Content uploaded by Michael A. Sherbon

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Michael A. Sherbon on Jan 30, 2018

Content may be subject to copyright.

Michael A. Sherbon

Case Western Reserve University Alumnus

E-mail: michael.sherbon@case.edu

January 24, 2018

Abstract

After a brief review of the golden ratio in history and our previous exposition of the ﬁne-

structure constant and equations with the exponential function, the ﬁne-structure constant is

studied in the context of other research calculating the ﬁne-structure constant from the golden

ratio geometry of the hydrogen atom. This research is extended and the ﬁne-structure constant

is then calculated in powers of the golden ratio to an accuracy consistent with the most recent

publications. The mathematical constants associated with the golden ratio are also involved

in both the calculation of the ﬁne-structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio. These

constants are included in symbolic geometry of historical relevance in the science of the ancients.

Keywords ﬁne-structure constant, dimensionless physical constants, history of mathematics,

golden ratio, sacred geometry, Fibonacci sequence, mathematical constants, fundamental physics.

As Willem Witteveen states in his book The Great Pyramid of Giza, “Every expression of the

golden mean, which includes: number, rectangle, triangle, spiral and frequency, is encoded in

the design of the Great Pyramid and illustrates the importance of the ratio in the universe in

which we belong.” [1]. He also states, “The golden ratio, as well as the Great Pyramid as an

expression of it, is an important key to our universe containing the Earth and the Moon” [1] and

that “the ratio between the Earth and the Moon is in fact the basis for the mathematical concept

of ‘squaring the circle’ ...” [1]. Marja de Vries states, “The Golden Ratio deﬁnes the squaring

of a circle .... According to some, in ancient Egypt, this mathematical mystery was encoded

in the measurements of the Great Pyramid of Giza.” [2]. Continuing with her general theme of

1

universal laws and wholeness, de Vries says, “In short, the idea dawns that the one universal

principle ... embodiment of the Principle of Least Action ... indeed seems to be the Golden

Ratio Spiral.” [2]. Richard Heath has another description, “The Golden Mean was considered

a fundamental constant by the Egyptians and the fundamental division of the whole into two

parts.” [3]. Mario Livio says, “In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired

thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics.” [4].

Alexey Stakhov explains that “one of the most important trends in the development of mod-

ern science ... is very simple: a return to the ‘harmonic ideas’ of Pythagoras and Plato (the

‘golden ratio’ and Platonic solids), embodied in Euclid’s ‘Elements’” [5], also see [6]. As stated

previously, “The golden ratio is an approximate harmonic of the Planck length in meters and

harmonics of fundamental units have a geometric basis in ancient metrology.” [7, 8]. Further

consideration on the nature of the golden section is given by Scott Olsen [9]. Fundamental

modern applications are suggested by David Haight, “There is considerable evidence that the

golden proportion is the foundation for the uniﬁcation of mathematics and physics.” [10], also

see Gazalé [11]. In the description of Eckhart Schmitz, “Mathematics is a universal language

and it would be ﬁtting to examine the Great Pyramid in this language to derive its meaning. It

has been suggested that the Great Pyramid is a repository of ancient knowledge.” [12].

Thousands of years ago the ancients had an advanced mathematical understand-

ing of universe that is revealed in many sources. There is a consistent link to knowl-

edge of the golden mean, but the way in which the ancients were able to formulate

and use this information speaks of a technical grasp of the subject that exceeds what

we know about it in the present day. –Alison Primrose [13].

David Haight says, “The golden proportion is the only one in which its (legato) addition and

(staccato) multiplication of itself are equivalent. It is both an arithmetic and a geometrical pro-

gression, two sides of the same coin (another “two that are one”), and is the basis of logarithms

and exponentials (logarithms transform multiplication into addition, and exponentials transform

addition into multiplication).” [10].

In The Essence of the Cabalah, William Eisen describes the fundamental geometry of what he

described as the “Golden Apex of the Great Pyramid” [14]. Eisen’s description and interpretation

of Euler’s identity [15]-[17], exp(iπ) + 1=0 (“this most compact and mysterious formula” that

“Richard Feynman referred to as ‘the most remarkable formula in mathematics,’”[18]) in relation

to the Great Pyramid shows a drawing of four curves of exfrom x=0 to x=π, one curve on

each side and labelled the “Graphical Representation of the Exponential Function to the Base e.”

ex=exp(x) =

∞

∑

n=0

xn

x!=lim

n→∞1+x

nn.(1)

In addition to the exponential function [19, 20], Euler’s formula is exp(ix) = cos x+isinxand in

hyperbolic terms exp(x) = coshx+sinhx. Eisen was asking himself how the ancient Egyptians

could know so much about this and how it supports his effort to understand the role of imaginary

and complex numbers in the geometry of the Great Pyramid [14, 15]. The measures he found

in this model with exponential curves align with other traditional measures found in the Great

Pyramid design, including the golden ratio, also given as φ=exp(iπ/5) + exp(−iπ/5).

2

These exponential curves could be considered as having the esoteric properties of an alchem-

ical vessel as Steven Rosen explains that they “possess the feature of curving back into them-

selves.” [21]. Wolfgang Pauli’s i ring, part of his World Clock vision [22], was “used in his

description of microphysical spin” [21]. Rosen quotes Pauli, “The ring with the iis the unity

beyond particle and wave, and at the same time the operation that generates either of these.”

[21]. Also see the following references for Pauli and the spin concept development [23]-[29].

The exponential growth function is the simplest possible differential equation,

the unique solution to dy/dx =y;y(0)1 and the most primitive (prime) derivative

in which state and rate, form and function, symmetry and dynamism, being and

becoming, structure and process, the integral and the derivative, the evolute and the

involute, the ’splice’ and the ’slice’ and the squaring of a root and the extraction of

a root are the same. –David Haight [30].

Dividing the sides of his mathematical model for the Great Pyramid by πlengths results in a

small square in the center called the Golden Apex, the geometry and symmetry thought to be

associated with the generation of the four fundamental forces of nature [14, 15]. Eisen provides

a description of the dimensions formed by the exponential function and the Golden Apex square,

A=eπ−7π−1'√2/3π'0.1495.(2)

Ais the side length of the Golden Apex square. √A'e/7 and A+1=eπ−7π'R'1.152,

radius of the regular heptagon with side one. The heptagon is traditionally associated with

the geometry of ’squaring the circle’. The sin(2πA)'φ/2,where φis the golden ratio [31].

