE4B; 26 March 2021).
... Determining a way to increase functional and physical fitness that would not have the disadvantages of traditional training protocols and at the same time provide the desired health benefits in less time is relevant. Recent studies confirm that high intensity functional training (HIFT), combining aerobic and power loads, has a positive effect on health, increases interest in physical activity, due to the high emotionality and attractiveness of both the exercises themselves and new types of equipment, it has a similar or superior comparison with RT efficiency [3,7,8,15]. Several variations of HIFT programs, based on bodyweight training, functional fitness training, high-intensity circular training, highintensity power training, CrossFit ® , Tabata, SuperSlow and others, are universal and integrative, characterized by compliance with the principles of HIIT and FFT, include exercises for various joints and muscle groups using bodyweight and various fitness accessories [8,11,16,20,25]. ...
... Recent studies confirm that high intensity functional training (HIFT), combining aerobic and power loads, has a positive effect on health, increases interest in physical activity, due to the high emotionality and attractiveness of both the exercises themselves and new types of equipment, it has a similar or superior comparison with RT efficiency [3,7,8,15]. Several variations of HIFT programs, based on bodyweight training, functional fitness training, high-intensity circular training, highintensity power training, CrossFit ® , Tabata, SuperSlow and others, are universal and integrative, characterized by compliance with the principles of HIIT and FFT, include exercises for various joints and muscle groups using bodyweight and various fitness accessories [8,11,16,20,25]. In a recent in-depth review, Feito et al. [12] show the compelling benefits of using HIFT programs for different groups of people, describe the main differences in HIFT and HIIT methodologies that provide important differences in physiological responses and adaptations. ...
... Having the advantages of traditional RT and HIIT, HIFT programs make it possible to individualize the load as much as possible and focus on improving general physical fitness, including cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance, strength, flexibility, speed, coordination, agility, balance and is perceived by participants as time-efficient and exciting training [16,19,20,21,25,28]. HIFT helps to improve performance in everyday functions, provides body composition correction, and has a potential osteogenic effect, in less time than RT [8,12]. HIFT mode is widely used in the training process of athletes, contributing to the improvement of neuromuscular status, anaerobic power, heart rate restoration, and improves the structure and function of peripheral vessels [28,29]. ...
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Introduction. Improving the physical fitness and performance of young women depends on the differentiated selection of methods and the amount of the load, the optimal selection of training methods. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of 24-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT) program compared to the resistance training (RT) program on health-related physical fitness indicators of women aged 25-35. Material andMethods. Thirty-six women (age 30.23 ± 3.5 years) were divided into two groups: experimental (EG; n = 18) – HIFT program, and control group, practicing RT (CG; n = 18). Both programs included exercises with massage rollers, exercises to overcome the weight of their own body, with fitness accessories, three times a week for 24 weeks. Classes in the EG were distinguished by performing 2-3 sets of exercises 15-20 times each (at 85-95% HRmax), separated by 10-30 s to 1 min periods. CG participants trained with an intensity of 60-70% HRmax. Differences in the effectiveness of HIFT and RT were determined by changes from the baseline to the final level in health-related indicators and physical fitness, evaluated by the ALFA-fitness program. Results. All scores in the EG and CG, except for the “one-leg stand” (p = 0.056) in CG, improved (p < 0.01 pre-vs post-training increases for each group). Post-training, waist circumference (69.28 ± 5.00 vs 74.19 ± 6.30 cm, p = 0.014), BMI (22.09 ± 1.54 vs 23.27 ± 1.51 kg/m², p = 0.027), “figure-of-eight run” (7.96 ± 0.61 vs 9.03 ± 1.24 s, p = 0.002), “jump-and-reach” (32.33 ± 4.79 vs 26.00 ± 5.25 cm, p = 0.001), “2-km walk test” (15.38 ± 0.93 vs 16.86 ± 1.16 m, s, p = 0.0001) were better in EG than in CG, respectively. Conclusions. RT and HIFT are effective in terms of health and fitness. Compared to RT, HIFT training is more effective in reducing waist circumference, BMI, increasing agility and lower muscle strength, and improving cardiorespiratory fitness. © 2020, University School of Physical Education. All rights reserved.
... ~ 60 s bouts of vigorous exercise and total week volume of 60-75 minutes ~50-60% lower time commitment) protocols performed with body weight and no equipment (i.e. stair climbing and squats), termed as functional HIIT (F-HIIT), have recently been studied (23)(24)(25)(26). For instance, F-HIIT studies have been demonstrated improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and strength gains similarly to CT in young adults (23,25) and improvements in body composition and physical function similarly to CT in PW (24,26,27). ...
... stair climbing and squats), termed as functional HIIT (F-HIIT), have recently been studied (23)(24)(25)(26). For instance, F-HIIT studies have been demonstrated improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and strength gains similarly to CT in young adults (23,25) and improvements in body composition and physical function similarly to CT in PW (24,26,27). Hence and based on the previously mentioned studies on HIIT, it would be reasonable to assume that F-HIIT may be a superior due low cost and low time commitment exercise intervention for improvements in BP. ...
Article
INTRODUCTION Low volume functional high-intensity interval training (F-HIIT) improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and physical function similarly to combined training (CT, gold standard protocol), however no previous studies have compared the F-HIIT equivalence with CT in reducing blood pressure in older people, particularly in postmenopausal women (PW). Therefore, the aim of this study (trial registration: NCT03200639) was designed to test whether F-HIIT of low volume is an equivalent strategy to CT for improving blood pressure (BP) in PW. MATERIAL AND METHOD Forty-nine PW were divided into two groups: F-HIIT and CT. The F-HIIT protocol was composed of 10 sets of 60 seconds of high-intensity exercises interspersed with 60 seconds of low-intensity exercises for recovery. The CT protocol was composed of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity walking, followed by five total body resistance exercises. Both protocols were performed 3-times-a-week for 12 weeks. The BP from rest condition (before exercise) was measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in both groups, using an automatic blood pressure monitor. The boundaries values for equivalence for systolic and diastolic BP was set at 5.14 and 2.92 mmHg, respectively. RESULTS There was only a significant reduction (P<0.05) in systolic BP in CT group from baseline (-3.2 (95% CI, -6.2 to -0.2) mmHg). The difference of systolic BP between F-HIIT and CT was 5.8 (95% CI, 1.3-10.4) mmHg, showing non-equivalence (inferiority) for F-HIIT. CONCLUSION Thus, these results suggest that low-volume F-HIIT protocol is not an equivalent strategy when compared to CT for BP improvements in PW.
