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The quest for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the use of carbon trading system has been on the increase as a result of the adoption and promotion by notable world agencies such as United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), among others. The mitigating approaches were introduced by the later to curb and minimize amount of GHGs produced by manufacturing, construction and other industrial and heavy engineering based industries. In view of its continuous popularity and adoption by developed countries, this study examines the concept of carbon trading principles and systems and their adoption in the South African construction industry with a view to enhancing sustainability of construction projects geared towards achieving overall sustainable goals. History of emission trading and the concept of GHGs were assessed using previous and relevant literature materials. The study further examines the two emission trading systems, that is, cap and trade as well as baseline and credit, and suggested the earlier for the construction industry based on their benefits and flexibility. Various ways of enforcing the system were also highlighted with emphasis on the willingness and readiness of construction experts, professionals, developers, regulators and other concerned stakeholders in reducing greenhouse gases in the execution, usage and reuse of construction projects
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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor
temperature function for a long-term district heat demand forecast
I. Andrića,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferrãoa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrièrec, O. Le Correc
aIN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research -Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
bVeolia Recherche & Innovation,291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
cDépartement Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement -IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
Abstract
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
prolonging the investment return period.
The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand outdoor temperature function for heat demand
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
(the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
Cooling.
Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change
Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy.
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.169
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.169 1876-6102
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientic committee of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy.
Available online at www.sciencedi rec t.c om
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by El sevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committ ee of the 9th Inter national C onference on Appli ed Energy.
9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2017, 21-24 August 2017, Cardiff, UK
Carbon Emission Trading in South African Construction Industry
Ayodeji E. Okea*, Clinton O. Aigbavboa a, Samkeliso A. Dlamini a
a
Department of Construction Management and Quantity Surveying, University of Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
Abstract
The quest for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the use of carbon trading system has been on the increase as a result
of the adoption and promotion by notable world agencies such as United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), among others. The
mitigating approaches were introduced by the later to curb and minimize amount of GHGs produced by manufacturing, construction
and other industrial and heavy engineering based industries. In view of its continuous popularity and adoption by developed
countries, this study examines the concept of carbon trading principles and systems and their adoption in the South African
construction industry with a view to enhancing sustainability of construction projects geared towards achievi ng overall sustainable
goals. History of emission trading and the concept of GHGs were assessed using previous and relevant literature materials. The
study further examines the two emission trading systems, that is, cap and trade as well as baseline and credit, and suggested the
earlier for the construction industry based on their benefits and flexibility. Various ways of enforcing the system were also
highlighted with emphasis on the willingness and readiness of construction experts, professionals, developers, regulators and other
concerned stakeholders in reducing greenhouse gases in the execution, usage and reuse of construction projects.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy.
Keywords: Carbon Tradi ng (CT ); Global Climate Change (GCC); Greenhou se Gases (GHGs); Sustai nable Construction (SC)
1. Introduction
Climate system is a complex and interactive system that consists of living things and the necessary resources that
are needed by them to survive. These resources include the atmosphere; lithosphere and the hydrosphere. According
to the Australian Academy of Science [1], climate change is the alteration or variation in the pattern of weather and
related changes in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over scales of decades or longer. Furthermore,
* Corresponding author. T el.: +27-84-915-5117.
E-mail address: emayok@gmail.com
Available online at www.sciencedi rec t.c om
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by El sevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committ ee of the 9th Inter national C onference on Appli ed Energy.
9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2017, 21-24 August 2017, Cardiff, UK
Carbon Emission Trading in South African Construction Industry
Ayodeji E. Okea*, Clinton O. Aigbavboa a, Samkeliso A. Dlamini a
a
Department of Construction Management and Quantity Surveying, University of Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
Abstract
The quest for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the use of carbon trading system has been on the increase as a result
of the adoption and promotion by notable world agencies such as United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), among others. The
mitigating approaches were introduced by the later to curb and minimize amount of GHGs produced by manufacturing, construction
and other industrial and heavy engineering based industries. In view of its continuous popularity and adoption by developed
countries, this study examines the concept of carbon trading principles and systems and their adoption in the South African
construction industry with a view to enhancing sustainability of construction projects geared towards achievi ng overall sustainable
goals. History of emission trading and the concept of GHGs were assessed using previous and relevant literature materials. The
study further examines the two emission trading systems, that is, cap and trade as well as baseline and credit, and suggested the
earlier for the construction industry based on their benefits and flexibility. Various ways of enforcing the system were also
highlighted with emphasis on the willingness and readiness of construction experts, professionals, developers, regulators and other
concerned stakeholders in reducing greenhouse gases in the execution, usage and reuse of construction projects.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy.
