Article

Bleaching of Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) Fibers with Peracetic Acid for Textiles Industry Purposes

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Abstract

Hemp plant exhibits various eco-friendly properties and hemp fiber processing does not cause environmental damage, however, it is known that most chemical operations have a risk to interrupt a sustainable production. As stated in several studies, peracetic acid is an important environmental friendly bleaching agent when compared to its conventional competitors. In this study, hemp fabric was bleached with peracetic acid with exhaustion and padding methods. The effects of temperature, pH, process time, concentration on whiteness values were determined. The influences of bleaching processes were investigated via instrumental and imaging methods. Physical properties of the treated fibers were also tested. Besides peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide bleaching was carried out for comparison. COD values of bleaching effluents were analyzed for selected samples. Higher whiteness values were obtained with exhaustion bleachings than pad-batch bleachings. Quite high whiteness values (up to 68.13 Stensby whiteness index) attained in peracetic acid without significant fiber damage.

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... Hemp as natural, eco-friendly, renewable, sustainable and biodegradable cellulosic fiber exhibits excellent strength and durability properties due to its high crystalline structure. Besides its good strength properties, hemp fiber also displays very good antistatic, antimicrobial, thermal, UV protection, water permeability properties and does not lead to any allergic reaction for human body (Kozlowski et al. 2005;Kostic et al. 2008;Pejic et al. 2008;Clarke 2010;Gedik et al. 2010;Shahzad 2011;Hwang and Ji 2012;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Liu et al. 2018;Ramesh 2018). In addition, hemp fiber plant is low-input crop and provides natural weed control and needs low fertilizer requirement in its plant agriculture contrary to cotton cultivation that needs high water and agricultural chemical consumption (Kozlowski et al. 2005;Clarke 2010;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Liu et al. 2018). ...
... Besides its good strength properties, hemp fiber also displays very good antistatic, antimicrobial, thermal, UV protection, water permeability properties and does not lead to any allergic reaction for human body (Kozlowski et al. 2005;Kostic et al. 2008;Pejic et al. 2008;Clarke 2010;Gedik et al. 2010;Shahzad 2011;Hwang and Ji 2012;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Liu et al. 2018;Ramesh 2018). In addition, hemp fiber plant is low-input crop and provides natural weed control and needs low fertilizer requirement in its plant agriculture contrary to cotton cultivation that needs high water and agricultural chemical consumption (Kozlowski et al. 2005;Clarke 2010;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Liu et al. 2018). However, hemp fibers which find applications in many different textile products tend to wrinkle like other cellulosic fibers during their use (Kozlowski et al. 2005;Shahzad 2011;Hwang and Ji 2012;Yu 2015;Ramesh 2018). ...
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... The degradation products of peracetic acid are oxygen and acetic acid and it is an environmentally safe bleaching agent since peracetic acid enables an ecofriendly bleaching with low water, energy and chemical consumption [3]. Therefore, in this study, firstly, bleaching of coir fiber fabric with peracetic acid at various conditions are performed and the color properties of bleached coir fabrics were measured. ...
... The mathematical functions used in the model are given in Equations (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8). The aim is to optimize the weights Table 2. ...
... This is actually in line with the results of previous studies. Similar results were also determined by the earlier reported studies that respective applied bleaching processes had no significant detrimental effects on the surface morphology for oxidized cellulosic fibers (Davulcu et al. 2014;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Eren 2018). No drastic significant effects were spotted on the surface morphologies of the cotton fiber after bleaching with hydrogen peroxide generation with the GOx enzyme from glucose in water under ultrasonic homogenizer effect and conventional peroxide bleaching in water (Davulcu et al. 2014), the surface morphologies of cotton fiber after bleaching with ozone under ultrasonic effect and conventional peroxide bleaching in water , the surface morphologies of hemp fiber after bleaching with peracetic acid in water conventional peroxide bleaching in water (Gedik and Avinc 2018) and the surface morphologies of cotton fiber after photocatalytic bleaching via ultraviolet (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) (Eren 2018). ...