... Higher load RT [≥ 70% of maximal muscle strength (1RM)], performing repetitions until, or close to, volitional fatigue without interrepetition rest periods (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) repetitions) and multiple sets (i.e., three sets) have been widely recommended as a RT program design to maximize muscle strength gains in older adults [13,15]. However, the configuration of a set in higher load RT (i.e., no interrepetition rest periods) results in an acute decline of movement force and velocity and also of technical proficiency from first to last repetition (i.e., the length of set) [16][17][18], probably due to increased metabolic demand and neuromuscular fatigue [17][18][19]. Moreover, the decline in these parameters is increased in subsequent sets [17,18]. ...
... Whereas the TS group significantly reduced the PV by 8.0%, the CS increased (not significant) by 3.2%. The traditional RT set design provokes a higher metabolic demand and a decline in capacity performance (velocity, force, and power) across the set [17][18][19]24] when compared to CS [24,46], which may result in different adaptations, such as reduced gains in velocity, strength and power [20][21][22]. Recently, it has been shown that this intraset fatigue may reduce myosin heavy chain IIX [20][21][22]. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the higher-load resistance training with a cluster training sets (CS) design maximizes muscle power and strength gains when compared to higher-load resistance training with a traditional sets (TS) design in postmenopausal women (PW). Methods: Each leg of 16 PW was randomly allocated into two groups: TS (n = 16 legs) and CS (n = 16 legs). Both groups performed three sets of four repetitions at 90% one repetition maximum (1RM), 3s per muscle action, with a 1.5-min rest interval between sets, twice-weekly, for 8 weeks. Only CS group performed 30s interrepetition rest periods. Results: Both groups similarly increased (P < 0.05) thigh muscle mass, muscle strength (1RM) and maximal muscle power. However, whereas the CS increased (P < 0.05) peak power at 40% and theoretical maximal velocity (V0), the TS increase theoretical maximal force (F0). The TS reduced slope of the force-velocity relationship when compared to the CS. Conclusions: Although both CS and TS design are similarly effective at improving muscle mass and strength and Pmax, TS and CS induce different changes in the force-velocity profile (Sfv) in PW. Thus, our findings suggest that TS may be a preferential RT design if the focus of training is a force-velocity profile more “forceoriented”, whereas CS may be a preferential RT design if the focus of training is a force-velocity profile more “velocity-oriented”.
... There is evidence of the benefits of Zumba Fitness in increasing aerobic fitness in young women [26]. Found data on the possibility of practicing highintensity workouts and mixed aerobic-strength training of moderate-intensity to reduce body weight [27]. The step aerobics in the practice of physical education of female students was also considered as effective [28]. ...
... Studies revealed a significant (about 2 kg) increase in the body mass values of female students practicing fitness aerobics and athletic fitness. The obtained results do not coincide with the data of scientists recommending mixed aerobic-power [27] and step-training [28] for the correction of the body weight of students. Experts emphasize the high efficiency of Kangoo Jumps fitness in the practice of weight control and prevention of obesity in young people. ...
Article
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Purpose : Experts record the deterioration of the physical and cardiorespiratory fitness of students. Scientists recommend using fitness training in the practice of teaching students to increase cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of the research is to increase the level of cardiorespiratory fitness of female students by practicing Kangoo Jumps fitness in the practice of physical education. Material : participants are female students (n = 53, age - 19-20 years old). The study period was 10 months. Some females (n = 17) used Kangoo Jumps fitness in the practice of physical education. Indicators of physical and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated by the following methods: step test, Functional fitness assessment tests. Statistical data analysis was performed applying the Mann - Whitney U - test. Results : The test results (step test) revealed a significant (P <0.05) advantage of females practicing Kangoo Jumps fitness. The results are approximately the same for all females in most of the functional fitness assessment tests. The lowest weight gain (about 0.8 kg) is shown by females who used Kangoo Jumps fitness. Body mass indexes (from 1.8 to 2 kg.) were increased by students who used other types of fitness. Conclusions : It was revealed the possibility of increasing the cardiorespiratory fitness level of female students practicing Kangoo Jumps fitness in the practice of physical education. It was found the ability to control the increase in body weight of females.
... Both groups increased (P < 0.05) muscle strength, whereas greater muscle strength was gained in the HIIT group. The possible explanation is the training content of the HIIT group includes resistance training [32], which can effectively improve muscle strength. This result has been supported in a previous study. ...
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Background: HIIT has recently been widely used for health promotion in healthy people and patients with chronic diseases. Exercise can help SUD reduce drug cravings, enhance mental health and return to normal life. However, whether HIIT can bring better physical rehabilitation benefits to individuals with SUD than MICT is unclear. The study aimed to compare the effects of HIIT versus MICT on the physical fitness of individuals with SUD. Methods: One hundred twenty individuals with amphetamine-type stimulant dependence voluntarily participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to the HIIT group and MICT group. Both groups received training three times a week. The intervention lasted from January 2019 to December 2019. Physical fitness was assessed at the baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months, including blood pressure (BP), vital capacity(VC), hand grip, push-up, sit-and-reach, one-leg standing with eyes closed and choice reaction time. The craving level was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale at baseline, 6 months and 12 months to see any change along with the improvement in physical fitness. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to analyse the differences in change by group (HIIT and MICT) and time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months). Results: The within-group factor displayed significant changes in the HIIT and MICT groups in terms of systolic BP (F (4,336) = 12.799, P < 0.001,η2 = 0.204), diastolic BP (F(4,336) = 9.495, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.16), VC (F(4,336) = 18.121, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.177), hand grip (F(4,336) = 34.815, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.293), sit-and-reach (F(4,336) = 13.871, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.142), push-up (F(4,336) = 28.805, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.255), one-leg standing with eyes closed (F(4,336) = 14.495, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.156) and choice reaction time (F(4,336) = 20.603, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.197). The craving level decreased after 12 months of intervention in both groups (F(2,168) = 11.25, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.118), but no significant differences in physical fitness and craving level were found in between groups and the interactions of group × time. Conclusions: After 12 months of intervention, physical fitness improved while craving level decreased in the two groups. These findings suggest that both HIIT and MICT have positive effects on individuals with SUD in terms of physical fitness. Trial registration: ChiCTR1900022158 Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: Registered 27th March, 2019.