The tan(2πA)'1+√A'K/2π,see Eq.(7) [32]. The polygon circumscribing constant is

K'2tan(3π/7)'φ2/2A,see Eq.(7) discussion and 2A'cos√φ'p2/7π[7, 32, 33]. A

is also the reciprocal harmonic of Newton’s gravitational constant. Also, A'ln(√φ)/φ'

3/e3'tan2(e−1)and ln(A−1)'π/√e'p1+√7'6/π'p1+φ2.The regular heptagon

radius, R=csc(π/7)/2'φ/√2'cot2α−1and 2πR'1/φ√α.RA '2√α,where αis the

ﬁne-structure constant, see the Eq.(7) discussion below [7, 32, 33].

RA 'pφ/e2'ln(π/√7)'p7/π/K.(3)

R−1'√φsinα−1and e2+φ2'RK.The cosh2(√A)'π/e.A'√αcosh(π/e).The p7/π'

coth2R'ARK [7, 32, 33]. The silver constant from the heptagon [34, 35] is approximated by

S'2√2R'tan√φ'3.247.The √S=2cos(π/7)'7φ/2πand 2πA'S/2√3'sin70◦.Also

relevant, 2A'S/11 '1/√11,see the discussion of Eq.(9).

More approximations with the Great Pyramid’s Golden Apex A[7, 32, 33]:

A'√11/7π'√e/11 '√πα '2παS.(4)

As Jean-Paul and Robert Bauval describe in the Secret Chamber Revisited how prime numbers

7 and 11 are signiﬁcant keys to the Great Pyramid, 22/7'π[36]. Also noted by David Haight,

“When the Fibonacci number sequence is based on the number seven and its multiples, the

Fibonacci sequence self-reﬂexively reappears when differences are calculated between it and this

new number-seven-based Fibonacci sequence. The same thing happens with Lucas numbers.”

3

[10]. With the ﬁne-structure constant, 2πα is equal to the electron Compton wavelength divided

by the Bohr radius [21] and πα is the percentage of light absorbed by graphene [37]. The

√α'√R/4π'3A/2φ2and √2A'√π/S.Also, 4/π'√A/2A'pS/2 and see the Eq.(10)

discussion. Finally, √e/φ'1+αφ2[7, 32, 33].

From David Haight, “prime numbers, the ‘atoms’ of mathematics, are necessarily related to the

atoms of nature because of the well-known Rydberg rule that follows the same pattern as Euler’s

harmonic zeta power series (derived from the self-derived exponential growth function).” [30].

The Euler product formula for the Riemann zeta function [38, 39]:

ζ(2) =

∞

∑

n=1

1

n2=∏

pprime

1

1−p−2=π2

6'1.645.(5)

Approximations for ζ(2)'11A'√7−1 and π2'√K/2A'6√e. The ln(A−1)'Rζ(2)'

6/π,with the cube-sphere proportion. Quoting David F. Haight again, “There is geometry in the

humming of the primes, there is music in the spacing of the primes.” [30]. The sinh√φ'ζ(2).

[32, 33]. The polygon circumscribing constant Kis the reciprocal of the Kepler–Bouwkamp

constant [40]-[42], related to “Pauli’s triangle” [22], with sides approximately proportional to

1, φ,qφ√5 with the golden ratio φ= (1+√5)/2 with √5=2cosh(lnφ).[31]. The prime

constant [32, 33], [43] is described as a binary expansion corresponding to an indicator function

for the set of prime numbers. Deﬁning the prime constant Pfor p(k)as the k-th prime:

P=

∞

∑

k=1

2−p(k)'ζ(2)√αK'√RA '0.4147.(6)

The prime constant, P'√RA 'φ2/2π'p3/2K'√2−1.Again, Kis the inverse Ke-

pler–Bouwkamp constant [40]-[42]. Introduced by Arnold Sommerfeld, the ﬁne-structure con-

stant determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction [44]-[49]. John S. Rigden states,

“The ﬁne-structure constant derives its name from its origin. It ﬁrst appeared in Sommerfeld’s

work to explain the ﬁne details of the hydrogen spectrum.” [50].

Arnold Sommerfeld generalized Bohr’s model to include elliptical orbits in three

dimensions. He treated the problem relativistically (using Einstein’s formula for the

increase of mass with velocity) .... According to historian Max Jammer, this success

of Sommerfeld’s ﬁne-structure formula “served also as an indirect conﬁrmation of

Einstein’s relativistic formula for the velocity dependence of inertia mass. –Stephen

G. Brush [51].

Charles P. Enz writes, “For Pauli the central problem of electrodynamics was the ﬁeld concept

and the existence of an elementary charge which is expressible by the ﬁne-structure constant ...

1/137. This fundamental pure number had greatly fascinated Pauli .... For Pauli the explanation

of the number 137 was the test of a successful ﬁeld theory, a test which no theory has passed up

4

to now.” [52]. And again, Pauli is quoted by Varlaki, Nadai and Bokor concerning his evaluation

and regard for the ﬁne-structure constant, “The theoretical interpretation of its numerical value

is one of the most important unsolved problems of atomic physics.” [53].

Michael Eckert, “Even among physicists of the twenty-ﬁrst century, the ‘Bohr-Sommerfeld-

Atom’ and the ‘Sommerfeld ﬁne-structure constant,’ remain current concepts.” [49]. David

Haight states, “Since the ideal divergence angle in nature is the golden proportion of 137.5

degrees, could this unique proportion be the reason why 137 is the ‘prime’ prime number or

paradigm prime in nature, beginning with hydrogen?” [10]. Harald Fritzsch recalls that “Richard

Feynman, the theory wizard of Caltech in Pasadena, once suggested that every one of his theory

colleagues should write on the blackboard in his ofﬁce: 137 –how shamefully little we under-

stand!” [54]. Alpha,the electromagnetic coupling constant is α=e2/¯

hc in cgs units [32, 33].