Keywords: Carbon Tradi ng (CT ); Global Climate Change (GCC); Greenhou se Gases (GHGs); Sustai nable Construction (SC)
1. Introduction
Climate system is a complex and interactive system that consists of living things and the necessary resources that
are needed by them to survive. These resources include the atmosphere; lithosphere and the hydrosphere. According
to the Australian Academy of Science [1], climate change is the alteration or variation in the pattern of weather and
related changes in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over scales of decades or longer. Furthermore,
* Corresponding author. T el.: +27-84-915-5117.
E-mail address: emayok@gmail.com
2372 Ayodeji E. Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376
2 AE Oke/ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
climate change is already a measurable reality and South Africa together with other developing countries are
vulnerable to the impacts that global climate change (GCC) brings with it [2].
As climate science and the earth’s climate have shown signs of evolution over the recent decades, there has been
increasing evidence of anthropogenic influences on climate change that have been discovered [3]. In summary of the
concept, GCC occurs mainly because of the collection of greenhouse gases (GHG) which in turn warm the surface of
the earth and the atmosphere above it. This consequently has significant implications on the rainfall we receive; the
glaciers and sea ice which are said to retreat and the sea levels to mention a few [4]. When the earth surface warms
up, it is a consequence of what is popularly termed the GHG effect. This basically occurs when heat is absorbed in the
earth from heat produced by the sunlight. This in turn warms the earth and most of the remaining heat is radiated back
to the atmosphere at a longer wavelength than the ones received from the sun. Some of these wavelengths are then
absorbed by GHGs trapped in the atmosphere before they escape into space, and the absorption of these wavelength
energy tends to warm the atmosphere more than normal.
These GHGs act like a mirror and reflect back to the earth, some of the heat energy which is lost to outer space [5].
Furthermore, research dating back to the early 1990’s has placed emphasis on the threat posed by the production and
emission of GHGs. These studies noted that human industry is mostly responsible for climate change, because of the
CO
2
and other GHGs emitted by factories (particularly cement factories), power plants, airplanes, trucks, cars and
other sources [6,7]. Emission trading (ET) has been introduced and adopted by regulatory bodies including United
Nations (UN), European Union (EU), European Commission (EC), and other world leading agencies in combatin g the
challenge of GHGs. Due to high contribution of the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry to the
volume of GHGs, this study examined emission trading in the South African construction industry with a view to
creating awareness among concerned stakeholders on the provision of sustainable construction projects and general
attainment of sustainable goals.
2. Greenhouse Gases in South Africa
There exists studies on GHGs in South Africa. A paper on ‘History on the Climate Change Policydiscussed the
history and agreements of the climate change policies for South African manufacturing, construction and other
industries and the country as a whole [8]. Similarly, Chin-Yee [6] explor ed the place of Africa, including South Africa,
in the actualisation of Paris Climate Change Agreement. South Africa took the responsibility and committed to curb
their emissions by 34% by 2020 and 42% by 2025 under the Business As Usual (BAU) trajectory [9.10]. It was further
claimed that the Minister of Finance, in the 2014 budget, confirmed the carbon tax will be adopted in the Republic of
South Africa. The implementation of this carbon tax will be implemented in phases, in order to transit smoothly into
a low car bon econom y.
Various factors influence the country’s GHG emissions, including economic and population growth, government
(infra-) structure, climate and soils, geography, land use management etc. Furthermore, it is these factors and more
that make the rainbow nation a contributor to climate change and thus, South Africa has taken steps to mitigate and
adapt to potentials of minimizing climate changes. Historically, The Climate Action Tracker [11] concluded that South
Africa’s emissions have steadily increased. This is primarily due to the fact that the economy of the country mainly
depends heavily on the mining sector as well as the heavy industry sector. Energy consumption in the industrial and
buildings sectors depends largely on electricity usage as a source of energy, which is produced with high carbon
intensity by adopting domestic coal as a raw product.