... This study was developed with 142 women (35 young and 107 postmenopausal), aged between 19 and 81 years. The analyses were performed using the baseline data of exercise/dietary interventions previously published by our research group [16][17][18][19][20]. Only women who did not perform resistance exercise in the last 6 months were included in the study. ...
Article
To verify whether the intake of at least one meal containing 20 g of protein is associated with higher odds to present adequate appendicular muscle mass index (AMMI) in women. A cross-sectional study was performed with 142 women (35 young and 107 postmenopausal), aged between 19 and 81 years. Dietary intake was evaluated by three 24-h food recalls following the 5-step multiple pass method. Lean mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and AMMI was calculated by the appendicular lean mass (kg) divided by height (m) squared. For AMMI, values ≥ 5.5 kg/m2 were considered as adequate. Women who ingested at least one meal with 20 g of protein showed higher odds to present adequate AMMI in crude model [OR = 3.39 (1.14–10.09)] and after adjustments for total protein intake, age, energy intake, and physical activity [OR = 6.22 (1.21–31.96)]. The intake of at least one meal containing 20 g of protein is associated with higher odds to present adequate AMMI in women.
... A combination of strength and aerobic training is a more appropriate method for improving women's muscle strength and aerobic fitness [26]. Carneiro et al. [27], note that intensive interval training helps to improve body composition and increase muscle mass of young women. Combined workouts (combinations of aerobic and strength exercises with weights up to 70% of the maximum for single repetition) have a positive effect on increasing the strength of the muscles of the body of young women. ...
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Background. Experts note the low level of physical fitness of female students. Fitness programs that balance the development of cardiorespiratory and strength fitness level are necessary in the physical education practice of students. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of two exercise programs in terms of strength endurance and cardiorespiratory of female students in physical education. Material and Methods. Female students (n=36) practicing fitness–aerobics (G–1) and resistance training (G–2) participated in the research. All students participated in 52 training sessions. The students (G–1) practiced step aerobics with strength training combination. The students (G–2) practiced resistance training with Kangoo–Jumps fitness combination. The level of cardiorespiratory and strength fitness was studied using tests: VC, Stange test, Step test (PWC170), Running test, Push–Up test and others. Results. Students (G–1) had a reliable advantage in test results: VC, Stange test, Step test (PWC170), Running test, at the research beginning. Students (G–2) showed significantly better results in tests: Burpee test, Push–Up test and Stange test at the end of research. Reliable differences in tests: Plank test and Heart Rate in favor of female students (G–2) were revealed. The results of other functional tests did not differ significantly. Conclusions. The possible effectiveness of aerobic fitness training Kangoo–Jumps in resistance training of female students was discovered. A significant increase in the indicators of strength endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness of young women was revealed.
... This demonstrated both groups increased (P < 0.05) muscle strength; whereas, greater muscle strength gains in HIIT group. The possible explanation is the training content of HIIT group includes resistance training (37), which can effectively improve the muscle strength. This result has been supported in the previous study. ...
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Background: High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has recently been widely used for health promotion in healthy people and patients with chronic diseases. It is not clear whether HIIT can bring better physical rehabilitation benefits to individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) than that of Moderate-intensity continuous Training (MICT). The study aimed to compare the effects of HIIT versus MICT on the physical fitness of individuals with SUD. Methods: A total 120 individuals with amphetamine-type stimulant dependent from a compulsory drug rehabilitation center voluntarily took part in this study. They were randomly assigned to the HIIT group (experimental group) and MICT group (control group). The subjects in experimental group received HIIT training three times a week (80%-85%HRMax, 60min). The exercise included rope jumping, running, weight training and basketball game. The subjects from control group received MICT 3 times a week (60%HRMax, 60min), including Tai Chi, mind-body exercise and recreation activity. Physical fitness assessment were performed at the baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months exercise intervention including blood pressure (BP), vital capacity (VC), hand grip, push-up, sit-and-reach, one-leg-stand with eyes closed and choice reaction time. The craving level was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS)at the baseline, 6 months and 12 months. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to test whether the intervention were different after 12 months. Results: The within-group factor displayed significant changes in HIIT and MICT groups in terms of the systolic BP (F (4,336) =12.799), diastolic BP (F(4,336) =9.495), VC (F(4,336)=18.121), hand grip (F(4,336)=34.815), sit-and-reach (F(4,336) =13.871), choice reaction time (F(4,336) =20.603), one-leg-stand with eyes closed (F(4,336) =14.495) and push-up (F(4,336) =28.805). The craving level decreased after 12 months intervention in both groups (F(2,168) =11.25, P<0.001), but there was not significant differences between HIIT and MICT group. Conclusion: Both HIIT and MICT can promote the physical fitness rehabilitation for individuals with SUD. Clinical Trials Registry: ChiCTR1900022158 Chinese Clinical Trial Registry
... Recent researches have shown that high levels of muscular fitness are associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk and it has also been favorably correlated with improved bone health, enhanced self-esteem, and decreased adiposity [3]. A recent study found that a 12-week HIIT intervention, using the body weight as load, improved muscle strength in young women [54]. These results concur with those obtained by Amaro-Gahete et al., who found that a 12-week body-weight HIIT intervention improved extension and flexion peak torque and hand grip strength in middle-aged adults [55]. ...