Calculation of the inverse ﬁne-structure constant as an approximate derivation from prime num-

ber theory:

α−1'157 −337P/7'137.035999168.(7)

This equation gives the same approximate value for the inverse ﬁne-structure constant as deter-

mined in Eqs.(10-12), having three prime numbers and the prime constant [55]. Also, α−1'

√7tan−1(√φ)'3/A2.The ln(A−1)'1/P√φ'p1+√7'p1+φ2and 117 +157 '2×

137,see discussion of Eq.(17). 337−157 =180 and the ratio 528/337 'π/2 [7], see discussion

of Eq.(10). The ﬁne-structure constant is described by David Haight as the “basis or boundary

condition of the ‘pre-established harmony’ at the prime ‘atomic’ level of mathematics, physics,

and cosmology, for the reason that the essences of things are numbers, especially primes.” [30].

Other approximations with the Golden Apex of the Great Pyramid: √α'Ae/φ√K'√R/4π

and 2πφR'1/√α.Also, ln(A−1)'√K P ≈S√Pand 2A'2√πα 'φ2/K'p2/7π.The

heptagon is a feature of the Cosmological Circle, a geometric template for the Great Pyramid and

many ancient architectural designs; related to the cycloid curve and the history of the least action

principle [8, 22]. From the Golden Apex Aand the silver constant S,2A'tanhS−1'tan2(1/2)

, see Eq.(4).

The Wilbraham-Gibbs constant is Gwand the sinc function, sincx=sin(x)/x[56]:

Gw=Zπ

0

sincx dx 'esinα−1'K/√7π.(8)

The Wilbraham-Gibbs constant Gw'φlnπ'φ2/√2'1.852.The Wilbraham-Gibbs constant

is related to the overshoot of Fourier sums in the Gibbs phenomena [56]. Additional approxima-

tions: Gw'sec(1)'exp(φ−1)'pφ/πA,see the discussion of Eq.(18).

The inverse Kepler-Bouwkamp constant is the polygon circumscribing constant K[40]-[42]:

K=π

2

∞

∏

n=1

sinc2π

2n+1=

∞

∏

n=3

secπ

n.(9)

The polygon circumscribing constant, K'3/2RA '2 tan(3π/7)'8.700 and KA 'pe/φ'

p5/3'R+A.Half the face apex angle of the Great Pyramid plus half the apex angle is ap-

proximately 70◦and sinα−1'2cos70◦[7]. The cscα−1'R√φ'p7/S'√85/2πand

528/504 '7A'π/3,see discussion of Eq.(10). First level sum of Teleois proportions is

85,foundational in Great Pyramid design [7] and 85 '360/φ3,see Eq.(11) discussion. Also,

5

85/11 'R/Aand 528/85 '2π,see Eq.(10) discussion below. The latest value for the inverse

ﬁne-structure constant by Aoyama et al, α−1'137.035999157(41),from experimental results

and quantum electrodynamics [57]. The inferred value [58] determined from quantum electro-

dynamic theory and experiment [59] with the least standard uncertainty in CODATA results is

α−1'137.035999160(33)[58].

sinα−1'504/85K=7!/(713 +137)K.(10)

Again, this equation gives α−1'137.035999168 [60]. p13/7'2sinα−1and from the har-

monic radii of the Cosmological Circle, 108 +396 =504 [7]. 504/396 =14/11 '4/π.Ad-

ditionally, sinα−1'ζ(2)P'1−π−1'e/π√φ'2π/√85.504/144 =7/2 and φsin α−1'

3/e'√φ/R'Ae2.From Eq.(7), sin2α−1'157/337.Mamombe demonstrates the link be-

tween 137 and 117 in his analysis of the Fibonacci sequence and describes “its signiﬁcance to

the theory of the golden section and its relationship with the ﬁne-structure constant,” [61], also

see the discussion of Eq.(17) and [62]. Also, 144/85 'e/φ'1/4A. 528/504 '7A,and the

Great Pyramid Key is 528 'ln(7/A)/α[33]. Pyramid base angle θB'tan−1(4/π)'51.85◦.

The ln(4/π)'Aφand π/4'cscα−1−sinα−1'sinθB.792/5280 =54/360 =3/20 'Aand

φ=2sin54◦[7].

Helmut Warm found a signiﬁcant ratio between the Venus/Earth synodic period and the Mars

orbital period to be 17/20 =1−3/20 '1/ln(2φ)'p2π/K.This had the strongest cycle reso-

nance found among the planets [63]. Also, 17/20 =0.85,the fraction contained in the base angle

of the Great Pyramid. The pyramid apex angle θA,sin α−1'θB/θA'√2 tan(π/7)'pS/7'

2π/√85 [33]. Apex angle of the regular heptagon triangle is 3π/7 and an approximation to the

apex angle of the Great Pyramid. 528/396 =4/3 and 396/85 'pS/A.

While twentieth-century physicists were not able to identify any convincing math-

ematical constants underlying the ﬁne structure, partly because such thinking has

normally not been encouraged, a revolutionary suggestion was recently made by

the Czech physicist Raji Heyrovska, who deduced that the ﬁne structure constant ...

really is deﬁned by the [golden] ratio .... –John Calleman [64].

Raji Heyrovska says, “On noticing the closeness of the ﬁne structure constant ... to the ratio

of the angles, 360◦/φ2... the author suggested that the small difference ... could be due to the

Sommerfeld’s relativity correction factor.” [65]. “It was also pointed out that the ratio 360◦/φ2

... which is a Golden section of 360◦, differs from the inverse ﬁne structure constant by ... 2/φ3

... probably due to the difference in the g-factors for the electron and proton ... arising from the

magnetic momenta of the two particles,” with the result of α−1'(360/φ2)−(2/φ3)[66].

α−1'360

φ2−2

φ3+A2

Kφ4−A3

K2φ5+A4

K3φ7.(11)

This extension of Heyrovska’s equation also gives α−1'137.035999 168 [67, 68]. Raji Hey-

rovska found it a “surprise to ﬁnd for the ﬁrst time that the Bohr radius is divided into two unique

sections at the point of electrical neutrality, which is the Golden point. The Golden ratio, which

manifests itself in many spontaneous creations of Nature, was thus found to originate right in

the core of atoms.” [66]. In degrees, the modern golden angle [69], θG=360◦/φ2and related

6

θg'26.57◦'tan−1(1/2)(twice the Cabibbo angle) is the ancient Golden Angle of Resurrection

noted by Robert Temple [7, 70]. Along with the Golden Angle of Resurrection, Robert Temple

states the Pythagorean Comma, P

cwas one of the greatest secrets of the ancient Egyptians [59].