3. History of Emission Trading
The Kyoto Protocol (KP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was
established in 1997 [12,13]. It sets obligations for the reduction of GHG emissions through targets, or what is popularly
referred to as caps, for about 37 industrialised countries. It was further noted that for the first period (i.e. the
commitment period, which is between 2008 and 2012), there was a need for policy instruments that aimed at meeting
the Kyoto commitments.
In the year 2000 the European Commission (EC) presented a green paper on “Greenhouse gas Emissions Trading
within the European Union” with some first ideas on the designs of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme/System (ETS)
Ayodeji E. Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376 2373
AE Oke et al / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3
[13]. The paper by Delbeke [14] serves as a basis for a number of stakeholder negotiations that consequently helped
shape up the EU ETS in the first and premature phases. Moreover, this encouraged the establishment of the EU ETS
directive in 2003 which was then followed by its implementation in 2005. From 2005 to 2007 the EU ETS is mentioned
to have been in its first phase. The first phase was termed the “pilot phase” as the carbon market looked to establish
prices for its operation. It then follows that the pilot phase was to establish the necessary infrastructure for monitoring,
reporting and verifying emission. Emission reductions were largely based on estimates, and this is primarily due to
the fact that there were no reliable sources of data to record emissions. Table 1 illustrates the developments of the EU
ETS dating back to when the directive was established.
Table 1: Background and developments of the scheme
Year Event
2003 Adoption of the EU ETS directive
2004 Adoption of the EU linking directive with the KP
2005 Beginnin g of the EU ETS pilot pha se (Phase I)
2007 Bulgaria and Romania join ed th e EU ET S
2008 Beginnin g of Phase II
2008 Iceland, Leichtensten and Norway joined th e EU ET S
2009 The 2020 energy and climate package was adopted with a revised directive for the third phase (2013 to 2020)
2010 EU ETS aviation directive
2011 EU Commission released Communication; “Towards a 2050 low-carbon econ omy r oadma p”
2012 Inclusion of the international aviation in the ETS
2013 Beginning of the third phase (Phase III)
2014 Implementation of Market Stability Reserve and Backloading Measures
Source: European Commission [15]
In addition, the sole purpose of the pilot phase was to ensure that the EU ETS functioned effectively ahead of 2008.
This was to ascertain the allowance of EU member states to meet their respective commitments under the KP. The
linking directive allowed businesses to use certain Emissions Reduction Units (ERU) generated under the KP, Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). This was done so that these businesses would meet
their EU ETS obligation. The main gases covered by greenhouse gases and sectors are Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from;
power and heat generation; energy-intensive industry sectors including oil refineries, steel works and production of
iron, aluminium, metals, cement, lime, glass, ceramics, pulp, paper, cardboard, acids and bulk organic chemicals; and
civil aviation. Nitrous oxide (N2O) from: production of nitric, adipic, glyoxal and glyoxlic acids Perfluorocarbons
(PFCs) fr om: alumin ium pr oduction.
4. Development of Emission Trading Systems
Since the year 2005, the EU ETS has been labelled as Europe’s mandatory measure to reduce emissions. The third
phase of the EU ETS started in 2013 as noted by the International Carbon Action Partnership [16]. The table below
shows an overview of what the third phase of the EU ETS entails. Table 2 shows th e third phase of the EU ETS.
Table 2: EU ETS Phase III
Target -21% below q990 by 2020
Cap (tCO
2
e) 1 964 282 108
Carbon Price €5.88 (2014 average), €6.91 (2015)
GHG covered CO
2
, N
2
O and Perfluorocar bons (PFC’s)
Number of Entities Covered >11 500
Sector s Cov ered Power and heat generation, indu strial processes (e.g. oil refineries, steel plants), Production of cement, glass,
lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp, paper and board, commercial aviation, CCS networks, production of
petrochemicals. Ammonia, non-ferrou s metals, gypsum and aluminium, nitric, adipi cand glyoxylic acid.