Article
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Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective approach to improve physical fitness, but consuming beer, which is a regular practice in many physically active individuals, may interfere with these effects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of a 10-week (2 days/week) HIIT program on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and power parameters, and also to assess the possible influence on them of a moderate consumption of beer (at least from Monday to Friday) or its alcohol equivalent. Methods: Young (24 ± 6 years old) healthy adults (n = 73, 35 females) were allocated to five groups. Four groups participated in the HIIT intervention program while the fifth group was a control Non-Training group (n = 15). Participants in the training groups chose whether they preferred receiving alcohol or alcohol-free beverages. Those choosing alcohol were randomized to either beer or ethanol intake: (i) T-Beer group (alcohol beer, 5.4%; n = 13) or (ii) T-Ethanol (sparkling water with vodka, 5.4%; n = 14). Those choosing alcohol-free intake were randomized to (iii) T-Water group (sparkling water, 0.0%; n = 16), or (iv) T-0.0Beer group (alcohol-free beer, 0.0%; n = 15). Men ingested 330 ml of the beverage at lunch and 330 ml at dinner; women ingested 330 ml at dinner. Before and after the intervention, maximal oxygen uptake in absolute and relative terms (VO2max.), maximal heart rate, total test duration, hand grip strength and four types of vertical jumps were measured. Results: HIIT induced significant improvements in absolute and relative values of VO2max, and total test duration (all p < 0.05) in all the training groups; also, clinical improvements were found in hand grip strength. These positive effects were not influenced by the regular intake of beer or alcohol. No changes in the vertical jumps occurred in any of the groups. Conclusions: A moderate beer or alcohol intake does not mitigate the positive effect of a 10-week HIIT on physical fitness in young healthy adults. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03660579. Registered 20 September 2018. Retrospectively registered.
... HII training is characterized by brief bouts of intense exercise (i.e., >80% of maximum HR) followed by periods of low-intensity trials or rests. This model has shown to be similar or superior to moderate-intensity continuous training on the reduction of body fat and visceral fat and increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14,66). Resistance training is the primary mode of exercise for enhancing muscular adaptations that include muscle strength and hypertrophy. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-wk resistance training program of the upper and lower limb muscles on body composition, nerve conduction velocity, and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in Burapha University athletes. A randomized pretest-posttest study was conducted in 60 athletes at Burapha University aged 18 to 22 yrs. Subjects were randomized into a control group (CT, n = 20), a high-intensity interval training group (HII, n = 20), and an upper and lower limb resistance training group (ULLR, n = 20). Subjects in the HII and ULLR training groups engaged in exercise training for 30 min·d-1 , 3 d·wk-1 for 8 wks. Before and after the intervention, the following variables were measured in all groups: body composition, nerve conduction velocity, and cardiac autonomic nervous activity. There were significant increases in fat-free mass, protein mass, and water mass in the ULLR training group (P<0.05). In addition, motor conduction amplitude of the median nerve in the ULLR training group was significantly higher than in the CT group (P<0.05). Values of total power and very low frequency power of heart rate variability were significantly higher in the HII training group when compared with the CT group (P<0.05). This study showed that a resistance training program incorporating upper and lower limb muscles improved body composition and motor nerve conduction amplitude. Moreover, HII training improved cardiac autonomic nervous activity.
Article
From the observation of 24 athletes Taekwondo Jayabaya produced as much as 79.1% - 95.8% of athletes have the physical ability, especially the speed and agility under average value. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of exercises body weight strength training and plyometric to increase physical ability. The study used an experimental research method with a quasi-experimental type using a 2x2 factorial design. The sampling technique used purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria. The total number of samples used is 24 athletes who will be divided into 2 exercise groups. The study was conducted on the Jayabaya Taekwondo team for 6 weeks. Data collection techniques used 35 meters speed test and Illinois agility run test. Variable variance analysis using MANOVA test. In the MANOVA test, the value is obtained sig. multivariate test (0.00) and between subjects effects test of exercise on speed and agility (0.00). The results of descriptive statistics on exercises body weight strength training and plyometric on speed time (5.12)>(4.57), and agility time (19.53)> (17.64). The conclusion of this study is that body weight strength training and plyometric exercises significantly affect the physical ability of taekwondo athletes.training was Plyometric more effective in increasing the speed and agility of taekwondo athletes during the 6-week training program.
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to identify the impact of whole-body resistance training (RT) at different load intensities on adipokines, adhesion molecules, and extracellular heat shock proteins in postmenopausal women. As secondary purpose, we analyzed the impact of RT at different load intensities on body fat, muscular strength, and physical performance. Forty participants were randomized into lower-load intensity RT (LIRT, n = 20, 30–35 repetition maximum in the first set of each exercise) or higher-load intensity RT (HIRT, n = 20, 8–12 repetition maximum in the first set of each exercise). Adipokines (adiponectin and leptin), adhesion molecules (MCP-1 and ICAM-1), extracellular heat shock proteins (HO-1 and eHSP60), body fat, muscular strength (1RM), and physical performance [400-meter walking test (400-M) and 6-minute walking test (6MWT)] were analyzed at baseline and after 12-weeks RT. There was a significant time-by-group interaction for eHSP60 (P = 0.049) and 400-M (P = 0.003), indicating superiority of HIRT (d = 0.47 and 0.55). However, both groups similarly improved adiponectin, ICAM-1, HO-1, body fat, 1RM, and 6MWT (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that load intensity does not seem to determine the RT effect on several obesity-related pro-inflammatory and chemotactic compounds, body fat, 1RM, and 6MWT in postmenopausal women, although a greater improvement has been revealed for eHSP60 and 400-M in HIRT. Novelty: Higher-load intensity resistance training improves eHSP60 and 400-M in postmenopausal women. Resistance training improves the inflammatory profile, body fat, muscle strength, and 6MWT, regardless of load intensity.
