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Abstract

Chlorella and Spirulina are the two of the most well-known microalgae genus. Both microalgae genus have a significant content of proteins, vitamins, pigments, fatty acids, sterols, among others, which make their production/application by the food industry quite interesting. Chlorella genus is a eukaryotic microorganism, whereas Spirulina genus (cyanobacteria) is a prokaryotic microorganism. The aim of this review was to provide an overview on Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae, particularly as an alternative source of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements, in which the following compound groups were addressed: (I) Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; (II) Phenolic Compounds; (III) Volatile Compounds; (IV) Sterols; (V) Proteins, Amino Acids, Peptides; (VI) Vitamins; (VII) Polysaccharides; (VIII) Pigments and (IX) Food. Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae and their derivatives are concluded not to be widely commercially exploited. However, they are remarkable sources of functional foods, nutraceuticals and food supplements.
MOJ Food Processing & Technology
Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of
Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Food Supplements;
an Overview
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Abbreviations: LCPUFAs: Long-Chain Polyunsaturated
        
      
Acid; DHA: Docosahexaenoic Acid; AL: Linoleic Acid; AAL:
Alpha-Linolenic Acids; vitamin A: Beta-Carotene; vitamin K:
      
       
         
     
   
      
   

       


Introduction
Chlorella and Spirulina      
microalgae genus. Chlorella is unicellular and Spirulina is a
 
       
       
other compounds that make those microalgae very interesting

  Chlorella     chloros and
   ella      
Chlorella microalgae have been present on earth since the pre-
        
world leader in Chlorella    
name Spirulina       
shaped Arthospira  Spirulina
microalgae are commonly called blue-green algae-cyanobacteria;
Arthospira Platensis and Arthospira Maxima are cultivated
worldwide.

 Chlorella and Spirulina 
     
      

      

 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids produced by
         
     

       

       

as dietary supplements. Phenolic compounds produced by
 p-coumaric acid

   
       

Chemical Engineering Department of Polytechnic School,
University of São Paulo, Brazil
*Corresponding author: 




Received:| Published:

Review Article

Abstract
Chlorella and Spirulina      


quite interesting. Chlorella genus is a eukaryotic microorganism, whereas Spirulina
          
to provide an overview on Chlorella and Spirulina    


 
 
Food. Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae and their derivatives are concluded not to be
     

Keywords: Chlorella; Spirulina
Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 2/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
         
        
   

    
       
    
integrity. Phytosterol - structurally similar to cholesterol
           
  

 Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp.
  
  
      

 Chlorella
and Spirulina
        
   

 Polysaccharides produced by microalgae are usually very
      
Spirulina platensis and Chlorella pyrenoidosa 

        


 
  

         
 Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae impact positively on

      
Chlorella
and Spirulina      

Discussion
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
 

       
        
        


   de novo    
 



       
      


     

        
        
         




       
          

 
        


        
        

       
       

        
          
     
        
       
similar molecules.

        
       
       
   
         
         
           
      

other aspects related to our mind.
            

    
            

         

    
       
       
         
Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 3/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
  
  
        
           
          
in the cis      
  
         
        
         

         
    

       
         
  Chlorella homosphaera, Chlorella sp. and Chlorella
minutissima  

Chlorella
homosphaera,  Chlorella    Chlorella minutissima
  
          
      
       
         

          


Chlorella      
       
 
      Chlorella
and Spirulina
 Chlorella and Spirulina are very interesting


Phenolic Compounds
       



   


     
        

        
secondary metabolites that are not directly involved in biological

         


Figure 1:

Table 1: Chlorella and Spirulina
Microalgae
Genus Main Producers Products Production
(Ton/Year)
Chlorella
Chlorella
 

 Powders
Spirulina
 

 
 
extracts
Myanmar Spirulina Factory 
extract
Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 4/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.