Threshold Sector specific
% Total Emissions Covered 45%
Compliance Tools and
Flexibi lity M echani sms
Free allowance allocation, offsets, banking, Market Stability Reserve (2019)
Emissions trading (ET) is regarded as the central pillar of the KP and the agreements between industrialised
countries aimed at controlling the rate at which GHGs are emitted into the atmosphere. There are currently a number
of ET schemes that operate in different parts of the world that are currently working to combat GCC by trading their
2374 Ayodeji E. Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376
4 AE Oke/ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
emissions. Although ET is a growing trend, some of the countries are looking to implement it as a tool to better their
economies and at the same time reduce GCC effects. The objective of ETSs is to set up market-based systems for
GHGs with the goal of meeting targets set on emissions. These schemes set up caps on emissions that can be
discharged into the environment within a specified timeframe, and this period is known as a Commitment Period.
Furthermore these overall caps are denominated in units of emissions of one gas (for example, tonnes of CO
2
).
There are two main types of ETSs that are currently in operation, these are the cap-and-trade as well as the baseline
and credit schemes [17,12]. The schemes are sub-divided into statutory and non-statutory. The statutory schemes are
compulsor y in that the government initiates and operates them, while the non-statutory schemes operate voluntarily.
This means that the members can volunteer to join the ETS and no government participation is required.
4.1. Cap and Trade
The cap-and-trade schemes are reported to be the principal method of the ETS. Their essence is to establish a cap
on emissions that can be released into the atmosphere during a commitment period. A cap is the limit imposed on
specified emissions from the list of GHG’s that businesses are allowed to emit [17]. Moreover, the cap on emissions
is implemented in several steps. However, when the government is the initiator, it initiates a law that restricts emitters
within a defined jurisdiction. Furthermore, the activities regulated by the scheme tend to differ, having a wide range
of variations throughout. For example, a scheme that includes energy activities and production, differs from one that
deals with the processing of ferrous metals and the mineral industr y. However, permits to emit cannot be regarded as
a control mechanism for the overall cap on the emission of GHGs. This is due to the fact that they con trol the
population of emitters but they do not impose a limit on the quantity of permit holder’s emissions [12].
The overall cap on emissions is instigated by another instrument that is distinct as compared to emission permits.
Schemes then create a paperless concept that is referred to as an “allowance”. These allowances are allocated each
year to participating industries and individuals, and the participants surrender one allowance for every tonne of CO
2
that they emit into the atmosphere. Similarly, those individuals and industries that cannot cap their emissions in terms
of their permits/allowances, can buy permits from those that want to sell theirs. The scheme places caps on the amount
of emission, and the trading mechanism allows these to be achieved at the lowest possible costs [18]. Also, allowances
are banked in electronic registries and are bought and sold via organised exchanges or over the counter [12].
The emission trading system is on the premise that if companies emit less than the cap, they are permitted to sell
the excess carbon permits to companies that are polluting more as explained in figure 1. This implioes that the
company polluting less is the one that will profit most from this transaction.
Figure 1 : Emission Tradi ng based on cap a nd tra de system
Source: www.climatepolicyinfohub.eu
4.2. Baseline and Credit
The second type of the emissions trading scheme is the Baseline and credit scheme, which is the less common one
as compared to the cap and trade. Baseline and credit schemes generally introduce a cap on GHG emissions by
employing a basic trading mechanism. In a statutory/compulsory baseline and credit scheme, a government normally
initiates the process by establishing a baseline & credit scheme. They do this by passing a law that puts restrictions
Ayodeji E. Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376 2375
AE Oke et al / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5
within that jurisdiction and limit the participants’ ability to emit specified gases. This consequently means that the law
introduces a transfer/passin g of the ability to freely emit fr om emitting sources to the gover nment. The baseline and
credit schemes are regarded as indifferent as compared to the cap and trade schemes. However, it is worth mentioning
that the baseline and credit schemes differ from cap and trade schemes in that the implementation of the trading
mechanism are not the same.
The European Commission [13] mentioned that the allocation of free allowances will not expire. It was stressed
that the existing measures will contin ue post 2020 to prevent any and all forms of risk associated with carbon leakage.
The standards set for free allocations are said to be subject to periodical reviews in line with techn ological progress in
the respective sectors of all industries. The costs for both direct and indirect carbon are mentioned and they are said
to be taken into account in the future, in line with th e rules of the EU state aid so as to ensure a level-playing field.
However, European Commission [19] stated that the maintenance of international competitiveness, the most efficient
installations in outlined (vulnerable) sector s should not face undue carbon costs to avoid facing a carbon leakage.