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Franco, CMdC, Carneiro, MAdS, Alves, LTH, Jú nior, GNdO, de Sousa, JdFR, and Orsatti, FL. Lower-load is more effective than higher-load resistance training in increasing muscle mass in young women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study was designed to investigate the impact of load (higher vs. lower) performed until or close to volitional fatigue on muscle strength (MS) and fat and bone-free lean mass (FBFM) in young women. To do this, 32 women performed resistance training (RT) in 1 of 2 conditions: lower-load RT (LL; n = 14, age = 24.3 6 4.8 years and body mass index [BMI] = 23.3 6 2.8 kg$m 22) and higher-load RT (HL; n = 18, age = 23.0 6 3.3 years and BMI = 22.4 6 3.3 kg$m 22). Leg FBFM (DXA) and MS (1 repetition maximum-unilateral leg extension [LE]) were evaluated before and after 9 weeks (the first week was used for familiarization) of RT. Both groups performed 3 unilateral exercises (LE, leg curl, and leg press), 3 sets per exercise, 60-90 seconds of rest between sets, 2 days per week. In the LL group, the loads used in the exercises were the loads necessary to perform 30-35 repetitions in the first set. For the HL group, the loads used were the loads necessary to perform 8-10 repetitions in the first set. The LL group showed higher RT volume than the HL. Both groups showed leg muscle mass gains (p , 0.05). However, the LL group was better [p = 0.032 and effect size (eta 2 = 0.14 [large]) than the HL group in leg FBFM gains (LL = 0.3 kg [IC 95%: 0.4 kg; 0.2 kg] and HL = 0.1 kg [IC 95%: 0.2 kg; 0.0 kg]). Both groups showed MS gains, without any difference between them (LL = 3.4 kg [IC 95%: 4.4 kg; 2.5 kg] and HL = 4.2 kg [IC 95%: 5.1 kg; 3.3 kg]; p = 0.239). Thus, lower-load RT is more effective than higher-load RT in increasing FBFM, but not MS in novice young women.
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Muscle strength is often measured through the performance of a one-repetition maximum (1RM). However, we that feel a true measurement of ‘strength’ remains elusive. For example, low-load alternatives to traditional resistance training result in muscle hypertrophic changes similar to those resulting from traditional high-load resistance training, with less robust changes observed with maximal strength measured by the 1RM. However, when strength is measured using a test to which both groups are ‘naive’, differences in strength become less apparent. We suggest that the 1RM is a specific skill, which will improve most when training incorporates its practice or when a lift is completed at a near-maximal load. Thus, if we only recognize increases in the 1RM as indicative of strength, we will overlook many effective and diverse alternatives to traditional high-load resistance training. We wish to suggest that multiple measurements of strength assessment be utilized in order to capture a more complete picture of the adaptation to resistance training.
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Key points: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes from resistance training (RT), but how it is modulated throughout training is still unknown. We show that changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) after an initial resistance exercise (RE) bout in the first week of RT (T1) were greater than those seen post-RE at the third (T2) and tenth week (T3) of RT, with values being similar at T2 and T3. Muscle damage (Z-band streaming) was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, lower at T2 and minimal at T3. When muscle damage was the highest, so was the integrated MyoPS (at T1), but neither were related to hypertrophy; however, integrated MyoPS at T2 and T3 were correlated with hypertrophy. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the result of accumulated intermittent increases in MyoPS mainly after a progressive attenuation of muscle damage. Abstract: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes of resistance training (RT), but how hypertrophy is modulated and the mechanisms regulating it are still unknown. To investigate how muscle hypertrophy is modulated through RT, we measured day-to-day integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) using deuterium oxide and assessed muscle damage at the beginning (T1), at 3 weeks (T2) and at 10 weeks of RT (T3). Ten young men (27 (1) years, mean (SEM)) had muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) taken to measure integrated MyoPS and muscle damage (Z-band streaming and indirect parameters) before, and 24 h and 48 h post resistance exercise (post-RE) at T1, T2 and T3. Fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA) was evaluated using biopsies at T1, T2 and T3. Increases in fCSA were observed only at T3 (P = 0.017). Changes in MyoPS post-RE at T1, T2 and T3 were greater at T1 (P < 0.03) than at T2 and T3 (similar values between T2 and T3). Muscle damage was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, attenuated at T2 and further attenuated at T3. The change in MyoPS post-RE at both T2 and T3, but not at T1, was strongly correlated (r ≈ 0.9, P < 0.04) with muscle hypertrophy. Initial MyoPS response post-RE in an RT programme is not directed to support muscle hypertrophy, coinciding with the greatest muscle damage. However, integrated MyoPS is quickly 'refined' by 3 weeks of RT, and is related to muscle hypertrophy. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the result of accumulated intermittent changes in MyoPS post-RE in RT, which coincides with progressive attenuation of muscle damage.
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Williams, BM and Kraemer, RR. Comparison of cardiorespi-ratory and metabolic responses in kettlebell high-intensity interval training versus sprint interval cycling. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3317–3325, 2015—The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V _ O 2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (V E), caloric expenditure rate (kcal$min 21), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group 3 time interaction were found for V _ O 2 , RER, and TV, with V _ O 2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group 3 time interaction were found for f, V E , kcal$min 21 , and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.
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The aim of this study was to develop a rapid indirect method to determine an individual's maximal strength or 1RM (one repetition maximum) in untrained subjects during half squat exercise. 105 physically active young subjects (87 men, 18 women) performed a submaximal and a maximal load test during half squat exercises on a Smith machine. In the submaximal test, subjects completed three repetitions with a load equivalent to body weight. The velocity and power of barbell displacement were recorded during the upward movement from 90° of knee flexion. All repetitions were performed at maximum velocity. In a subsequent 1-2 RM test, the 1RM for the exercise was calculated. The variables load and mean velocity (Vmean) were used to construct an adjusted 1RM prediction model, which was capable of estimating the 1RM with an accuracy of 58% (Fexp=72.82; 2; 102 df; p<0.001). Our results indicate a good correlation between the mean displacement velocity of a load equivalent to body weight and 1RM. This relationship enables a safe and fast estimation of 1RM values in half squat exercise [1RM= -61.93 + (121.92·Vmean) + (1.74·load)] and provides valuable information to untrained subjects who are starting resistance-training programs.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9), or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was carried out 3 times per week on non-consecutive days, for 8 total weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared to LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively) and there was a trend for greater increases in 1RM bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared to HL (16.6% vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.