       
       Chlorella
         
        
acid and p        

   
Spirulina maxima 

p       
        

        
    
Spirulina platensis  
      
and p        

      
         
       

    
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
p

     Chlorella and
Spirulina       
Chlorella 
used by the pharmaceutical industry - gastrointestinal disorders

Spirulina microalgae have more
  p     
       
commonly used as
 Chlorella and Spirulina     
      
others interesting nutritional and health properties.
Table 2:      Chlorella and Spirulina

Phenolic Compound Chlorella (ng/g) Spirulina (ng/g)
Phloroglucinol  
p-Coumaric acid  
Ferulic acid  
Apigenin 9.9
Volatile compounds (VOCs)


 


       
        
 
     
      
     

    Chlorella vulgaris 
was   
   
      

    

        

acid.
Table 3:Chlorella vulgaris
Class Compounds Composition (%)
Hydrocarbons
 
 
dodecane 
hexadecene 
heptadecane 
heptadecene 
octadecane 
tetracosane 
heptadecene 
Figure 2:        
      
        


Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 5/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
Acids
odecanoic 
tetradecanoic 
hexadecanoic 
octadecanoic 
octadec-9-enoic 
 
 
Alcohols
hexadecanol 
octadecanol 
nonadecanol 
phytol 

methyl-hexadecanoate 
methyl-octadecanoate 
methyl-octadec-9-enoate 

dienoate 
Aldehydes
hexanal 
nonadecanal 
hexadecanal 
Ketones
decanone 
hexadecanone 
 
 
U* 
       
Spirulina strains
       
        
 
         
Table 4:Spirulina platensis
Class Compounds Composition (%)
Hydrocarbons
 
tetradecane 
pentadecane 
hexadecane 
 
heptadecene 
Alcohols
 
 
 
Ketones

cyclohexanone 
 



ester

*A  
         
 Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae have shown great
        
       

like odor.
Sterols

        
          
      
        

        
 
Chlorella microalgae

Chlorella pringsheimii and Chlorella
fusca 
    Chlorella pringsheimii 
ergosternol and chondrillasterol in Chlorella fusca.
       


         




      




Chlorella vulgaris
  
      
       

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 6/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
Cholesterol and    Spirulina maxima
        
      Spirulina
platensis     

       
        
sterols. Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae are sterols producers.
     
         
          
pharmaceutical industry.
Proteins, amino Acids and peptides



Microalgae such as Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. contain high
        


      
       
       

Spirulina sp.     

   

    
       
       
         
     

Chlorella sp. microalgae  
     
       
      


Chlorella 
   
        
        Spirulina and
Chlorella   
         
     Spirulina and Chlorella



       
       
   
       
         


       

      Chlorella and
Spirulina 
Table 5:Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae

Microalgae Isoleucine Leucine Phenylalanine Valine
Chlorella    
Spirulina    
Another interesting approach in microalgae proteins is related


     
   
      
Chlorella vulgaris species was described as a great potential in

Chlorella vulgaris species can be used in
        
coronary diseases.
Figure 3:  
         

      
        


Figure 4: 
     

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 7/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
        
        
       
          
requirements.
Vitamins
Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae are vitamin producers that
          
vitamins that are commonly produced by microalgae are: vitamin


        
 
        

       Spirulina and
Chlorella     Chlorella 
Spirulina   
         
        


  

Table 6: Vitamin content in Chlorella and Spirulina

Vitamins Chlorella Spirulina
Vitamin A  
Vitamin C  
  
  
  
  -
  
  
  
  
 -
Chlorella 
is the most abundant vitamin produced by microalgae. Vitamin A

       
       
       
       


   Chlorella sp. has
better bioavailability than Spirulina microalgae 
   
  

Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae have an interesting

   


       
         


         
     

Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate structures
         
         
microorganisms such as Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae
         

 Chlorella and Spirulina

   

   Spirulina platensis and
Chlorella pyrenoidosa    
  




Spirulina platensis
and Chlorella pyrenoidosa   
 


   
polysaccharides produced by Spirulina 
   Spirulina microalga polysaccharides were
       

Regarding Chlorella   
         Chlorella
pyrenoidosa      
        

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 8/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
Table 7:     Spirulina platensis
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Immulina Polysaccharide
(% mole)
Immurella Polysaccharide
(% mole)
Rhamnose  Arabinose 
   