Highly complex numbers like the Comma of Pythagoras, Pi and Phi (sometimes

called the Golden Proportion) ... lie deep in the structure of the physical universe,

and were seen by the Egyptians as the principles controlling creation, the principles

by which matter is precipitated from the cosmic mind. –Jonathan Black [71].

Aubrey Meyer ﬁnds that the “Pythagorean Comma and the Fibonacci series converge on the

Golden Section.” [72]. For the same approximate value of α−1'137.035999 168,the three

terms on the right of Eq.(11) can be reduced to √2(SA)2/√3K2φ4≈4A3/φ6and the last two

terms can be reduced to one term with the Pythagorean Comma, −A3/√P

cK2φ5.P

c'p2φ/π'

1+√α/2π'2ζ(2)/Sand P

c= (3/2)12/27'1.014 [7].

The fourth approximation of the inverse ﬁne-structure constant with this particular value:

α−1'1/tanh−1τ−1'137.035999168,(12)

where τis the root of x4−137x3−6x2+98x+73=0, “which represents a particular quartic plane

curve, different combinations of the coefﬁcients of the general curve give rise to the lemniscate

of Bernoulli.” [32]. Number 7 also appears as 2 ×72=98 and 73=343 =6+337. The root

τ'137.0384316101 [73]. The other root is approximately 1.523 'πSA 'π−φ.

In another representation of Eq.(12), cothα'τ. Other relations include τ/cosh φ'7π/P'

117/√5 (see the discussion of Eq.(18) below) and τ/cosh2φ'7Gw+7'7L2

r−7,also from

the discussion of Eq.(18). The cosh φ'1/2A√φ'P

c/√A'KA(P

c+1)≈φ2.“Gauss’s and

Euler’s study of the arc length of Bernoulli’s lemniscate, a polar curve having the general form

of a toric section, led to later work on elliptic functions.” [32]. Also, “the lemniscate, inverse

curve of the hyperbola with respect to its center, has the lemniscate constant Lwhich functions

like πdoes for the circle.” [32, 74]. The lemniscate constant L'coshφ≈φ2and sinα−1'

√6L/3π,where L/πis Gauss’s constant and √6/3 is the diameter of the inscribing sphere of

the octahedron [32].

With the Aand Kconstants shown above, approximate values for the proton-electron mass ratio

including the golden ratio and ﬁne-structure constant:

mp/me'Aφ2/4α2'4K/αφ2.(13)

Other approximations of proton-electron mass ratio with the golden ratio and Golden Apex [7]:

mp/me'4(φ+√3)/α'2/Aα.(14)

Also, φsin70◦'2πφ A'ln(mp/me)/ln(α−1)[3, 7] and ln(αmp/me)'φ2cos A.Malcolm H.

Mac Gregor has stated, “The bridge between the electron and the other elementary particles is

7

provided by the ﬁne structure constant .... An expanded form of the constant leads to equations

that deﬁne the transformation of electromagnetic energy into electron mass/energy ....” [75]. The

expζ(2)'4πcot2(1)and replacing expζ(2)in mp/me'exp ζ(2)/α√Awith 73/(102 −191P)

gives a more accurate value, 1836.152673 485 [76]. This is approximate to the value, mp/me'

1836.152673346(81),that has been derived from the most recent experimental measure of the

proton mass by Heiße, F. et al. [77]. Additionally, 73 +191 =102+162 =528/2=264,related

to Great Pyramid geometry in several ways [7, 33].

The half-wavelength associated with a frequency resonant to quartz crystal is 191 meters [33]

and the height of the Great Pyramid without the capstone is about 137 meters: 191/137 '

7/5'P/2A'K/2π'√5/φ'528/382.From the discussion of Eq.(7) 528 −337 =191,

191/73 'φ2and 102/85 =6/5'π/φ2.The length of the horizontal passage in the Great

Pyramid is 102 feet [78]. 117/102 'Rand 117/73 'φ'191/117.The electron/pion mass

ratio, me/mπ'α/2 and mπ/mp'A,where mπis the pion mass [32].

The omega constant [79] is deﬁned as Lambert W(1)[80]-[82], the attractive ﬁxed point of

e−x.W(1) = Ω=exp(−Ω)'sinh−1(4A)'0.5671 and 4A'φ/e.

Ω=exp(−Ω)'Aln(mp/me)/2.(15)

W(x), the Lambert W-function, is an analog of the golden ratio for exponentials and is expressed

as exp[−W(1)] = W(1). Also, Ω'2Aln(A−1)'√α/A'1/√πand ln(α−1)'KΩ.From the

zeta function, ζ(2)/Ω'1+ln(A−1).

In the Foundation Stone of classical harmonics the alpha harmonic is equal to the sum of the

golden ratio harmonic and the omega constant harmonic, relating the ancient Greek Pythagorean

form of metaphor for the ﬁne-structure constant to golden ratio geometry and architecture [32].

The reciprocal Lucas constant is Lr'1.9628 [81, 82] with a derivation from the golden ratio:

Lr=

∞

∑

n=1

1

Ln

=

∞

∑

n=1

1

(−φ)−n+φn.(16)

Approximately, Lr'1/pA√3'2√K/3'√φcosh(1)'pe/φ/λ,where λis the Laplace

limit [85] of Kepler’s equation described previously with the ﬁne-structure constant [32]. Also,

cothλ−1'φsinα−1,see the discussion of Eq.(10) and Eq.(18).