... Similar results were also determined by the earlier reported studies that respective applied bleaching processes had no significant detrimental effects on the surface morphology for oxidized cellulosic fibers (Davulcu et al. 2014;Gedik and Avinc 2018;Eren 2018). No drastic significant effects were spotted on the surface morphologies of the cotton fiber after bleaching with hydrogen peroxide generation with the GOx enzyme from glucose in water under ultrasonic homogenizer effect and conventional peroxide bleaching in water (Davulcu et al. 2014), the surface morphologies of cotton fiber after bleaching with ozone under ultrasonic effect and conventional peroxide bleaching in water , the surface morphologies of hemp fiber after bleaching with peracetic acid in water conventional peroxide bleaching in water (Gedik and Avinc 2018) and the surface morphologies of cotton fiber after photocatalytic bleaching via ultraviolet (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) (Eren 2018). ...
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... When FTIR-ATR spectra of various samples in Fig. 3 are compared, the constancy of the FTIR-ATR spectra shows that the respective bleaching processing types have no significant effect on the surface morphology of cotton fibre. Similar results reporting that bleaching processing had no drastic significant effect on the surface morphology for oxidised cellulosic fibres were reported by other researchers earlier for cotton (Davulcu et al. 2014) and hemp (Gedik and Avinc 2018). Tensile strengths of the samples were given in Table 3. ...
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... Ayrıca hidrojen peroksit ağartması sırasında proses parametrelerinde (pH, sıcaklık, ortamda bulunabilecek ağır metal iyonları vb.) oluşabilecek değişimler pamuk lifinin zarar görmesine neden olacaktır. Bu nedenle spesifik olarak, pamuğa istenmeyen renk veren pigmentlerin hedef alınacağı ağartma yöntemlerinin geliştirilmesi gereklidir [3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... Overall, all colour indices were significantly lower in the enzymatic retting method than with the other two methods. If the raw fibre colour is not desirable for downstream applications, bleaching methods can be applied during the processing of the fibres (Wang and Postle, 2004;Gedik and Avinc, 2018). ...
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... Hemp fiber is one of the sustainable textile material sources for environmentally conscious textile processes. The hemp plant grows quickly and does not need pesticides or insecticides when growing, it improves the condition of the soil that it is grown in, and it needs very little water, unlike cotton (Anon, 2018;Gedik and Avinc, 2018). Moreover, hemp is a drought-resistant plant, and it can be grown in most climates. ...
... Hemp fibers find numerous applications in textiles and the possibilities for hemp fabrics are immense: apparel, jeans, sport clothing, bags, hats, cushion covers, blankets, shoes, socks, accessories, ropes, yarns, rugs, furniture and home furnishings, and also hemp jewelry, e.g. bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments (Amaducci and Gusovious 2010;Müssig 2010;Bouloc 2013;Kostić et al. 2014;Bhavani 2015;Pil et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2016;Bran et al. 2017;Lamberti and Sarkar 2017;Mirski et al. 2017;Rijavec et al. 2017;Gedik and Avinc 2018). ...
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Recent trends in natural resources, energy conservation, biomass conversion to chemicals, bioproducts and biofuels have renewed the interest on hemp as a new low-cost, sustainable, ecological, biodegradable, recyclable, and multi-purpose material. Hemp-based materials are indeed suitable substitutes for many fossil-based materials and applications.
... However, the environmental impacts of PAA application has not yet been reported for bleached wood pulp production. In addition, PAA is considered an environmentally friendly bleaching agent with potential applications in the textiles industry and disinfectant in the food and beverage industry (Amini and Webster, 1995;Brasileiro et al., 2001;Egwari et al., 2020;Gedik and Avinc, 2018;Kitis, 2003;Ottavia et al., 2020;Poppius-Levlin et al., 1999;Sharma et al., 2020;Song et al., 1993). There is a lack of understanding of the sustainability of PAA production, precisely how different PAA production pathways can impact the overall environmental footprints as a bleaching chemical. ...