Fructose  Rhamnose 
   
   
   
   
   
  Mannose 
  Ribose 
Mannose  
Arabinose 
   
   
Arabinose   
Amino sugar   
   
   
  
 
  
Mannose 

Mannose 

Mannose 
 

 

 
Amino sugar 
     

     
since microalgae polysaccharides have antiviral activity against

Pigments, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins
      
       
      
       

    
      

        

     
       
      

       


         
        
        
       
      
     

   

Carotenoids are hydrophobic compounds which have color
 backbone structure
      

      
       
      

     
produced at industrial scale are  
  
  


       
   A max    F
maxA maxF max
A max F max

 


 
       
        
     
       
      

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 9/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
      Chlorella salina in
which       
        
 Chlorella vulgaris
was 
Spirulina sp. was described
  
  
      
        
  
pastry.

   -carotene is



       

Microalgae as food
Microalgae in the human diet:      
products has been increasing due to concerns regarding health

-carotene has been related to lung cancer and cardiovascular
         
       
     Spirulina    

studies indicated that the Spirulina consumption could lead to the

      
 

Spirulina           
       
 
       


       
        
    Spirulina platensis can be used as a source
     
Spirulina platensis presented higher protein content
       
Spirulina platensis
  .      
       
        

       
Spirulina platensis



   Spirulina were studied
         
      

     Chlorella vulgaris
and Spirulina maxima was compared to standard semolina
   

  

and textural properties were observed.
Figure 5:       
      
   
   
    

Figure 6:       

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 10/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
Microalgae in animal nutrition: 

        
with Chlorella       
       
          Spirulina
Chlorella 
        
       
      

        
      

Spirulina platensis in the rabbit with high blood serum cholesterol
levels decreased the cholesterol levels and also increased high-

   Spirulina platensi     

         
Spirulina platensi
 Chlorella
and Scenedesmus      
   
    

   Chlorella and Spirulina
           
        
    Chlorella and Spirulina
        
          
         
       
        
nutraceutical terms.

  
      
alternative and also because they contain almost all nutrients that

    Chlorella    
      
  Carassius auratus gibelio
Chlorella 
 
   

Chlorella 
Chlorella 

   Chlorella vulgaris   

        
Chlorella 

        
Chlorella meal supplemented by dietary cellulase to crucian cap
Carassius auratus     
      
expression they conclude that Chlorella meal could totally replace

Spirulina         
       Spirulina-based diet
      Spirulina  Spirulina
         
      Maylandia
lombardoi 
Spirulina three times a day were higher

Conclusion

       
      
       
   

   


        
      
   Spirulina    
        



    
       
        

Acknowledgement

    

Conicts of Interest

References
1.         

2. 

3. 
     
Tetraselmis suecica  

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 11/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
4.        

Spirulina platensis by proteomic analysis.

5. 
production by Arthrospira platensis 

6.     
      

7.  

8.            
   Phaeophyta  

9.            
   Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima
     

10.          
      

11.    


12.          


13. 

14.    
   Spirulina sp. And its antioxidant
capacity. 
15. 


16.          

17.            
   Spirulina
platensis
18. 
Spirulina platensis

19.          
th
20. 
  

21.    
Anandamide and arachidonic acid use epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to

22.          
        

23.   

24.        
       

25.     
     


26.            

27.          

28.            
        


29.          
  

30. 
Chlorell

31. 

       

32.       
Spirulina platensis protean extract.  Farmaco

33. 
        

34.         
       

35.          
         Balanus
amphitrite amphitrite 
36. 
       Cystoseira
baccata        

37. 
   
         

38.          
    


Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 12/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
39.           
     
 Chlorella sp. microalgae and assessment on its antioxidant

40. 
  Spirulina maxima microalgae and its protective
 in vitro      

41.          
  
      

42.    
       

43.    
    
    
     

44. 
   

45.         
        

46.           
       by

47.         
      