Lr'P/√2A'S/4P'p2/φ/Ω.(17)

The cosh−1Lr'pe/φ'KA and ln(mp/me)'ΩLr/A. The reciprocal Lucas constant Lr'

−tan117◦'3φ2/4,the square of the radius of the circumscribing sphere of the dodecahe-

dron. The golden ratio φ'A√117 and sinh−1(117)'φ/2A.Also, 137 '117 sinh(1)and

117 '2K/A'10/√α.The approximate dihedral angle of the dodecahedron 117◦'180◦−

tan−1(2)'Lrtan−1(φ−1)/T,see Eq.(18) for Tau T. Also, the Pythagorean relation 1172+

1372'1082+1442=1802and 144/117 '2/φ[22]. With the Great Pyramid Key 528 again,

528/137 'L2

rand 137/21 'L2

r/4A; related to the hydrogen emission resonance of the King’s

Chamber [1].

8

Regarding the golden ratio again, Boeyens and Thackeray [86] are quoted by Mamombe [61],

“We suggest that there is a strong case that the so-called, ‘Golden Ratio’ (1.61803 ...) can be

related not only to aspects of mathematics but also to physics, chemistry, biology and the topol-

ogy of space-time.” [86]. Xu and Zhong state, “... we would like to draw attention to a general

theory dealing with the noncommutativity and the ﬁne structure of spacetime which comes to

similar conclusions and sweeping generalizations about the important role which the golden

mean must play in quantum and high energy physics.” [87]. In the Fibonacci inspired sequences

studied by Mamombe the number 117 marks a transition point, which is also a harmonic of the

square root of the inverse ﬁne-structure constant [48] and he describes a “geometrical basis for

the ﬁne-structure constant in the golden section.” [61].

The Egyptian Royal Cubit is a traditionally known measure basis for the Royal Cubit and the

numerical harmonic of the meter is also found in the Great Pyramid geometry, π/6'φ2/5'π−

φ2'0.5236 meters, which is approximately equal to a Royal Cubit [33]. Lr'(T+√7)/φ'

2Tφlnπ,coshT'lnπand Tau Tis described as:

T=α+π/6'2A/Ω'ln(Lr)/pφ.(18)

T'√7/5'2π√α'0.5309.From the Great Pyramid, with a height of 280 Royal Cubits,

280/117 '√7π/Lr'2.4 is the golden angle in radians or 360◦/φ2'137.5◦.117◦'θG(1−A)

with θGin degrees. The modern golden angle, θG'√φ/T'ln(A−1) + 1/2'2.4 radians, see

the discussion of Eq.(11). Also, T'3

√A≈2A√π'Lr/2Gw'Lr(1−A)/π'φ2/ln(α−1)'

Lrpφ/7π'cos58◦.The base of the face angle on the Great Pyramid is approximately 58◦.

Manu Seyfzadeh explains that “The pyramid’s core design is based on a Kepler Triangle whose

hypotenuse (356 cubits) is in the golden ratio (1.618. . .) to its short leg (220 cubits) incidentally

producing a side-slope angle of 51◦500.” [88]. T/φ'117/356.

The ratio of angles, 117◦/51.85◦'√φ π;φπ is another frequently encountered measure in

the Great Pyramid. 356/70 'φ π,from another Kepler Triangle. Seyfzadeh says, “Two classic

interrelated geometric relationships can be approximated from an observable measure of Earth’s

curvature and a sidereal lunar year.” [88]. With another signiﬁcant number from the Great

Pyramid measures 432,432/117 '6/φ'Lr/T.Also, R/T'2S/3'2ζ(4)and RT '1/ζ(2).

70/117 '4Aand KA 'T√6.

The Royal Cubit again, π/6=ζ(2)/π'T/P

c,where P

cis the Pythagorean Comma from the

discussion of Eq.(11). Also, 6/π'PKT 'p1+√7. From tetrahedral geomery, cos 19.5◦'

sin(6/π),in radians. From Great Pyramid geometry, sin−1φ−2'69.4◦+90◦−137◦and the

tan69.4◦'φ ζ (2)'√2/T'tan(φ2θg),see the discussion of Eq.(11). The ln(Lr/T)'φ2/2.

T−1'4πA'ζ(2)lnπ'√φ+φ−1'L2

r−Lr,√T'1/Lr(1−2A)'2π/Kand 3

√T'φ/2.

T/Ω'2πAand ΩT'2A'KA −1.

The Royal Cubit in inches, 144/7'Rc[89]. Alpha, α'A/Rc,related to the symbolism in

historical references concerning the ﬁne-structure constant [90]. Multiplying, α×Ω×T'

1/7πRc.Adding, α+Ω+T'√φ/R,see the discussion of Eq.(10). Also, A+Ω+T'

2p140/360 =√14/3'φtan(π−φ)'φpφ/e'√2/2Ω'Rc/2λH,with Rcand λH(21cm

hydrogen emission wavelength) in meters and T'P

cRc.From the hieroglyph for gold, 14/9'

tan(1)and A+Ω'9/4π'pφ/π[7, 22]: “The vertex angle of the nonagon, 140◦,when

considered as the central angle of a triangle in a circle forms the Egyptian hieroglyph for neb or

9

gold related to quintessence, or the ‘uniﬁed ﬁeld’ of physics.” [22].

These suggestive references to the quintessential aether are interpretations of Herschel’s Alpha-

Omega-Taurus Star Gate [91], the Ark of Osiris from Coppens [92] and Hardy’s Pyramid Energy

[93]. Inverse Golden Apex, A−1as a harmonic of the Earth frequency utilized by Tesla of 6.67

Hz [94], divided by Tesla’s magnifying transmitter frequency of 11.78 Hz: 6.67/11.78 'Ω.

With Parr’s 51.5 Hz pyramid orb frequency, the ratio is 51.5/11.78 '2π−(6/π)'6√T'K/2

[95, 96].

Euler’s equation and the exponential function applied to the geometry of the Golden Apex of the

Great Pyramid were part of four different calculations of the inverse ﬁne-structure constant with

the same approximate value. The ﬁne-structure constant and the Golden Apex were related to

the proton-electron mass ratio, golden ratio and other fundamental constants; ﬁnally speculating

brieﬂy on the metaphorical physics and mathematical metaphysics of the Great Pyramid [97, 98].

These results illustrate clearly the highly interrelated nature of the fundamen-

tal constants. Dependent as our knowledge of them is upon many different ﬁelds of

physics, we have here a good example of the importance of making occasional anal-

yses of the consistency situations of sufﬁciently inclusive scope to serve as valuable

guides to further research. The present example emphasizes especially that a better

knowledge of the Sommerfeld constant, α, would be of great value to physics at the

present time. –Jesse DuMond [99].

