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Aim The purpose of the present study was to measure the frequency of CVDs and some of the risk factors and to familiarize people with information on the high rates of mortality and morbidity due to CVDs in the studied areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Subjects Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of sudden death. CVDs are a major health problem in Pakistan, and the number of patients is increasing daily. Aim The purpose of the present study was to measure the frequency of CVDs and some of the risk factors and to familiarize people with information on the high rates of mortality and morbidity due to CVDs in the studied areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the local population of 53 cities in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 6351 individuals were contacted to collect data using a questionnaire from October 2014 to September 2015. Data were collected directly by meeting the participants or indirectly through relatives and friends. Results Of the participants, 49.2% (3127/6351) were male and 50.8% (3224/6351) female. The data showed that 17.5% (1109/6351) of the population had CVDs with 16.6% (519/3127) being male and 18.3% (590/3224) female. Conclusion This study concluded that CVDs are a serious problem for both genders and affected 17.5% of the studied population. Diseases are more common in females than males with young age of onset. An inactive lifestyle, low level of activity and family history of disease could be disease risk factors in the study area.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Punjab, Pakistan:
a cross-sectional study
Faiza Zubair
1
&Syed Kashif Nawaz
1
&Ammara Nawaz
2
&Hasnain Nangyal
3
&Naila Amjad
2
&Muhammad Saleem Khan
4
Received: 9 November 2017 /Accepted: 4 January 2018 /Published online: 31 January 2018
#Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract
Aim The purpose of the present study was to measure the frequency of CVDs and some of the risk factors and to familiarize
people with information on the high rates of mortality and morbidity due to CVDs in the studied areas of Punjab, Pakistan.
Subjects Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of sudden death. CVDs are a major health problem in Pakistan,
and the number of patients is increasing daily.
Aim The purpose of the present study was to measure the frequency of CVDs and some of the risk factors and to familiarize
people with information on the high rates of mortality and morbidity due to CVDs in the studied areas of Punjab, Pakistan.
Method A cross-sectionalstudy was conducted to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseasesin the local population of
53 cities in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 6351 individuals were contacted to collect data using a questionnaire from October 2014
to September 2015. Data were collected directly by meeting the participants or indirectly through relatives and friends.
Results Of the participants, 49.2% (3127/6351) were male and 50.8% (3224/6351) female. The data showed that 17.5%
(1109/6351) of the population had CVDs with 16.6% (519/3127) being male and 18.3% (590/3224) female.
Conclusion This study concluded thatCVDs are a serious problem for both genders and affected 17.5% of the studied population.
Diseases are more common in females than males with young age of onset. An inactive lifestyle, low level of activity and family
history of disease could be disease risk factors in the study area.
Keywords Cardiovascular disease .Cohort study .Onset age .Sargodha .Punjab .Pakistan
Background
A disease related to the circulatory system in humans is
known as a cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVDs are a major
health problem in Pakistan, and the number of patients is
increasing daily. CVDs caused about 16.7 million deaths in
2000 and 17 million in 2008, with more casualties in females
(Rosamond et al. 2008;WHO2011). This disease causes 25%
of the total deaths in developed and 80% in middle- and low-
income countries (Yarmohammadian et al. 2012). CVD also
causes 85% of the global disabilities (Alwan et al. 2011). In
the USA, 250,000 women die from CVDs annually (Hosseini
et al. 2011). On the Asian subcontinent, people are highly
susceptible to CADs, which cause many deaths (Joshi et al.
2007). Females are at higher risk of CVDs than males in
developing countries (Mosca et al. 2011).
The risk factors associated with CVD are smoking, poor
diet, high blood cholesterol levels, obesity, insufficient phys-
ical activity, physiosocial stress, diabetes and ethnicity
(Finucane et al. 2011; Mosca et al. 2011; Ueshima et al.
2008). In Asian women, high cholesterol levels and increased
systolic blood pressure cause CVDs (Barzi et al. 2007). Due to
westernized lifestyles, the number of young CVD patients is
increasing daily in Iran.
There are various differences in the mortality and mor-
bidity rates according to gender, age, socioeconomic sta-
tus, geographical location and ethnicity. The mortality rate
due to CVDs is higher at younger ages. Its prevalence is
higher in socioeconomically poor compared with wealthy
*Muhammad Saleem Khan
samiikhan@yahoo.com
1
Department of Zoology, University Of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
2
Department of Zoology, University of Lahore, Sargodha
Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
3
Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
4
Department of Zoology, Government College University,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Journal of Public Health (2018) 26:523529
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-018-0898-4
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... A cross-sectional study conducted among the local population of 53 cities in Punjab, Pakistan, reported that CVDs impacted 17.5% of the population, with females having a higher incidence rate than males and start occurring at a younger age. An inactive lifestyle, low level of activity and family history of disease could be disease risk factors (26). CVDs are also responsible for 40% and 37% of deaths in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, respectively. ...