48.       

49.         
        

50.          
Euglena gracilis        

51.          
        

52.           
odorous and bioactive metabolites: impacts and management

53.           
  Isochrysis galbana and Diacronema vlkianum biomass
        

54.           
 

55. 
 Sargassum polycystum   Laurencia obtuse

56.         
          
Spirulina fusiformis
57.            
      
Chlorella vulgaris
58.         
Chlorella vulgaris and their phytotoxic

59. 
     

60.         
      nd  

61. 

62.          
     

63.         

64.       

65.  
   Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   

66. 
      Chlorella vulgaris on
  

67.      Spirulina maxima. Phytochemistry

68.             
     Spirulina platensis.

69.         

70.   

71.            
protein in comparison to animal and vegetable protein. Food Chem

72.          
       
st

73. 
      Chlorella
pyrenoidosa.
74.    
    
      


Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 13/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
75.           
Spirulina sp. and Chlorella pyrenoidosa 

76.  

77.         
        
       

78.      


79.      
       

80.            

     

81.         
         
st

82.            
       
 
83.         
Chlorella vulgaris on liver toxicity in cadmium-administered
 
84.          
         
     
acids in multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses 
85.           


86.  
    nd  

87.         
       

88.            
         

89.          

Spirulina platensis microalga. 
90.            

Pseudomonas 
91.              

Chlorella pyrenoidosa. 
92. 
      
     Spirulina platensis
  and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Planta Med

93.            

Spirulina platensis
94.          
   
green alga Arthrospira platensis     

95. 
 

96. 
     

97.           
Phycobiliprotein: potential microalgae derived pharmaceutical and

98.         

Chlorella salina

99.            
       

100. 
      

101. 
the microalga Chlorella vulgaris 

102.          

103.          
enriquecidos com Spirulina platensis

104. 
      Chlorella
vulgaris
105. 
úten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis

106.           
          
         

107. 
   Chlorella genus on the biochemical

108.             
          

Citation:Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and
Food Supplements; an Overview 14/14
Copyright:
©2018 Andrade et al.
109.           


110.         Spirulina platensis
    


111.           
     
            

112. 
  Spirulina platensis     

113.                
Chlorella     
Carassius auratus gibelio

114. 
 Chlorella vulgaris on blood and immunological parameters
    Salmo trutta caspius    

115.    
replacement by Chlorella meal with dietary cellulase addition on
      
      Carassius auratus.

116.    
        