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Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is stimulated by resistance exercise (RE) and is further stimulated by protein ingestion. The summation of periods of RE-induced increases in MPS can induce hypertrophy chronically. As such, studying the response of MPS with resistance training (RT) is informative, as adaptations in this process can modulate muscle mass gain. Previous studies have shown that the amplitude and duration of increases in MPS after an acute bout of RE are modulated by an individual's training status. Nevertheless, it has been shown that the initial responses of MPS to RE and nutrition are not correlated with subsequent hypertrophy. Thus, early acute responses of MPS in the hours after RE, in an untrained state, do not capture how MPS can affect RE-induced muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this review is provide an in-depth understanding of the dynamic process of muscle hypertrophy throughout RT by examining all of the available data on MPS after RE and in different phases of an RT programme. Analysis of the time course and the overall response of MPS is critical to determine the potential protein accretion after an RE bout. Exercise-induced increases in MPS are shorter lived and peak earlier in the trained state than in the untrained state, resulting in a smaller overall muscle protein synthetic response in the trained state. Thus, RT induces a dampening of the MPS response, potentially limiting protein accretion, but when this occurs remains unknown.
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Purpose: This study investigates the impact of two different intensities and different volumes of low-load resistance training (LLRT) with and without blood flow restriction on the adaptation of muscle strength and size. Methods: The sample was divided into five groups: one set of 20 % of one repetition maximum (1RM), three sets of 20 % of 1RM, one set of 50 % of 1RM, three sets of 50 % of 1RM, or control. LLRT was performed with (OC) or without (NOC) vascular occlusion, which was selected randomly for each subject. The maximal muscle strength (leg extension; 1RM) and the cross-sectional area (quadriceps; CSA) were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of LLRT. Results: 1RM performance was increased in both groups after 8 weeks of training: OC (1 × 50 % = 20.6 %; 3 × 50 % = 20.9 %; 1 × 20 % = 26.6 %; 3 × 20 % = 21.6 %) and NOC (1 × 50 % = 18.6 %; 3 × 50 % = 26.8 %; 1 × 20 % = 18.5 %; 3 × 20 % = 21.6 %; 3 × 20 % = 24.7 %) compared with the control group (−1.7 %). Additionally, the CSA was increased in both groups: OC (1 × 50 % = 2.4 %; 3 × 50 % = 3.8 %; 1 × 20 % = 4.6 %; 3 × 20 % = 4.8 %) and NOC (1 × 50 % = 2.4 %; 3 × 50 % = 1.5 %; 1 × 20 % = 4.3 %; 3 × 20 % = 3.8 %) compared with the control group (−0.7 %). There were no significant differences between the OC and NOC groups. Conclusion: We conclude that 8 weeks of LLRT until failure in novice young lifters, regardless of occlusion, load or volume, produces similar magnitudes of muscular hypertrophy and strength.
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Resistance exercise (RE) and aerobic exercise are recommended for older adults for fitness and strength. High-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) is an understudied but potent potential alternative to aerobic exercise. This study aimed to determine how each mode of exercise affected the integrated day-to-day response of muscle protein synthesis. Sedentary men (n = 22; 67±4 years; body mass index: 27.0±2.6 kg m(-) (2) [mean ± SEM]) were randomly assigned to perform RE, aerobic exercise, or HIIT. Participants consumed a stable isotope tracer (D2O) for 9 days. Daily saliva samples were taken to measure tracer incorporation in body water. Muscle biopsies were obtained on Days 5-8 of D2O consumption to measure tracer incorporation into muscle at rest, 24 hours, and 48 hours following each exercise bout: RE (3 × 10 repetitions: leg extensor and press, 95% 10RM), HIIT (10 × 1 minute, 95% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or aerobic exercise (30 minutes, 55%-60% HRmax). Myofibrillar protein fractional synthetic rate was elevated, relative to rest, at 24 and 48 hours following RE and HIIT. The increase in myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate was greater following RE versus HIIT at both time points. HIIT was the only mode of exercise to increase sarcoplasmic protein fractional synthetic rate 24-hour postexercise (2.30±0.34% d(-) (1) vs 1.83±0.21% d(-) (1)). This study shows that in older men, changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to certain exercises are long lasting and that HIIT significantly increases myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractional synthetic rate in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training.
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Purpose The goal of this study was to describe the salient perceived barriers to exercise in three different groups and to examine the perceived barriers characterizing individuals with a high or a low intention to exercise in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Design Cross-sectional studies relating perceived barriers and intention to exercise were utilized. Subjects Three independent samples were used: general population (n=349), individuals who have suffered from coronary heart disease (n=162), and pregnant women (n=139). Measures Firstly, standard elicitation procedures were applied to identify the particular perceived barriers characterizing each population. Then, three self-administered questionnaires, one per sample, were used to measure perceived barriers and intention to exercise. Results MANOVA analyses contrasting high and low intenders indicated a significant difference in perceived barriers to exercise in two of the three samples: general population (F 5,343 =6.37, p<.001) and individuals suffering from coronary heart disease (F 9,152 =2.28, p<.05). Conclusion The results indicate not only that each population has specific salient perceived barriers to exercise, but also that within each group high and low intenders differ on a number of these perceived barriers. Therefore, it is recommended that the study of perceived barriers to exercise in any population should be based upon a standardized method of measuring these barriers such as the method adopted in the present study.
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The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.
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We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM) and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional failure (90FAIL), 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM), or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL). Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX), myofibrillar (MYO), and sarcoplasmic (SARC) protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121%) and MYO (87%) protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199%) above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023) and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025). Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05) only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237%) and 30FAIL (312%) conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02) regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.