David Haight quotes “Physicist John Wheeler, who coined the term ‘geometrodynamics’ put it

this way, ‘Physics is really geometry .... Some profound connection exists between the funda-

mental constants of microphysics and the geometry of the cosmos.’” [10].

This uniﬁcation of mathematics through Phi should not come as a complete sur-

prise to us since Phi is related to all three means that are essential to mathematics-

-the arithmetic, the geometric and the harmonic. (These three means are the result

of the calculus of differences, just as the harmonic intervals in music are the result

of the calculus of variations.) –David Haight [10].

Eckhart Schmitz emphasizes, “The Great Pyramid of Giza may clearly be regarded as a reposi-

tory of ancient knowledge.” [12]. In conclusion, Witteveen is quoted again on Pythagoras, “All

is number, everything is movement, everything is music in the harmony of the spheres.” [1].

This ‘harmony of the spheres’ is exempliﬁed by the Golden Apex [7] in a relation which also

‘squares the circle’ [1], pA/2'3/11.As Robin Heath explains, “This ratio of 3:11 is exactly

the ratio between the Moon’s diameter ... and the diameter of the mean Earth (the ﬁrst major

treatment of this was in City of Revelation by John Michell [100], who was responsible for its

rediscovery).” [3]. With reference to the revelation of this harmony Mary Anne Atwood states,

“And here the external and internal worlds were seen to blend together in conﬂuent harmony,

proving and establishing each other, and leaving reason nothing more to doubt of, or the senses

to desire, but a fulﬁllment under the universal law. [101].

10

Special thanks to Case Western Reserve University, PhilPapers, MathWorld and WolframAlpha.

[1] Witteveen, W. The Great Pyramid of Giza: A Modern View on Ancient Knowledge, Kemp-

ton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2016, 247, 96, 239.

[2] Vries, M. The Whole Elephant Revealed: Insights into the Existence and Operation of

Universal Laws and the Golden Ratio, Hampshire, UK: Axis Mundi Books, 2012, 370.

[3] Heath, R. Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization: The Unfolding of History

through the Mystery of Number, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 2006, 132.

[4] Livio, M. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World’s Most Astonishing Number,

New York, NY: Crown Archetype, 2008, 6.

[5] Stakhov, A. “A History, the Main Mathematical Results and Applications for the Mathe-

matics of Harmony,” Applied Mathematics,5, 3, 363-386 (2014). am.2014.53039.

[6] Stakhov A. “Dirac’s Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Mathematics of Harmony and

“Golden” Scientiﬁc Revolution,” Visual Mathematics, 11, 1 (2009). vismath/stakhov

[7] Sherbon, M.A. “Quintessential Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant,” Global Journal of

Science Frontier Research A,15, 4, 23-26 (2015). hal-01174786v1.

[8] Sherbon, M.A. “Nature’s Information and Harmonic Proportion,” SSRN Philosophy of

Science eJournal,5, 3 (2011). doi/10.2139/ssrn.1766049.

[9] Olsen, S. The Golden Section: Nature’s Greatest Secret, New York, NY: Walker Publish-

ing Company, 2006.

[10] Haight, D.F “A Novel Way to Construct the Fibonacci Sequence and the Uni-Phi-cation of

Mathematics and Physics,” Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal,4, 4, 139-146 (2015).

doi/10.11648/j.pamj.20150404.11.

[11] Gazalé, M.J. Gnomon: From Pharaohs to Fractals, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University

Press, 1999.

[12] Schmitz, E.R. The Great Pyramid of Giza: Decoding the Measure of a Monument, On-

tario, CA: Roland Publishing, 2012, 3, 89.

[13] Primrose, A.C. The Lamb Slain with a Golden Cut: Spiritual Enlightenment and the

Golden Mean Revelation, Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press, 2016, 99.

[14] Eisen, W. “The Great Pyramid of the Emperor,” in The Essence of the Cabalah, Marina

Del Rey, CA: DeVorss, 1984, 474-479.

11

[15] Eisen, W. “The Mysteries of the Constants (e) and (i),” in The Universal Language of

Cabalah, Marina Del Rey, CA: DeVorss, 1989, 160-178.

[16] Eisen, W. The English Cabalah Volume I: The Mysteries of Pi, Marina Del Rey, CA:

DeVorss, 1980.

[17] Eisen, W. The English Cabalah Volume II: The Mysteries of Phi, Marina Del Rey, CA:

DeVorss, 1982.

[18] Richard Feynman, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Princeton, NJ: Prince-

ton University Press, 1985.

[19] Weisstein, E.W. “Exponential Function,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/ExponentialFunction.

[20] Weisstein, E.W. “eApproximations.” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/eApproximations.

[21] Rosen, S.M. “Pauli’s Dream: Jung, Modern Physics and Alchemy,” Quadrant,44, 2,

49-71 (2014). rg-22770700.

[22] Sherbon, M.A. “Wolfgang Pauli and the Fine-Structure Constant,” Journal of Science,

2, 3, 148-154 (2012). hal-01304518v1.

[23] Rosen, S.M. “Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy,” Foundations of

Physics,38, 556-582, (2008). s10701-008-9221-5.

[24] Hu, H. & Wu, M. “Spin as Primordial Self-Referential Process Driving Quantum

Mechanics, Spacetime Dynamics and Consciousness,” NeuroQuantology,2, 1 (2007).

nq.2004.2.1.35.

[25] Rapoport, D.L. “Surmounting the Cartesian Cut through Philosophy, Physics, Logic, Cy-

bernetics, and Geometry: Self-Reference, Torsion, the Klein Bottle, the Time Opera-

tor, Multivalued Logics and Quantum Mechanics,” Foundations of Physics,41, 1, 33-76

(2011). s10701-009-9334-5.

[26] Irwin, K. et al, “Quantum Walk on Spin Network and the Golden Ratio as the Funda-

mental Constant of Nature,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the

Nature and Ontology of Spacetime, C16-05-30.9, 117-160 (2017). arXiv:1602.07653v3

[hep-th] .