    Maylandia lombardoi  

... Spirulina is a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega-6 acids (cama-linolenic acid and arcidonic acid) as well as Omega-3 acids (EPA acid and DHA acid), and these two groups of fatty acids (Omega 6 and 3) they are essential fatty acids that must be included in the diet of humans and poultry and are important for health and disease prevention [6]. Sotiroudis and Sotiroudis [7] showed that every 10 g of spirulina contains more than 100 mg GLNA (kalinolenic acid). ...
... In addition, spirulina is a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega-6 acids (gama linolenic acid and Arcidonic acid) as well as Omega-3 acids (EPA acid and DHA acid), as shown in Table (5) of the current study, and these two groups of acids Fatty acids (Omega 6 and 3) are essential fatty acids and are one of the antioxidant systems in broilers [6]. Linoleic acid has an important role in preventing the formation of free radicals through its association with glutathione peroxidase in stored broiler meat, which prolongs the storage period Meat without deteriorating its properties and preserving it from oxidation and rancidity obtained as a result of storage [38] as well as its ability to prevent the formation of intermediate compounds that produce free radicals, including butyl hydroxy toluene [13]. ...
Conference Paper
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This study was conducted at the Poultry Research Station of the Agricultural Research Department / Ministry of Agriculture in Abu Ghraib for the period from 25/2/2019 to 7/4/2019 (42 days) with the aim of using several levels of Spirulina (SP) Spirulina platensis in broiler diets. And their effect in the concentration and types of fatty acids, oxidation indices and sensory characteristics of the broiler carcass, 400 birds were used in this experiment One day old broiler birds of the Ross 308 strain are un sexed, with an average starting weight of 40 g / bird, and the birds were randomly distributed into five treatments with four replications per treatment (20 birds / duplicate). The following treatments included: the first (T1) control treatment (the basic diet without additives), the second (T2), third (T3), fourth (T4) and fifth treatments (T5) were used in the basic ration algae SP by 1%, 2% and 3% And 4%, respectively. The two treatments T4 and T5 showed significant superiority (P≤0.05) compared to the control group in the concentration of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid for the treatments T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. The value of peroxide (PV) was significantly decreased (P <0.05) in the 30-day storage period for treatment T5 birds compared with the two treatments T1 and T2 and the value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) for all treatments compared to the control treatment, and for the storage period of 60 One day, all oxidation indexes (PV, TBA, TVN) were significantly decreased (P <0.05) for all treatments using Spirulina. No significant effect of spirulina was shown on sensory evaluation scores for the chest and thigh cuts compared to the control treatment.
... Spirulina is a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega-6 acids (cama-linolenic acid and arcidonic acid) as well as Omega-3 acids (EPA acid and DHA acid), and these two groups of fatty acids (Omega 6 and 3) they are essential fatty acids that must be included in the diet of humans and poultry and are important for health and disease prevention [6]. Sotiroudis and Sotiroudis [7] showed that every 10 g of spirulina contains more than 100 mg GLNA (kalinolenic acid). ...
... In addition, spirulina is a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega-6 acids (gama linolenic acid and Arcidonic acid) as well as Omega-3 acids (EPA acid and DHA acid), as shown in Table (5) of the current study, and these two groups of acids Fatty acids (Omega 6 and 3) are essential fatty acids and are one of the antioxidant systems in broilers [6]. Linoleic acid has an important role in preventing the formation of free radicals through its association with glutathione peroxidase in stored broiler meat, which prolongs the storage period Meat without deteriorating its properties and preserving it from oxidation and rancidity obtained as a result of storage [38] as well as its ability to prevent the formation of intermediate compounds that produce free radicals, including butyl hydroxy toluene [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted at the Poultry Research Station of the Agricultural Research Department/Ministry of Agriculture in Abu Ghraib for the period from 25/2/2019 to 7/4/2019 (42 days) with the aim of using several levels of Spirulina (SP) Spirulina platensis in broiler diets. And their effect in the concentration and types of fatty acids, oxidation indices and sensory characteristics of the broiler carcass, 400 birds were used in this experiment One day old broiler birds of the Ross 308 strain are un sexed, with an average starting weight of 40 g/bird, and the birds were randomly distributed into five treatments with four replications per treatment (20 birds/duplicate). The following treatments included: the first (T1) control treatment (the basic diet without additives), the second (T2), third (T3), fourth (T4) and fifth treatments (T5) were used in the basic ration algae SP by 1%, 2% and 3% And 4%, respectively. The two treatments T4 and T5 showed significant superiority (P<0.05) compared to the control group in the concentration of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid for the treatments T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. The value of peroxide (PV) was significantly decreased (P <0.05) in the 30-day storage period for treatment T5 birds compared with the two treatments T1 and T2 and the value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) for all treatments compared to the control treatment, and for the storage period of 60 One day, all oxidation indexes (PV, TBA, TVN) were significantly decreased (P <0.05) for all treatments using Spirulina. No significant effect of spirulina was shown on sensory evaluation scores for the chest and thigh cuts compared to the control treatment.