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Bleaching is an important industrial operation that has significant environmental impacts. Many new bleaching technologies have been developed; nonetheless, it is challenging to quantify their potential environmental impacts due to the lack of quantitative information and robust analysis methods across different bleaching agents. This study addresses this gap by developing a general Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework that integrates LCA with manufacturing process simulations and lab-scale bleaching experiments. The framework was applied to a case study of Peracetic Acid (PAA), a promising bleaching agent, used in the Total Chlorine-Free (TCF) technology for wood pulp production, compared with the traditional Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) using chlorine dioxide. Different PAA synthetic pathways (i.e., using acetic acid or triacetin) and bleaching charges were explored using scenario analysis. Results showed that PAA-based TCF achieves a brightness similar to the conventional ECF technology with lower life-cycle impacts in categories such as global warming and eutrophication. From a process perspective, PAA-based TCF reduces the consumption of energy, water, pulping chemicals, completely avoids the use of chlorinated compounds, and provides enhanced process safety. The source of PAA significantly affects the life-cycle environmental impacts of pulp bleaching. Using PAA synthesized from triacetin rather than acetic acid leads to higher environmental impacts; however, such impacts can be mitigated by reducing excessive use of triacetin (direction for future optimization) or using bio-based glycerin in the production of the triacetin feedstock for PAA production. Although this case study focuses on PAA bleaching for wood pulp, the framework has the potential to be used for other/same bleaching agents in different industrial sectors.
... Currently, clothing is a high profile market for hemp. Hemp fibers find numerous applications in textiles and the possibilities for hemp fabrics are immense: apparel, jeans, sport clothing, bags, hats, cushion covers, blankets, shoes, socks, accessories, ropes, yarns, rugs, furniture and home furnishings, and also hemp jewelry, e.g., bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments (Amaducci and Gusovious 2010;Müssig 2010;Bouloc 2013;Kostić et al. 2014;Bhavani 2015;Pil et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2016;Bran et al. 2017;Lamberti and Sarkar 2017;Mirski et al. 2017;Rijavec et al. 2017;Gedik and Avinc 2018). ...
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Flax and hemp fibres have been increasingly used as reinforcement in polymer composites. First, an overview is given of the technical arguments which convinced designers of consumer goods to use these fibres. In particular, their composites show higher specific stiffness than glass fibre composites in both tension and plate bending and only slightly lower values than carbon fibre composites in plate bending. Moreover, flax and hemp fibres possess a much higher vibration damping capacity, making them excellent candidates for applications in sporting goods or musical instruments. Secondly, the paper describes how designers relate to the non-technical characteristics of these natural fibres. Many concrete examples are given from different application domains in consumer goods: sports, mobility, music and sound, furniture and interior design. The fascination of designers for these bio-based materials combined with the recent introduction in the market of new, composites-oriented preforms of flax and hemp fibres, is rapidly increasing the number and variety of composite products using flax and hemp fibres as reinforcement.
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Peracetic acid is produced directly in the bleaching liquor from acetic anhydride and hydrogen peroxide. The acid can be catalyzed to bleach knitted cotton fabric at temper atures as low as 30°C in the presence of 2.2' bipyridine, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sodium tetraborate. We evaluate the effects of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and acetic anhydride as well as treatment temperature, time, and pH on whiteness, bursting strength, and water absorbency of the fabric. The results of our investigation show that peracetic acid can be acceptable as a bleaching agent for the textile industry as an alternative to hypochlorite bleaching.
Article
In the field of composite materials, natural fibres appear to be a viable replacement for glass fibres. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such materials can lead to their structural modification. Then, understanding moisture sorption mechanisms in these materials is an important issue for their efficient use. In this work, the water sorption on three natural fibres (flax, hemp and sisal) was studied using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The spectral information allowed both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the moisture absorption mechanisms. The main chemical functions involved in the water sorption phenomenon were identified. The absolute water content of the fibres was also determined by using a partial least square regression (PLS-R) approach. Moreover, typical sorption isotherm curves described by Park model were fitted as well as water diffusion kinetics. These last applications confirmed the validity of the FTIR spectra based predictive models.
Article
Investigations were undertaken to optimize bleaching of linen fabrics using four systems, namely, KMnO4-oxalic acid, KMnO4-citric acid, ultrasound assisted KMnO4-oxalic acid and ultrasound assisted KMnO4-citric acid .The bleaching process involved two distinct steps where linen fabric was treated under different conditions with aqueous solutions of KMnO4 to yield MnO2-containing fabrics then the latter in a subsequent step was subjected to acid treatment under a variety of conditions. Optimization studies concerning the KMnO4 treatment refer to the following conditions.[KMnO4], 5g/l at pH 4 and 90°C for 20min, whereas those of acid treatment were [oxalic acid], 10g/l at 85°C for 30min. Similar conditions were found with citric acid except that its concentrations was 8g/l. Introduction of ultrasound as an eco-friendly source of energy in the acid treatment step shortens the time from 30min to 5 and 10min in case of oxalic acid and citric acid respectively while decreasing the temperature from 85°C to 60°C for both acids.