[27] Pauli, W. “Modern Examples of Background Physics,” in Meier, C.A. ed. Atom and

Archetype, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

[28] Pauli, W. “The Inﬂuence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientiﬁc Theories of Kepler,” in

Enz, C.P. & Meyenn, K. eds. Wolfgang Pauli: Writings on Physics and Philosophy, New

York: Springer, 1994, pp.219-279.

12

[29] Gieser, S. The Innermost Kernel: Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics: Wolfgang

Pauli’s Dialogue with C.G. Jung, Berlin: Springer, 2005.

[30] Haight, D.F. “Why the Glove of Mathematics Fits the Hand of the Natural Sciences So

Well: How Far Down the (Fibonacci) Rabbit Hole Goes,” European Scientiﬁc Journal,

12, 15 (2016). eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/7488.

[31] Weisstein, E.W. “Golden Ratio,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.GoldenRatio.

[32] Sherbon, M.A. “Fundamental Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant,” International Jour-

nal of Physical Research,2, 1, 1-9 (2014). hal-01304522v1.

[33] Sherbon, M.A. “Fundamental Physics and the Fine-Structure Constant,” International

Journal of Physical Research,5, 2, 46-48 (2017). hal-01312695v1.

[34] Weisstein, E.W. “Silver Constant,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/SilverConstant.

[35] Weisstein, E.W. “Heptagon,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/Heptagon.

[36] Bauval, R. Secret Chamber Revisited: The Quest for the Lost Knowledge of Ancient

Egypt, Rochester, VT: Bear & Company, 2014.

[37] Nair, R.R. et al. “Fine Structure Constant Deﬁnes Visual Transparency of Graphene,”

Science,320, 5881, 1308-1308 (2008). arXiv:0803.3718v1 [cond-mat.].

[38] Sondow, J. & Weisstein, E.W. “Euler Product,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource.

mathworld.wolfram.com/EulerProduct.

[39] Sondow, J. & Weisstein, E.W. “Riemann Zeta Function,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web

Resource. mathworld.wolfram.com/RiemannZetaFunction.

[40] Finch, S.R. "Kepler-Bouwkamp Constant," Mathematical Constants, Cambridge, UK:

Cambridge University Press, 2003, 428-429.

[41] Sloane, N. J. A. Sequence A051762 “Polygon Circumscribing Constant,” in The On-Line

Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. oeis.org/A051762.

[42] Weisstein, E.W. “Polygon Circumscribing,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/PolygonCircumscribing.

[43] Weisstein, E.W. “Prime Constant,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/PrimeConstant.

[44] Mac Gregor, M.H. The Power of Alpha, Hackensack, NJ: World Scientiﬁc, 2007.

[45] Barrow, J.D. The Constants of Nature: From Alpha to Omega–the Numbers That Encode

the Deepest Secrets of the Universe, New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 2002.

13

[46] Miller, A.I. Deciphering the Cosmic Number, New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2009.

[47] Kragh, H. “Magic Number: A Partial History of the Fine-Structure Constant,” Archive for

History of Exact Sciences,57, 5, 395-431 (2003). s00407-002-0065-7

[48] Kragh, H. Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913-

1925, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012.

[49] Eckert, M. Arnold Sommerfeld: Science, Life and Turbulent Times 1868-1951, New York,

NY: Springer, 2013, xi.

[50] Rigden, J.S. Hydrogen: The Essential Element, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Press, 2003, 55.

[51] Brush, S.G. Making 20th Century Science: How Theories Became Knowledge, Oxford,

UK: Oxford University Press, 2015, 220.

[52] Pauli, W. & Enz, C.P. Pauli Lectures on Physics: Volume 1, Electrodynamics, North

Chelmsford, MA: Courier Corporation, 2000, x.

[53] Varlaki, P., Nadai, L. & Bokor, J. “Number Archetypes and ’Background’ Control The-

ory Concerning the Fine-Structure Constant,” Acta Polytechnica Hungarica,5, 2, 71-104

(2008). Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf.

[54] Fritzsch, H. Elementary Particles: Building Blocks of Matter, Hackensack, NJ: World

Scientiﬁc, 2005, 58.

[55] Sherbon, M.A. Fine-Structure Constant Calculation of Eq. (7) from WolframAlpha.

WolframAlpha/Fine-StructureConstant.

[56] Zi-Xiang, Z. “An Observation of Relationship Between the Fine Structure Constant and

the Gibbs Phenomenon in Fourier Analysis,” Chinese Physics Letters,21.2, 237-238

(2004). arXiv:0212026v1 [physics.gen-ph].

[57] Aoyama, T., Hayakawa, M., Kinoshita, T. & Nio, M. “Tenth-Order Electron Anomalous

Magnetic Moment: Contribution of Diagrams without Closed Lepton Loops,” Physical

Review D,91, 3, 033006 (2015). arXiv:1412.8284v3 [hep-ph].

[58] Mohr, P.J., Newell, D.B. & Taylor, B.N. “CODATA Recommended Values of the Fun-

damental Physical Constants: 2014,” Reviews of Modern Physics,88, 035009 (2016).

doi/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035009

[59] Hanneke, D., Fogwell, S. & Gabrielse, G. “New Measurement of the Electron Magnetic

Moment and the Fine Structure Constant,” Physical Review Letters,100, 120801 (2008)

arXiv:0801.1134v2 [physics.atom-ph].

[60] Sherbon, M.A. Fine-Structure Constant Calculation of Eq. (10) from WolframAlpha.

WolframAlpha/Fine-StructureConstant.

14

[61] Mamombe, L. “Proportiones Perfectus Law and the Physics of the Golden Section,” Asian

Research Journal of Mathematics,7, 1, 1-41 (2017). doi/10.9734/arjom2017/36860.

[62] Mamombe, L. “From Pascal Triangle to Golden Pyramid,” Asian Research Journal of

Mathematics,6, 2, 1-9 (2017). doi/10.9734/arjom/2017/29964.

[63] Warm, H. Signature of the Celestial Spheres: Discovering Order in the Solar System,

Forest Row, UK: Rudolf Steiner Press, 2010, 130.