... The interactive effects of pH, light intensity, and glycerol were explored based on biomass generation. Chlorella has also been strongly established over the years as a worthy source of nutraceuticals owing to their rich composition in terms of vitamins, antioxidants, etc., (Matos et al. 2019, Andrade et al. 2018). Hence this current work's proven optimum growth conditions can be further explored in a large-scale commercial application to procure biomass in higher volume so that it can be commercially exploited as a nutraceutical. ...
Article
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Microalgae is gaining popularity as a major ingredient in nutrition supplements. To mass cultivate, it is imperative to improve the biomass yield hence optimization of cultures conditions becomes paramount. In this work, an attempt has been made to optimize the microalgal production using response surface methodology (RSM) and validate further the optimized parameters. The optimum conditions for the cultivation of Chlorella sp. KPU016 under optimized nutrient conditions were pH 8.2, the light intensity of 3100 lx, glycerol 1.44 g.L-1 (under pre-set conditions of 12 h lighting, the temperature at 27±1°C. With these RSM-driven optimum conditions, the yield of microalgal biomass achieved was 282.50 mg.L-1. For larger-scale microalgal harvesting, the validated optimal conditions can be inferred as the best for enhanced microalgal production. The isolate was partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database and the GenBank accession number is MZ348364.
... Based on the results of studies, it is known that Chlorophyta in several species like Chlorella sp contain various types of sterols and steroids and have many benefits such as a source of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements [34]. The role of algae in the reproductive system is based on both the content of sterols they have and steroids directly. ...
Article
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Reproductive organ cell damage due to oxidants can cause problems in female fertility, this situation can be prevented and overcome by consuming antioxidants such as algae. Green algae Chlorophyta also contains a steroid that is thought to be useful for normal reproductive health in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the compounds of sex steroid hormones in green algae which are important for female fertility. The systematic review method was used in this study. Based on the results of studies, it shows that green algae contain sterols which through biochemical mechanisms will form sex steroid hormones in the target organ. These hormones play an important role in the regulation of the female reproductive system and the balance of these hormones is crucial for normal fertility in women. Based on this, women should be able to maintain their reproductive health well by consuming foods that contain lots of vitamins and natural fibers that are good for the body such as green algae. Women must also be able to maintain a healthy lifestyle, change bad lifestyles, and avoid environmental risk factors that can cause infertility.
... Therefore, investigators have made considerable attempts to explore natural compounds for neuroprotective potential, and consideration has been focused on a large-scale array of antioxidants that can protect cells from oxidative stress in recent years. Chlorella is a well-known microalgae genus that has been considered as a source of food because it is high in protein and other essential nutrients such as polyunsaturated fats with antioxidant effects [37]. It has been reported that Chlorella can protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress [38]. ...
Article
Oxidative stress is considered the main cause of cellular damage in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. One suitable ways to prevent cell damage is the use of the exogenous antioxidant capacity of natural products, such as microalgae. In the present study, four microalgae extracts, isolated from the Persian Gulf, were screened to analyze their potential antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP methods. The methanolic extracts (D1M) of green microalgae derived from Chlorella sp. exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. In order to characterize microalgae species, microscopic observations and analysis of the expression of 18S rRNA were performed. The antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of D1M on H2O2-induced toxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. The results demonstrated that D1M significantly decreased the release of nitric oxide (NO), formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), whereas it enhanced the content of glutathione (GSH), and activity of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and catalase (CAT) in PC12 cells exposed to H2O2. The pretreatment of D1M improved cell viability as measured by the MTT assay and invert microscopy, reduced cell apoptosis as examined by flow cytometry analysis, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and diminished caspase-3 activity. The GC/MS analysis revealed that D1M ingredients have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP), and phytol. These results suggested that Chlorella sp. extracts have strong potential to be applied as neuroprotective agents, for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
... • Reduce the risk of schizophrenia (Andrade et al., 2018;Becker, 2007;Belay et al., 1993;Borowitzka and Borowitzka, 1988;Mobin and Alam, 2017;Patil et al., 2008;Richmond, 2008;Sajilata et al., 2008;Sathasivam et al., 2019;Spolaore et al., 2006) tions are more comparable to mammalian cells than to bacterial cells (Khavari et al., 2021;Ramana et al., 2017). ...