Article
The renewed interest in bast fibers for textile products has focused attention on research in different methods of bast fiber processing. The color properties of bast fibers must be improved during fiber preparation, especially when standard textile processes such as cotton and wool methods are considered. The color properties of hemp fibers are investigated in this paper after chemical processing based on experimental design tech niques. The effects on the fiber color of hemp raw materials and chemical processes are discussed. The results of alkali boiling and peroxide bleaching are analyzed for their significant effects on hemp fiber color.
Article
Cotton is bleached with peracetic acid by varying the process parameters (pH, temper ature, treatment time, and acid concentration). The effect of these process parameters on the quality of the bleached material is discussed and compared with conventionally bleached materials. To obtain the desired degree of whiteness with minimum chemical damage to cellulose, the process parameters are optimized.
Article
The bleaching of cotton fabrics with hydrogen peroxide requires high temperature at a high pH value. A large amount of energy is consumed and the aggressive treatment conditions frequently damage the cellulose macromolecular chain. In this paper, novel cationic activator for H2O2 bleaching, (N-[4-triethylammoniomethyl]-benzoyl) caprolactam chloride (TBCC), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Low temperature bleaching technique and surface morphology of cellulose fabric with TBCC were discussed. The desized and scoured cotton cellulose fabric could be bleached at low temperature 60°C, using TBCC as active bleaching agent for H2O2. The whiteness index and wettability of the cotton fabric bleached at low temperature were similar with those of the cotton fabric bleached with the traditional high temperature method. Cotton cellulose fabric was not damaged at low temperature bleaching. It has potential application in cleaner production of cellulose materials.
Article
In this study we focus on some key problems encountered in the processing of bast fibers from hemp for the production of textiles. These problems include the high content of pectin, the excessive rigidity and the poor “spinnability” of hemp fibers. The results of a thorough analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the fibers at each step of the process are presented. The parameters measured include the length, fineness, surface appearance, tensile properties, moisture absorption, flexibility and crystallinity of the fibers. The refinement of the processing described here results in fibers that are thinner, cleaner, more flexible and more uniform in length, all of which contributed to an improved spinning performance of the hemp fibers.
Article
This paper reports the preliminary results of a microscopic study carried out on stem cross sections of hemp. Stems were harvested from two field experiments carried out in 2001 and 2002 in the north of Italy to compare the monoecious genotype Futura 75 over four plant populations. Fibre characteristics such as cell shape, diameter, maturation and quantity of secondary fibre tended to vary with harvest time, plant density, and between and within internodes. After the end of internode elongation, fibre cells changed from oblong to round shaped and fibre maturation started and progressed to a maximum level. At various moments of the growing cycle, fibre maturity and presence of secondary fibre seemed higher at lower internodes and plant densities.
Article
HEMP-SYS is a European Union (EU) Project funded under the thematic programme: Quality of life and management of living resources of the 5th Framework, key action 5.2. The project has officially started on 1st November 2002 and will be carried out for 36 months. Scientific and industrial partners will tackle the main problems of the hemp fibre production chain for textile destination from cultivation to the development of end products. Main objectives of the project are: provide decision support to primary producers, produce an integrated quality control system for raw and processed products, disseminate information to support the entire chain of the hemp fibre industry. Main expected project results are: innovative hemp fibre production systems with decision support tools for farmers, optimal processing methods, a prototype for an integrated quality control system, disseminated knowledge and high-value hemp textile end products.