[64] Calleman, C.J. The Purposeful Universe: How Quantum Theory and Mayan Cosmology

Explain the Origin and Evolution of Life, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

[65] Heyrovska, R. “The Golden Ratio, Ionic and Atomic Radii and Bond Lengths,” Molecular

Physics,103, 877 - 882 (2005). doi/10.1080/00268970412331333591.

[66] Heyrovska, R. “Golden Ratio Based Fine Structure Constant and Rydberg Constant

for Hydrogen Spectra,” International Journal of Sciences,2, 5, 28-31 (2013). ij-

sciences.com/pub/article/185.

[67] Sherbon, M.A. Fine-Structure Constant Calculation of Eq.(11) Part 1 from WolframAl-

pha. WolframAlpha/input1.

[68] Sherbon, M.A. Fine-Structure Constant Calculation of Eq.(11) Part 2 from WolframAl-

pha. WolframAlpha/input2.

[69] Weisstein, E.W. “Golden Angle,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/GoldenAngle.

[70] Temple, R.G. Egyptian Dawn: Exposing the Real Truth Behind Ancient Egypt, London,

UK: Century, 2010.

[71] Black, J. The Secret History of the World, London, UK: Quercus Publishing, 2013.

[72] Meyer, A. “Math, Music & Nature’s Derivation of Phi,” Portmeirion Festival Presentation

(03-09-2016). gci.org.uk/PEB.html.

[73] Sherbon, M.A. Fine-Structure Constant Calculation of Eq.(12) from WolframAlpha. wol-

framalpha.com/input .

[74] Weisstein, E.W. “Lemniscate Constant,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/Lemniscate.html.

[75] Mac Gregor, M.H. The Enigmatic Electron: A Doorway to Particle Masses, Santa Cruz,

CA: El Mac Books, 2013.

[76] Sherbon, M.A. Proton-Electron Mass Ratio Calculation from WolframAlpha. WolframAl-

pha/massratio.

[77] Heiße, F. et al. “High-Precision Measurement of the Proton’s Atomic Mass,” Physical

Review Letters, 119, 3, 033001 (2017). arXiv:1706.06780v1 [physics.atom-ph].

15

[78] Smith, W. Miracle of the Age: The Great Pyramid of Gizeh, Pomeroy, WA: Health Re-

search Books, 1996, 72.

[79] Weisstein, E.W. “Omega Constant,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/OmegaConstant.

[80] Weisstein, E.W. “Lambert W-Function,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource.

mathworld.wolfram.com/LambertW-Function.

[81] Valluri, S.R, Jeffrey, D.J. & Corless, R.M. “Some Applications of the Lambert W Func-

tion to Physics,” Canadian Journal of Physics,78, 9, 823-831 (2000).doi/10.1139/p00-

065.

[82] Sloane, N. J. A. Sequence A030178: “Decimal expansion of Lambert W(1),” in The On-

Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. oeis.org/A030178.

[83] Weisstein, E.W. “Reciprocal Lucas Constant,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource.

mathworld.wolfram.com/ReciprocalLucasConstant.

[84] Brousseau, A. Fibonacci and Related Number Theoretic Tables, Santa Clara, CA: The

Fibonacci Association, 1972, 45.

[85] Weisstein, E.W. “Laplace Limit,” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. math-

world.wolfram.com/LaplaceLimit.

[86] Boeyens, J.C. & Thackeray, J.F. “Number Theory and the Unity of Science,” South

African Journal of Science,110, 11-12 (2014). sajs.2014/a0084.

[87] Xu, L. & Zhong, T. “Golden Ratio in Quantum Mechanics,” Nonlinear Science Letters B:

Chaos, Fractal and Synchronization,1, 10-11 (2011). xu-zhong.pdf.

[88] Seyfzadeh, M. “The Mysterious Pyramid on Elephantine Island: Possible Ori-

gin of the Pyramid Code,” Archaeological Discovery,5, 187-223 (2017).

doi/10.4236/ad.2017.54012.

[89] Nightingale, E.G. & Scranton, L. (Afterword) The Giza Template: Temple Graal Earth

Measure, Bangor, PA: Nightingale, 2014.

[90] Varlaki, P. et al, “Historical Origin of the Fine Structure Constant, Parts I-III,” Acta

Polytechnica Hungarica,7, 1, 119-157 (2010) 8, 2, 161-196; 8, 6, 43-78 (2011). rg-

varlaki_rudas_koczy.

[91] Herschel, W. The Alpha-Omega-Taurus Star Gate: The Hidden Records Chronicles,

Melkbosstrand Cape, ZA: THRBooks, 2017.

[92] Coppens, P. The Canopus Revelation: The Stargate of the Gods and the Ark of Osiris,

Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2004.

[93] Hardy, D. et al, Pyramid Energy: The Philosophy of God, the Science of Man, Clayton,

GA: Cadake Industries, 1987.

16

[94] Puharich, A. “Effects of Tesla’s Life & Inventions,” in Valone, T. Harnessing the Wheel-

work of Nature: Tesla’s Science of Energy, Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press,

2002, 122.

[95] Parr, J. “The Mystery and Secret of the Great Pyramid,” Great Pyramid of Giza Research

Association (2009). gizapyramid.com/Parr/Index2.html.

[96] Davidson, D. “Experimental Research on Shape Power Energies,” in DeSalvo, J. The

Complete Pyramid Sourcebook, Bloomington, IN: 1stBooks, 2003, 289-304.

[97] Lubicz, R.A.S. Symbol and the Symbolic: Ancient Egypt, Science and the Evolution of

Consciousness, New York, NY: Inner Traditions International, 1982.

[98] Lubicz, R.A.S. Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy, New York, NY: Inner

Traditions International, 1988.

[99] DuMond, J.W.M. “The Present Key Importance of the Fine Structure Constant, α, to a

Better Knowledge of All the Fundamental Physical Constants,” Journal for Nature Re-

search,A 21, 1-2, 70-79 (1966). Online (2014). doi/10.1515/zna-1966-1-211.

[100] Michell, J. City of Revelation: On the Proportion and Symbolic Numbers of the Cosmic

Temple, London, UK: Garnstone Press, 1972.

[101] Atwood, M.A. A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Mystery, London, UK: J.M.

Watkins, 1918, 416.

17