Furth ermore future allocations will ensure improved alignment with the change in the levels of production in the
different sectors. The incentives proposed for the industry to innovate will be fully preserved and administrative
complexity is however not expected to increase.
The consideration to ensure affordable energy prices and avoid windfall profits is one aspect that is to be considered
in carbon trading.in view of this, the European Commission [19] clarifies that Member States with a GDP per capita
that is below 60% of the EU average may opt to continue to give free allowances to the energy sector up until the year
2030. It was stated that the maximum amount handed out for free after 2020 should be no more than 40% of the
allowances allocated for auctioning to the Member States using this option. The current modalities, including
transparency, should be impr oved to ensure that the funds are used to promote real investments modernising the energy
sector, while avoiding distortions of the internal energy market
5. Implications of Emission Trading in the South African Construction Industry
The introduction of a carbon price will not have the same impact on society, as different income groups and
economic sectors operate at different emissions intensities, this implies that there will be different effects caused by
the price imposed on emissions. However the options available to the different groups of people also differ , as some
sections of society are less dependent on electricity or have readily-available options of switching to lower emissions
intensive products or services [20]. The mechanism/scheme that best caters for the most vulnerable households and
economic sectors also, could prove to be a better option for South Africa. An emissions price has the potential to
prejudice a part of society or industry in relation to the rest, and as such can be discussed interchangeably. In this
regard, the choice of a mechanism must take into account low-income households that will bear the brunt of climate
change and could be most affected by a carbon price [21]. Furthermore, the government must recognise that some
economic sectors are highly exposed to international and other competitive forces, and could be endangered through
carbon pricing, and this would in turn affect societ y through job losses [20].
In analysing the appropriate trading mechanism for the South African context, the government is required to also
have regard for the transparency of the mechanism that they have selected. The society it serves must be able to
understand easily the costs and benefits of the mechanism, and how these will affect them, so that they may plan
accordingly [9].
The implementation of a carbon price in any form will affect the distribution of income within a society, as the
increase in energy costs affects the levels of income-groups differently. The size and distribution of these effects
depends on the patterns of production and consumption in the economy and on how much of the price burden is felt
by final consumers [20]. There appears to be some conflict of opinion regarding the effects of a carbon price on a
developing country like South Africa, with some authors pointin g to a regression in income distribution (such as
Starbatty [12]), while others point to a progression in this regard (such as Shah and Larsen [22]). One key element
worth mentioning in this regard is the one concerning the issue of revenue recycling [23]. It is said that the degree and
manner in which revenue raised from carbon pricing is used to offset other distortionary taxes or to reduce the
regressive impacts of the instrument will affect the distributional con sequences of car bon pricin g, and this would apply
to electricity, food and fuel costs. Also, the manner in which this offsetting is done will likely be the same under a
carbon tax or an ETS through allowan ce auctioning.
2376 Ayodeji E. Oke et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 2371–2376
6. Conclusion and Recommendation
Revenue could be recycled into low-carbon technologies, thereby reducing the burden on the entire economy. The
above highlights the fact that the issue of revenue-raising under an emissions reduction mechanism is important, as it
allows government to protect vulnerable communities and begin to address historically unequal distribution of
environmental benefits. However, such recycling would require some form of revenue rin g-fencing or earmarking,
which is not in line with the South African fiscal policy. This concern relates to any such revenues under an ETS too.
With regard to the effect of carbon pricing on different economic sectors, the issue of competitiveness is important.
Sectors in the South African economy that face strong import and export competition could find their economic
competitiveness eroded through the introduction of a carbon price. A carbon price would increase their costs relative
to international and domestic competitors who either operate at lower energy intensity or are not subject to a carbon
price. This is an important issue in that the loss of any economic sector within the economy would lead to job losses
and a lower GDP, which would have a negative effect on the South African society as a whole. The flexibility of cap-
and-trade emission trading system as well as other key bennefits explained in previous sections makes the system
suitable for industries concerned with GHGs in the country.
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[23] Da Silva A, Buss D. F, GalvãoL. A. C and Becerra-Posa da F. Not so simpl e as it seems: tackling climate change and i mple mentin g th e
sustainable development goals in the Americas, Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization; 2016.