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The aim of this systematic review was to identify the reported barriers to regular exercise among adults either at high risk or already diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D), because of the importance of exercise in the prevention of T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Cinahl and PsycINFO databases. All potentially relevant articles were reviewed by two researchers, and 67 titles were found, of which 13 papers met inclusion criteria. Internal and external barriers to exercise were identified among adults either at high risk of T2D or already diagnosed. Internal barriers were factors which were influenced by the individual's own decision-making, and external barriers included factors which were outside of the individual's own control. It is important for counselling to identify the internal and external barriers to regular exercise. In this way, the content of counselling can be developed, and solutions to the barriers can be discussed and identified. Further research on the barriers to regular exercise is needed.
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To review and update the evidence relating to the personal, social, and environmental factors associated with physical activity (PA) in adults. Systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify papers published between 1998 and 2000 with PA (and including exercise and exercise adherence). Qualitative reports or case studies were not included. Thirty-eight new studies were located. Most confirmed the existence of factors already known to be correlates of PA. Changes in status were noted in relation to the influence of marital status, obesity, smoking, lack of time, past exercise behavior, and eight environmental variables. New studies were located which focused on previously understudied population groups such as minorities, middle and older aged adults, and the disabled. The newly reported studies tend to take a broader "ecological" approach to understanding the correlates of PA and are more focused on environmental factors. There remains a need to better understand environmental influences and the factors that influence different types of PA. As most of the work in this field still relies on cross-sectional studies, longitudinal and intervention studies will be required if causal relationships are to be inferred.
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To determine the effects of a 15-week high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program on subcutaneous and trunk fat and insulin resistance of young women. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: HIIE (n=15), steady-state exercise (SSE; n=15) or control (CONT; n=15). HIIE and SSE groups underwent a 15-week exercise intervention. Forty-five women with a mean BMI of 23.2+/-2.0 kg m(-2) and age of 20.2+/-2.0 years. Both exercise groups demonstrated a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cardiovascular fitness. However, only the HIIE group had a significant reduction in total body mass (TBM), fat mass (FM), trunk fat and fasting plasma insulin levels. There was significant fat loss (P<0.05) in legs compared to arms in the HIIE group only. Lean compared to overweight women lost less fat after HIIE. Decreases in leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with increases in VO(2peak) (r=-0.57, P<0.05) and positively correlated with decreases in TBM (r=0.47; P<0.0001). There was no significant change in adiponectin levels after training. HIIE three times per week for 15 weeks compared to the same frequency of SSE exercise was associated with significant reductions in total body fat, subcutaneous leg and trunk fat, and insulin resistance in young women.
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Purpose: Sprint interval training (SIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); however, most protocols have been studied in laboratory settings and require specialized equipment. We investigated the efficacy of brief intense stair climbing as a practical model of SIT to improve CRF. Methods: Two separate studies, each consisting of an acute and chronic phase, were conducted in a total of 31 sedentary women (age=24±10 y; BMI=23±4 kg•m). Results: The acute phase of Study 1 established that the mean heart rate (HR), blood [lactate], and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were similar when participants (n=8) performed a SIT protocol that involved 3x20-s "all-out" efforts of either continuously ascending stairs or cycling. The chronic phase demonstrated that CRF, as determined by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), increased by 12%, or ~1 metabolic equivalent (8.27±1.05 to 9.25±1.01 METs; p=0.002) when participants (n=12) performed the 3x20-s stair climbing protocol 3 d•wk for 6 wk. The acute phase of Study 2 established that HR and RPE were similar when participants (n=11) performed three different stair climbing protocols: the 3x20-s continuous ascent model used in Study 1, and two 3x60-s models of ascending and descending either one or two flights of stairs (p>0.05). The chronic phase demonstrated that VO2peak increased by 7% (8.91±1.30 to 9.51±1.52 METs; p=0.01) when the same group of participants performed the one-flight 3x60-s protocol 3 d•wk for 6 wk. The Cederholm index determined from an oral glucose tolerance test was 57±17 and 64±21 mg•l•mmol•mU•min before and after training, respectively (p=0.056). Conclusion: Brief, intense stair climbing is a practical, time-efficient strategy to improve CRF in previously untrained women.
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Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny. Given divergent exercise induces similar signalling and gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of untrained or recreationally active individuals, what is currently unclear is how the specificity of the molecular response is modified by prior training history. The time-course of adaptation and when ‘phenotype specificity’ takes place has important implications for exercise prescription. This context is essential when attempting to concomitantly develop resistance to fatigue (through endurance-based exercise) and increased muscle mass (through resistance-based exercise), typically termed ‘concurrent training.’ Chronic training studies provide robust evidence that endurance exercise can attenuate muscle hypertrophy and strength but the mechanistic underpinning of this ‘interference’ effect with concurrent training is unknown. Moreover, despite the potential for several key regulators of muscle metabolism to explain an incompatibility in adaptation between endurance and resistance exercise, it now seems likely that multiple integrated, rather than isolated, effectors or processes generate the interference effect. Here we review studies of the molecular responses in skeletal muscle and evidence for the interference effect with concurrent training within the context of the specificity of training adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2- and 4-weeks of resistance training at 80% versus 30% 1RM in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean+/-SD; age=21.7+/-2.4 yrs; weight=84.7+/-23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high- (n=7) or low-load (n=8) resistance training group, and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI), maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10%-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2-, and 4-weeks of training. MT increased from baseline (2.9+/-0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0+/-0.1 cm), to week 4 (3.1+/-0.1 cm) for the 80% and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5+/-19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6+/-22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7+/-1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2+/-1.9 and 20.5+/-1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. MMG AMP at 80% and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20% and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80% versus 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations, since they were subtle and similar for the 80% and 30% 1RM groups. Copyright (C) 2015 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare peak cardiorespiratory, metabolic and perceptual responses to acute bouts of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIC) and a High-intensity Intermittent Calisthenics (HIC) protocol consisting of modified "burpees". Eleven (8 men and 3 women) moderately-trained, college-aged participants (age = 21.9 ± 2.1, BMI = 24.8 ± 1.9, VO2peak = 54.1 ± 5.4 mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed four testing sessions across nine days with each session separated by 48-72 hours. Using a protocol of four repeated bouts of 30-s "all out" efforts interspersed with 4-min active recovery periods, responses to SIC and HIC were classified relative to peak values. Mean values for %VO2peak and %HRpeak for SIC (80.4 ± 5.3% and 86.8 ± 3.9%) and HIC (77.6 ± 6.9% and 84.6 ± 5.3%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Effect sizes (95% confidence interval) calculated for mean differences were: %VO2peak Cohen's d = 0.51 (0.48, 0.53; %HRpeak Cohen's d = 0.57 (0.55, 0.59). A low-volume, high-intensity bout of repeated whole-body calisthenic exercise induced cardiovascular responses that were not significantly different but were ∼1/2 standard deviation lower than "all-out" SIC. These results suggest that in addition to the benefit of reduced time commitment, a high-intensity interval protocol of calisthenics elicits vigorous cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses and may confer physiological adaptations and performance improvements similar to those reported for SIC. The potential efficacy of this alternative interval training method provides support for its application by athletes, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals.