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A growing world population is causing hazardous compounds to form at an increasingly rapid rate, calling for ecological action. Wastewater management and treatment is an expensive process that requires appropriate integration technology to make it more feasible and cost-effective. Algae are of great interest as potential feedstocks for various applications, including environmental sustainability, biofuel production, and the manufacture of high-value bioproducts. Bioremediation with microalgae is a potential approach to reduce wastewater pollution. The need for effective nutrient recovery, greenhouse gas reduction, wastewater treatment, and biomass reuse has led to a wide interest in the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment. Furthermore, algae biomass can be used to produce bioenergy and high-value bioproducts. The use of microalgae as medicine (production of bioactive and medicinal compounds), biofuels, biofertilizers, and food additives has been explored by researchers around the world. Technological and economic barriers currently prevent the commercial use of algae, and optimal downstream processes are needed to reduce production costs. Therefore, the simultaneous use of microalgae for wastewater treatment and biofuel production could be an economical approach to address these issues. This article provides an overview of algae and their application in bioremediation, bioenergy production, and bioactive compound production. It also highlights the current problems and opportunities in the algae-based sector, which has recently become quite promising.
... In mass-cultivation process, factors such as climate change and limited land area have hindered large-scale productions of Arthrospira sp. through conventional open pond system [3]. As a result, a closed bioreactor system with better-controlled parameters, optimisation platform and a productive cultivation medium is needed [4]. ...
Article
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The use of herbal supplements that promise to improve immune health has gained popularity among dermatology patients. However, there is little to no evidence that herbal supplements improve dermatological conditions. Several in vitro and in vivo studes have shown that Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aqua, Chlorella, Echinacea, and alfalfa activate immune cells, via certain cytokines and chemokines. Case reports suggest the association of ingesting immunostimulatory herbs and the clinical onset or flares of diseases characterized by an exaggerated immune response such as lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis and autoimmune blistering disorders. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the prevalence of herbal supplement use in this patient population. In addition, in vitro studies should examine the underlying mechanisms by which herbs stimulate immune pathways that are already overactive in autoimmune patients.
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This study aimed on modern analytical techniques for the isolation, separation and structural identification of the essential bioactive carotenoid Lutein, from green microalga, Chlorella salina. Identification was done by comparing their absorption and mass spectral data with those of reference standard values reported. The extract is separated by selective C18 columns and the data were then combined with spectroscopic information. Structural assignment of the separated compound is done by HR-MS. The results of the spectral investigation showed that the isolated pigment showed absorbance peak at 445 nm. Total luminescence spectra were recorded by measuring the emission spectra in the range 350–720 nm at an excitation wavelength of 455 nm. The excitation-emission matrices were recorded and two basic fluorescence regions have been obtained. The compound was resolved within 4.36 min by using a C18 column with a flow rate at 1 ml/min and detection at 450 nm. The compound was detected by a High Resolution Orbitrap-MS with regard to specificity and sensitivity (with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 to 3.8 pg μL−1).
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Purpose of review Phytosterols are plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol that act in the intestine to lower cholesterol absorption. Because they have very low systemic absorption and are already present in healthy diets, increasing the intake of phytosterols may be a practical way to reduce coronary heart disease with minimum risk. Recent findings Phytosterols displace cholesterol from intestinal micelles, reducing the pool of absorbable cholesterol, but they are also rapidly taken up by enterocytes and increase expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A 1 sterol transporter. Phytosterol esters dissolved in food fat reduce LDL-cholesterol by 10% at a maximum effective dose of 2 g/day. However, this work probably understates the true effectiveness of phytosterols because it does not account for those naturally present in baseline diets. Single meal studies show that phytosterols in intact foods are bioactive at doses as low as 150 mg. The potential effectiveness of phytosterols has been improved in several ways. Individuals most likely to respond have been identified as having high cholesterol absorption and low cholesterol biosynthesis. Phytosterols can be emulsified with lecithin and delivered in non-fat or low-fat foods and beverages, and the amount of fat in fat-based preparations can be reduced substantially with the retention of bioactivity. Summary Phytosterols effectively reduce LDL-cholesterol when given as supplements, and the smaller amounts in natural foods also appear to be important. Future work will focus on the better delivery of phytosterols in natural foods and supplements and on further defining the mechanisms of action.