... The US has a model of energy production based on coal-fired power plants that emits polluting gases, among them, CO2 (Terra, 2015). South Africa, on the other hand, generates high-carbon energy for mining and heavy industry (Oke et al., 2017). Finally, Russia has energy production based on oil and natural gas, a fact that leads to the high emission of carbon dioxide (Zhang, 2011). ...
... This fact may be associated with the economic reform and increase of oil and gas export revenues in the 21st century, causing the Russian economy to grow rapidly and, consequently, energy consumption (Zhang, 2011). Next is South Africa (50.10%) as a country dependent on the mining and heavy industry sectors that use a lot of electricity (Oke et al., 2017). Finally, there is Canada with a 54.01% ...
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In order to measure the impact of the economic growth over the years, the sustainable development concept works to balance three pillars of sustainability - economic, social and environmental. This paper has the objective to compare emerging countries (BRICS) with the most developed countries (G7) by analysing sustainable development. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used, thorugh the variant SBM (Slacks Based Measured) model. The inputs were CO2 emission, percentage of unemployed and energy utilization. GDP and life expectancy at birth were used as outputs. The main result was a global average efficency ranking, having the emerging countries in top positions (India, China and Brazil, respectively). In addition, emerging countries have always stood out in the average of the slacks of each analyzed variable. These results are important in terms of being useful for public policies related to sustainable development, especially: (1) to contribute to the discussions related to evaluating the countries, helping to identify those with the best practices with regard to environmental, social and economic aspects in each group; and (2) to guide policy decisions regarding government incentives to promote the development of efficient countries in terms of economic growth and welfare social without harming the environment. Keywords: Sustainable development; DEA; Indicator; BRICS; G7.
... It operates a highly energy-intensive economy with considerable dependency on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs. This, together with a relatively small population, means that South Africa is a significant contributor concerning per capita emissions of CO 2 on a global scale (Oke et al., 2017). Considering electricity production alone, 92% of electricity produced in South Africa is from coal combustion, complemented by nuclear energy (Oyewo et al., 2019). ...
... South Africa emits about 440 Mt. of CO 2 per annum and is responsible for over 40% of CO 2 emitted in the African continent. South Africa accounts for about 1% of global emissions and is ranked 11 th highest CO 2 emitter in the world (Oke et al., 2017). This is a result of energy generation through coal utilization, which produces harmful emissions such as CO 2 , NO 2, and SO 2 (Yang et al., 2019). ...
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An increase in electricity production is proportional to environmental risks due to continuous energy production. The paper aims to quantitatively estimate the environmental costs and mathematically model the marginal social cost associated with the lifespan of the coal power plants. Results revealed South Africa Tier 1 company optimum level of electricity production per annum at around 2.15 gigawatts, considering the emission costs and reasonable profit. 85% of the total emissions during the combustion phase average cost of the C02 emission discharged by coal is calculated as 0.23c/KWh, 0.085c/kWh is calculated for NO2, while SO2 is 0.035c/KWh. Total emission cost represents 69.2% of the total cost of producing 1 MGW of electricity. The results confirmed the company losses to be insignificantly considerable to the evaluated environmental costs and capital investment. However, the use of this newly developed mathematical model depends on the source of energy production to confirm the feasibility and profitability of investment in coal-powered stations using environmental management accounting and marginal social cost approaches. AcknowledgmentThe authors would like to acknowledge the National Research Foundation and Durban University of Technology for financial support.
... This paper adopts the ratio of coal consumption to total energy consumption to represent energy structure. Industrial structure (IND): this study employs the industrial upgrading index obtained by the output value of the tertiary industry divided by the output value of the secondary industry to measure the industrial structure [54]. Energy consumption (EC): this research utilizes the total energy consumption volume to be the proxy for the scale of energy use [55]. ...