... In EMR, the total number of fatalities due to diabetes was 186,841 thousand in 2019. Pakistan recorded the highest number (80,976) followed by Egypt (26,844), Iran (157,018) then Morocco (17,947) (6) ( Table 1). According to the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study, diabetes is the second cause of death in two countries (Bahrain and Jordan) and the third reason for death in three countries (Iraq, Palestine, and Qatar) in the region. ...
... Hypertension Hypertension or raised blood pressure is defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure greater than, or equal to, 140/90 FIGURE 4 | Correlation between the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cumulative cancer risk among adults in EMR (6,26). mmHg. ...
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... Prevalence of CAD was 17.48%. A study that was also conducted in Pakistan reported similar finding with CAD prevalence of 17.50% [18]. After noting quantitative variables, we observed that CAD was more common among females as compared to males. ...
... After noting quantitative variables, we observed that CAD was more common among females as compared to males. This finding of study was supported by a study that was conducted in Pakistan as well [18]. Another study showed that CAD incidence are higher among males while more severe in females [6]. ...
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... Unfortunately, with an estimated prevalence of 17.5%, Pakistan is a high burden CVD country where 29% of allcause mortality is attributed to CVD [17]. Very few studies have evaluated the frequency, severity and risk factors associated with pDDIs among CVD patients in Pakistan. ...
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Background: There are established differences in cardiovascular disease in different racial groups. Worldwide, the literature regarding the clinical epidemiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) in non-white populations is scarce. Objectives: To document the clinical epidemiology of AF among hospital admissions to two teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, over a two-month period and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients. Subjects: 3,766 acute medical admissions, of whom 245 (6.5%) had AF. Results: Of 245 patients with AF, clinical notes of 24 were lost in the system. Of the remaining 221 patients with AF (107 males; mean age 66 years), 22% were Afghani Muslims, 3% Indians, 1% white and the rest were Pakistani with unknown country of origin. The most common associated medical conditions were hypertension (54%), valvular heart disease (54%) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD, 47%). The most common presenting complaints in female patients were palpitations (51%) and anxiety (35%). In males, the most common symptoms were palpitations (46%), chest pain (35%) and anxiety (27%). Among male patients, 100% had an electrocardiogram (ECG), 93% an X-ray, 89% echocardiography and 49% thyroid function testing. Direct current (DC) cardioversion was attempted in 8%. Of the male admissions with AF, 64% were taking aspirin, while 75% were anticoagulated in hospital and 40% of patients were discharged on anticoagulants with cessation documented in 14%. Beta blockers and amiodarone were prescribed in 74% and 19% of male cases respectively. In females, 100% had an ECG, 76% chest X-rays and 81% had echocardiography proposed. Thyroid function tests were done in 46% of cases, and DC cardioversion was attempted in 11%. Of the female AF patients, 70% were anticoagulated in hospital and 48% went home on anticoagulants. Cessation of warfarin was documented in 27% of female patients, and beta blockers and amiodarone were prescribed in 80% and 26% respectively. Conclusion: Among acute medical admissions to hospital in Pakistan the prevalence of AF was 6.5%. Consistent with previous similar surveys in mainly Western (Caucasian) populations, standard investigations in this cohort were inadequate and there was underuse of anticoagulation (with a high cessation rate).
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Objective: To determine the frequency of diabetic cardiomyopathy among patients with type-2 diabetes presenting with overt heart failure. Study design: Case series. Place and duration of study: Department of Cardiology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from April 2008 to July 2009. Methodology: One hundred patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus having symptoms and signs of heart failure were enrolled. Anthropometric parameters were recorded and all patients had investigations including complete blood count, blood glucose (fasting and random), serum creatinine, fasting lipid profile, haemoglobin A1c, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiography. After stabilization, every patient underwent coronary angiography. The data was entered in a structured proforma. Results: Sixty (60%) patients were males and 40 (40%) were females. Duration of diabetes was > 10 years in all. Eighty (80%) were on oral hypoglycemic and 20 (20%) were on insulin. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was found in 40 patients (40%) of the total study patients. Forty percent (40%) patients had marked left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction < 30%). Three (5%) patients died during hospitalization. Conclusion: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a fairly common cause of heart failure in the native population with type-2 diabetes mellitus and results in high morbidity and mortality.