Article
Exercise training is a clinically proven, cost-effective, primary intervention that delays and in many cases prevents the health burdens associated with many chronic diseases. However, the precise type and dose of exercise needed to accrue health benefits is a contentious issue with no clear consensus recommendations for the prevention of inactivity-related disorders and chronic diseases. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that high-intensity interval training (HIT) can serve as an effective alternate to traditional endurance-based training, inducing similar or even superior physiological adaptations in healthy individuals and diseased populations, at least when compared on a matched-work basis. While less well studied, low-volume HIT can also stimulate physiological remodelling comparable to moderate-intensity continuous training despite a substantially lower time commitment and reduced total exercise volume. Such findings are important given that 'lack of time' remains the most commonly cited barrier to regular exercise participation. Here we review some of the mechanisms responsible for improved skeletal muscle metabolic control and changes in cardiovascular function in response to low-volume HIT. We also consider the limited evidence regarding the potential application of HIT to people with, or at risk for, cardiometabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. Finally, we provide insight on the utility of low-volume HIT for improving performance in athletes and highlight suggestions for future research.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in trunk adiposity (TA) over 9 months of resistance training (RT) and associate these changes with the hypertrophy of muscle mass (MM) in postmenopausal women (PW). The investigation used a sample that consisted of 22 PW (44-69 years old). The group was subjected to RT (60-80% of 1 repetition maximum) for the total body 3 d · wk(-1). Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), follicle-stimulating hormone, E2 (Immulite system), and interleukin-6 (IL-6; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed at the beginning and end of the experiment. After RT, only women who acquired up to 5% TA gained MM, whereas women who acquired >5% TA exhibited increased IL-6 and no MM gain (p < 0.05). The ΔMM was negatively associated with time of menopause (r = -0.45, p < 0.05) and positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.05). Only ΔLE (leg extension) was negatively associated with baseline IL-6 (p < 0.05). Trunk adiposity growth (ΔTF, kilograms) was positively correlated with changes in IL-6 (r = 0.68, p < 0.05). The MM gain was negatively correlated with ΔTF (r = -0.63, p < 0.05) and changes in IL-6 (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting all of the confounding variables, only baseline IGF-1 (positively) and changes in IL-6 (negatively) influenced MM, and only the increase in TA influenced IL-6. Our study suggests that increased levels of TA during RT increase IL-6 concentrations, which is a significant negative predictor of MM gain in PW.
Article
To date, no study has objectively measured physical activity levels among U.S. adults according to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA). The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among U.S. adults according to the PAGA. Using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, the PAGA were assessed using three physical activity calculations: moderate plus vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (MVPA); moderate plus two instances of vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (M2VPA); and time spent above 3 METs ≥500 MET-minutes/week (METPA). Self-reported physical activity included leisure, transportation, and household activities. Objective activity was measured using Actigraph accelerometers that were worn for 7 consecutive days. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. U.S. adults reported 324.5 ± 18.6 minutes/week (M ± SE) of moderate physical activity and 73.6 ± 3.9 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity, although accelerometry estimates were 45.1 ± 4.6 minutes/week of moderate physical activity and 18.6 ± 6.6 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The proportion of adults meeting the PAGA according to M2VPA was 62.0% for self-report and 9.6% for accelerometry. According to the NHANES 2005-2006, fewer than 10% of U.S. adults met the PAGA according to accelerometry. However, physical activity estimates vary substantially depending on whether self-reported or measured via accelerometer.
Article
There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
Article
To describe physical activity levels of children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-19 yr), and adults (20+ yr), using objective data obtained with accelerometers from a representative sample of the U.S. population. These results were obtained from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the United States. Data are described from 6329 participants who provided at least 1 d of accelerometer data and from 4867 participants who provided four or more days of accelerometer data. Males are more physically active than females. Physical activity declines dramatically across age groups between childhood and adolescence and continues to decline with age. For example, 42% of children ages 6-11 yr obtain the recommended 60 min x d(-1) of physical activity, whereas only 8% of adolescents achieve this goal. Among adults, adherence to the recommendation to obtain 30 min x d(-1) of physical activity is less than 5%. Objective and subjective measures of physical activity give qualitatively similar results regarding gender and age patterns of activity. However, adherence to physical activity recommendations according to accelerometer-measured activity is substantially lower than according to self-report. Great care must be taken when interpreting self-reported physical activity in clinical practice, public health program design and evaluation, and epidemiological research.
Multidimensional physical activity: an opportunity not a problem. Exercise and sport sciences reviews
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Please cite this article in press as: Carneiro MAS, et al. High-intensity interval body weight training promotes different adaptations to combined training in body composition and muscle strength in young women. Sci sports (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2017
American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults
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