Role of proteoglycans in the hair follicle

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The proteoglycans are part of membrane cell, they are part of the glycocalyx and the extracellular matrix, they are compound by carbohydrates and sulfated amino acids that confers negative charges able to attract water and form gels that resist mechanical forces in the connective tissue, as well as function as a semipermeable and selective membrane to various cationic molecules, its direct and indirect interaction with membrane receptors and growth factors regulates several transcription ways involved in the development of multiple pro-oncogenic processes. This paper reviews the interaction of the main proteoglycans expressed in hair follicle, its relation with the signaling ways involved in its development and reviews briefly some pathologies in where could be a therapeutic approach.

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Background Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. Objective In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. Methods Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured. Mast cell staining was performed on the biopsied tissue. In addition, Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess mast cell tryptase and cytokine expression, respectively in rat skin biopsies. Results Stress-serum treatment reduced significantly the number of viable hDPCs and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase, compared to serum from unrestrained rats (p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, restrained rats had significantly higher levels of cortisol in serum than unrestrained rats (p<0.01). Acute stress serum increased mast cell numbers and mast cell tryptase expression, as well as inducing interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β up-regulation. Conclusion These results suggest that acute stress also has an inhibitory effect on hair growth via cortisol release in addition to substance P-mast cell pathway.
Background: Several studies have addressed the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men with few reports focusing on this association in females. The aim of this work was to investigate the association of MetS among Egyptian women with different stages of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and to compare the results with age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: This study included 90 female participants, 45 cases with different stages of FPHL classified according to the Ludwig scale and 45 healthy control participants that were age- and sex-matched with the cases. Assessment of MetS components was done according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: Compared to the control group, a statistically significant association was found between FPHL and the presence of MetS with a tendency to increase with the severity of FPHL being greater in stage III > stage II > stage I. Among metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference (WC) (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.2 -13.9, P = 0.0002) and hypertension (HTN) (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3-8.9, P = 0.008) were revealed as the most important factors associated with FPHL. WC also tended to increase with the severity of FPHL. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant association between MetS and FPHL. Women with FPHL, particularly if associated with an increased WC or hypertension, should be screened for MetS criteria for early identification and management.