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Promoting the carbon emission trading system has been a crucial measure for China to fulfill its carbon neutrality commitment. Taking the carbon emission trading system implemented in China in 2013 as a quasi-natural experiment, based on the provincial panel data of China from 2005 to 2019, this paper adopts the difference-in-difference (DID) method and the synthetic control method (SCM) to evaluate the impact of the carbon emission trading system on energy conservation and emission reduction in pilot provinces and cities. The research findings reveal that, on the whole, the carbon emission trading system has significantly promoted the process of energy conservation and emission reduction in pilot provinces and cities. Other robustness tests, including the parallel trend test, PSM–DID stationarity test and placebo test have also been passed. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the most significant policy effects occur in Tianjin and Shanghai, followed by Hubei. The emission reduction effect of Guangdong displays a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. The test results demonstrate that the carbon emission trading system can strengthen the process of energy conservation and emission reduction by optimizing the industrial structure and energy structure. In conclusion, policy makers should coordinate the relationship between the government and the market and speed up the transformation of environmental policy from command control type to market incentive type. Meanwhile, improve the property right system and accelerate the promotion of carbon emission trading pilot policies in China according to local conditions. By encouraging technological innovation, a new market-oriented path of energy conservation and emission reduction guided by the enhancement of energy efficiency and the optimization of energy and industrial structures ought to be formed.
... However, the above optimal dispatching models cannot provide direct economic incentives for IES operators to maximally accommodate REG and reduce carbon emission. The market mechanisms of tradable green certificates (TGCs) [16][17][18] and carbon emission right trading [19][20][21] are designed to address this problem, but little research on the optimal operation of the IES has been conducted with both trading schemes considered. ...
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With the target of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, renewable energy generation (REG) develops rapidly. The increasing penetration of REG brings along the problems of fluctuation in power flow and the possible abandonment of wind and photovoltaics (PV) generation. In this context, the so-called integrated energy system (IES) becomes a promising solution to the accommodation of REG thanks to energy storage systems and coupling devices inside. In this paper, the optimal operation model of an IES is first presented, with the schemes of green certificate trading and carbon emission right trading included to provide economic incentives for accommodating REG. Next, in order to address the problem of uncertainty in REG, the devices in the IES are divided into three types based on regulation flexibility, and a multi-time period optimal dispatching scheme is proposed, including day-ahead optimal scheduling, rolling optimal dispatching, and real-time control strategy. Finally, it is demonstrated by simulation results of a numerical example that the proposed method not only promotes the accommodation capability for REG but can also cope well with contingencies.
... Chen [17] and others compare carbon emissions in the world's two largest carbon emitters, China and the U.S. construction industry, using structural decomposition analysis, shows that China's building carbon emissions are much larger than those of the United States, and the most obvious is the demand effect and production structure effect. Ayodeji [18] and others examine the carbon pollution reduction control and emissions trading system and its adoption in the construction industry in South Africa, propose a mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest that the construction industry implement it in advance based on their benefits to achieve sustainable development goals. There is certainly a complicated relationship between the construction industry and economic growth, labor, and productivity [19,20]. ...
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China is currently in a stage of high-quality economic development, but the high energy consumption and high pollution production methods of the construction industry are no longer adaptable to the country’s economic development goals in the new era. As one of the important tools for the government to regulate high-quality advancement, taxation plays a vital role in the green development of the construction industry. This research uses panel data of 26 provinces in China from 2008 to 2017 and constructs a multiple intermediary effect model to conduct an empirical test on the impact of green taxes on the carbon emission efficiency of the construction industry and its mechanism. The results show that green taxation promotes carbon emission efficiency by accelerating the promotion of fixed capital investment in this industry, accelerating the flow of technological elements and technological research and development. This study further verifies that green taxation and carbon emission efficiency present an inverted U-shape relationship, and that the path mechanism of green taxation, fixed capital investment and technological progress-improving carbon emission efficiency of the construction industry has an intermediary effect. On this basis, suggestions are offered to rationally adjust the corporate tax burden, optimize the industrial structure, and actively guide the green transformation of the construction industry.
... Meanwhile, GDP is expected to decrease by 1.6% in 2030 [10]. Oke et al. and Diaz et al. conducted similar studies on ETS of sustainable development in South Africa and low-carbon development in New Zealand, respectively [11,12]. ...