Article
In this study peracetic acid was prepared by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with glacial acetic acid in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Factors affecting peracetic acid formation were studied, together with following up the amount of residual hydrogen peroxide and amount of converted peracid throughout the reaction period. The so prepared peracetic acid was used for bleaching cotton fabrics, and different variables affecting the bleaching process were extensively studied. The bleached fabrics were fully characterized and results obtained show that optimum conditions for bleaching were using peracetic acid at concentration of 40 ml/l at 70 °C, using a material to liquor ratio of 1:30 at pH 6 for 30 min and then turning the pH to 10.5 and continuing bleaching for extra 30 min. These conditions were found to give bleached fabric with satisfactory whiteness index with reasonable loss in tensile properties.Highlights► Peracetic acid, an eco-friendly powerful bleaching agent for cotton was prepared in a very simple one-step process. ► Bleaching was carried out at low temperature which means energy conservation with economical and environmental benefits. ► Peracid was consumed first at pH 6 and then the pH was turned to 10 to consume hydrogen peroxide. ► Bleached fabrics showed acceptable whiteness and great deal of tensile properties was retained after bleaching.
Article
Acidic and alkaline pectinases have proved efficient for the scouring of cotton. Peracetic acid can be used as an alternative for the bleaching of cotton. As a result of similar conditions of activity, we decided to try to scour and bleach a cotton fabric with both agents simultaneously in a single bath. Prior to performing these experiments, using the viscometric method we proved that pectinases retained their activity in the presence of peracetic acid. We tried to improve the efficiency of the single-bath treatment with the addition of a chelator. Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, which does not deactivate pectinases, has proved an efficient chelator. The analyses of a cotton fabric treated in a single bath with acidic and alkaline pectinases confirmed the efficiency of such treatment. A sufficient quantity of wax and pectin was removed and, because of that, the absorbance of the treated fabric was improved. The damage to the cotton fibres was negligible and the degree of whiteness obtained was uniform and adequate for further dyeing.
Article
The powerful oxidant peracetic acid, a peroxycarboxylic acid, used in the textile industry is the subject of this wide ranging review. The preparation and production of peracetic acid is covered in detail, together with the explosive potential of the substance. At 100% concentration peracetic acid will explode if heated to 110°C. It is normally produced and distributed in dilute aqueous solution for obvious safety reasons. Despite its dangers peracetic acid has excellent bactericidal, fungicidal, anti-microbial and anti-viral properties. It also has good bleaching qualities at low concentrations. Stabilisers are generally necessary to slow storage decomposition. Its main industrial application is the bleaching of both natural and synthetic fibres and a very comprehensive survey of its uses in the textile industry is given. Other applications for peracetic acid do exist and include the delignification of wood pulp, the preparation of viscose and mildew prevention on knitted fabrics.
Article
A field trial was conducted at the University of Wales Bangor Research Centre, Gwynedd using five varieties of hemp, sown at two seed rates: 150 and 300 seeds m−2 to determine the optimum time to cut hemp to maximise fibre yield and quality. Three cutting times were imposed from mid-August to mid-September, corresponding to start of flowering, mid-point of flowering and end of flowering, and following dew-retting in the field fibre from the stems was extracted to determine fibre yield and quality.A wide variation was found in fibre yields between the five varieties, although the first cut in mid-August resulted in the highest yields in all varieties except for Beniko. A decline in fibre yield was recorded from the first to the third cut and it is suggested that this is a result of lignification of the fibres occurring after mid-August. The importance of cutting hemp early in autumn to avoid lignification of the fibres is discussed, and it is suggested that varieties with reduced or delayed onset of lignification are important in the prevailing colder, wetter climates of the more northerly latitudes.The higher seed rate led to better weed suppression and higher fibre yields in all varieties. The monoecious varieties performed better than the dioecious and hybrid varieties in the northern climate where the trial was conducted. It is suggested that further research is required to develop a more accurate method of monitoring retting in the field.
Article
Enzymatic scouring of linen fabric using a mixture of pectinase and lipase is described. For comparison, a sample of linen fabric was scoured conventionally in boiling alkaline solution. The enzymatically scoured linen fabric showed lower loss in weight than the conventionally scoured one but on the other hand, its drop penetration time was found to be too high. After common bleaching, the wettability and the degree of whiteness of both the enzymatically and the conventionally scoured linen fabrics were found to be similar. In contrast to the harsh conditions applied in the alkaline scouring, during the gentle enzymatic procedure, significant lower fiber damage occurs resulting in better mechanical properties, such as a higher degree of polymerization and an increased tensile strength. After scaling-up the suggested enzymatic treatment of linen fabric, promising ecological and economical benefits could be attained.
Article
Retted hemp fibres were treated using chemical–physical pre-treatments and the material was characterised chemically in order to evaluate the effect of the pre-treatments, respectively, wet oxidation (WO), hydrothermal treatment (HT) and steam explosion (STEX). Process variables were addition of base and oxidant. These treatments were performed to make fibres that are useful as reinforcement in composite materials and for textiles. All pre-treatments tested increased the content of cellulose in the fibres by degrading and dissolving non-cell wall material (NCWM, e.g., pectin and waxes), lignin and to some degree hemicellulose. A high loss of dry matter in the process was connected with a high loss of cellulose since cellulose is the main component. Generally losses were bigger for steam explosion than for wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment. All the pre-treatments with base gave cellulose degradation probably due to the effect of Na2CO3 in opening the structure of the molecules making them more accessible for degradation. The processes where least dry matter was degraded (15–17%) were WO, HT and STEX without base addition. In these processes, no cellulose was lost. Originally being grey, the pre-treatments gave fibre colours ranging from white to dark brown. Alkaline wet oxidation produced the brightest fibres with potential for use in textiles. Use of retted fibres in the pre-treatment resulted in fibres with high cellulose content (86–90%) of potential as reinforcement in composite materials.
Article
Experiments have been performed to further the development of natural fiber reinforced composites as a replacement for glass fiber composites. Untreated and treated surfaces of natural fibers were characterized using FTIR, XPS, and ESEM. Changes in the peaks in the FTIR spectrum at 1730, 1625 and 1239 cm−1 indicated that the alkali treatment removes hemicellulose and lignin from natural fiber surfaces. ESEM indicated the presence of silane on treated hemp and kenaf. XPS shows that hemp has a lower O/C ratio than kenaf. Water absorption experiments were also conducted to determine saturation mass gain. Alkali treated fiber composites absorbed more water than silane treated or untreated composites. The natural fiber composites absorbed more water than the glass fiber composites. Hemp composites, in general, performed worse in flexural testing than kenaf composites.
Article
Flax and hemp were the most important source for textile yarns until the 18th century. Since then cotton has taken over their role. The recent developments in plant genomics and the availability of microarray technology make it possible to better understand the complex relation between genes and fibre quality. This will lead to new targets for breeding and become the final break-through for alternative crops such as flax and hemp.
Article
Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.
Article
The present study investigates the oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by conventional ozonation and the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The major degradation products identified were methanesulfinate, methanesulfonate, formaldehyde, and formic acid in ozonation process. The subsequent degradation of intermediates shows that methanesulfonate is more resistance to ozonation, which reduces the mineralization rate of DMSO. The effect of t-butanol addition and ozone gas flow dosage on the degradation rate was evaluated. The rate constant of the reaction of ozone (k(D)) with DMSO was found to be 0.4162 M(-1)S(-1). In the second part of this study, DMSO degradation and TOC mineralization were investigated using O(3)/UV, O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) processes. In all theses processes the degradation of target organics is more pronounced than TOC removal. The efficiencies of these processes were evaluated and discussed. The formation of sulfate ion in all AOPs have been identified and compared with other processes. Overall it can be concluded that ozonation and ozone-based AOPs are promising processes for an efficient removal of DMSO in wastewater.
Article
This study investigated the individual influences of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on the water uptake behavior of hemp fibers. Hemp fibers with different content of either hemicelluloses or lignin were obtained by chemical treatment with 17.5% sodium hydroxide or 0.7% sodium chlorite. Various tests (capillary rise method, moisture sorption, water retention power) were applied to evaluate the change in water uptake of modified hemp fibers. The obtained results show that when the content of either hemicelluloses or lignin is reduced progressively by chemical treatment, the capillary properties of hemp fibers are improved, i.e. capillary rise height of modified fibers is increased up to 2.7 times in relation to unmodified fibers. Furthermore, hemicelluloses removal increases the moisture sorption and decreases the water retention values of hemp fibers, while lignin removal decreases the moisture sorption and increases the water retention ability of hemp fibers.
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