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An emission trading system (ETS) is a powerful emission reduction tool for achieving low-carbon economic development in the world. Focusing on the industrial subsectors, this paper comprehensively analyzes the environmental and economic effects of the pilot ETS in China from the perspectives of economic development, technological optimization, and innovation-driven development by using the propensity score matching–difference in differences (PSM-DID) model based on 2005–2017 provincial panel data. This paper compensates for the limitations of existing studies on the effects of ETS on different subsectors; furthermore, the triple difference model (DDD) model is used to discuss the impacts of differences in environmental responsibility and economic potential among subsectors on policy effects. The empirical results show that: (1) The pilot ETS produces a 14.5% carbon reduction effect on the covered subsectors while reducing GDP by 4.8% without achieving a low-carbon economy. Thus, production decline is the main reason for carbon emission reductions. (2) Economic development factors have significant positive impacts on carbon emissions, while technological optimization and innovation-driven development are key factors for achieving reductions in carbon emissions. (3) The pilot ETS produces a 60.1% carbon emission inhibition effect and 23.2% GDP inhibition effect on the subsectors with greater environmental responsibility. Therefore, the Chinese government should fully simulate the impact of technological innovation and utilize resource endowment differences in the environmental and economic aspects of different sectors to achieve low-carbon economic development.
... Since its reform and opening, China has made remarkable economic achievements, but rapid growth inevitably results in a massive amount of consumption of resources, making China the largest emitter of carbon in the world [36]. Determining how to effectively reduce carbon emissions has become one of the hot spots for academia in China. ...
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To better understand the agricultural resources and environmental problems of the provinces along The Belt and Road in China, it is critical to investigate their agricultural carbon emission efficiency and evolutionary trends. Based on the panel data of 18 key provinces and cities between 2006 and 2015, this paper evaluated the agricultural carbon emission efficiency with the data envelopment analysis–Malmquist model and further explored their dynamic evolutionary trends. There were several main findings. First, the efficiency levels of agricultural carbon emissions showed significant regional differentiation among the areas, with that along the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road being much higher than that along the Silk Road Economic Belt. Second, technical efficiency was the key factor that restricted the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of agricultural carbon. Third, most provinces invested in too many redundant and unreasonably allocated resources, showing a trend of diminishing returns to scale. Last, According to dynamic evolution analysis, the total productivity still demonstrated a diminishing trend. This paper provides some suggestions for effectively improve the efficiency of agricultural carbon emissions in China, such as optimize the agricultural industrial structure, increasing the investment of carbon emission reduction technology, and implementing a carbon emission quota clearing system. This paper contributes to the improvement of the environment in China.
... The studies related to carbon trading opportunities are not limited to the countries which are mentioned in Table 1. For example, Oke et al. [13] examined the concept of carbon trading principles and systems and their adoption in the South African construction industry. Their study further examined two emissions trading systems; cap and trade as well as baseline and credit and suggested the former for the construction industry based on derived benefits and flexibility. ...
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In order to measure implementation management efficiency of Chinese green buildings, the input–output index system of Chinese green buildings was constructed base on provincial-level panel data during 2017–2021.The basic model Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DEA-Malmquist index method were adopted to measure and analyze the development law and time–region evolution tendency of implementation efficiency of Chinese green buildings from the static and dynamic perspectives, contributing to clarifying critical factors of restricting green building development, respectively. It was found that the comprehensive implementation management efficiency of Chinese green buildings was lower, but the development tendency was good. There was a remarkable regional and provincial difference, showing the development pattern of “east > middle > west” as a whole. Pure technical efficiency did not have a big gap, but most areas kept an invalid scale state, resulting in fluctuations of regional efficiency in varying degrees. The average annual increase of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) was 14.80%, indicating that TFP was developed well. Technical progress was considered as a decisive factor to restrain increase or decrease of TFP. As a result, to improve implementation efficiency of Chinese green buildings, it is necessary to focus on destroying the regional limitations, optimizing the input scale moderately, and paying attention to technical progress and innovation management.
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We consider the problem of link scheduling for efficient convergecast in a wireless system. While there have been many results on scheduling algorithms that attain the maximum possible throughput in such a system, there have been few results that provide scheduling algorithms that are optimal in terms of some quality-of-service metric such as the probability that the end-to-end buffer usage exceeds a large threshold. Using a large deviations framework, we design a novel and low complexity algorithm that attains the optimal asymptotic decay rate for the overflow probability of the sum-queue (i.e. the total queue backlog in the entire system) as the overflow threshold becomes large. Simulations show that this algorithm has better performance than well known algorithms such as the standard back-pressure algorithm and the multihop version of greedy maximal matching (combined with back-pressure). Our proposed algorithm performs better not only in terms of the asymptotic decay rate at large overflow thresholds, but also in terms of the actual probability of overflow for practical range of overflow thresholds.