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Plugging In: A Collection of Insights on Electricity Use in Indian Homes

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Electricity use in Indian homes – from lights, ceiling fans, televisions, refrigerators, among other appliances – has increased 50 times between today and 1971, even though India’s per capita residential electricity consumption is less than a third of the world average. Residential electricity now outpaces growth in industrial, commercial and agriculture sectors. This striking statistic is on the increase, as India moves towards one of the largest urban transitions in history in the coming decades. What is the implication of this transition for household electricity use, as the urban population grows and income levels rise? What do we know about how electricity is currently used in homes across the country? And what drives our dramatically changing consumption patterns? These questions form the basis of a series on residential electricity consumption, jointly authored by the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi and the Prayas (Energy Group), Pune. The collected insights that formed the series are compiled in this document.
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PLUGGINGIN
Radhika Khosla
Centre for Policy Research
Aditya Chunekar
Prayas (Energy Group)
RESEARCH REPORT
A COLLECTION OF INSIGHTS ON
ELECTRICITY USE IN INDIAN HOMES

CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH
cprindia.org
The Centre for Policy Research (CPR) has been one of India's
leading public policy think tanks since 1973. The Centre is a
    
to conducting research that contributes to the production of
        
public discourse about the structures and processes that
shape life in India.
       
        
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        
      


PRAYAS (ENERGY GROUP)
prayaspune.org

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
      

      
and policy issues in the energy and electricity sectors. Our
activities cover research and intervention in policy and
  
to civil society groups. Prayas Energy Group has contributed
         
       
   

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Priya Rathod for their valuable contributions to data analysis. Parts of the research conducted by CPR covered in this series is

     



The research conducted by Prayas (Energy Group) covered in this series has been possible through on-going grants provided by
              

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

Corresponding Authors:
aditya@prayaspune.org

Electricity use in Indian homes – from lights, ceiling fans, televisions, refrigerators, among other appliances – has increased 50 times between
today and 1971, even though India’s per capita residential electricity consumption is less than a third of the world average. Residential electricity
now outpaces growth in industrial, commercial and agriculture sectors. This striking statistic is on the increase, as India moves towards one
of the largest urban transitions in history in the coming decades. What is the implication of this transition for household electricity use, as the
urban population grows and income levels rise? What do we know about how electricity is currently used in homes across the country? And what
drives our dramatically changing consumption patterns?These questions form the basis of a series on residential electricity consumption, jointly
authored by the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi and the Prayas (Energy Group), Pune. The collected insights that formed the series are
complied in this document.
CONTENTS
1. Electricity Consumption in Indian Homes 1
Radhika Khosla and Aditya Chunekar
2. Trends in India's Residential Electricity Consumption 3
Aditya Chunekar and Sanjana Mulay
3. India's LED Lighting Story 6
Aditya Chunekar and Sanjana Mulay
         
Radhika Khosla and Ankit Bhardwaj
         
Aditya Chunekar and Mrudula Kelkar
        
Radhika Khosla and Ankit Bhardwaj
        
Radhika Khosla
8.        
Aditya Chunekar
        
Radhika Khosla
  
Electricity Consumption in Indian Homes
Radhika Khosla, Centre for Policy Research
Aditya Chunekar, Prayas (Energy Group)



         



                  

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
          
     






Plugging in : Piece 1
Figure 1: Trend in Residential Electricity Consumption in India (1971-2015). Decimals are approximated to their closest whole numbers.
Source: 
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
 





              









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REFERENCES




URL http://saubhagya.gov.in/dashboard (accessed 12.27.17).
                 

https://wec-indicators.
enerdata.net/household-electricity-use.html (accessed 12.27.17).
Plugging in : Piece 1

Figure 2: Projections of residential electricity consumption from various studies (base case scenarios)
2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040
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REC (TWh)
IESS (2013)
19 th EPS (2017)
18 th EPS (2011)
GBPN (2014)
IEA (2015)
Trends in India's Residential Electricity Consumption
Aditya Chunekar and Sanjana Mulay, Prayas (Energy Group)







data.

          

 




Plugging in : Piece 2
  
Figure 1: Residential Electricity Consumption growth in selected states (2004-2015)
Source: 
2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
0
200
400
600
R es iden tia l el ec t ric it y con s ump t ion ( RE C)
8%
6%
12%
11%
CAG R fo r
2004-2015 = 16%
R EC in 2 00 4 = 10 0
As s a m
B iha r
Cha t t is gar h
Del hi
Guj a rat
Jha rkha n d
Ma har a s ht r a
Pu nja b
Ta mil Nadu
Ut ta r P rad esh
W es t B en ga l







                




sector.
              
 










Plugging in : Piece 2


Source: 
0 50 100 150 200 250
Av era ge mon thl y cons umpt ion per ele ctr ifi ed ho useh old ( kW h)
0
20
40
60
80
100
Hou seh olds wit h el ectr ici ty acces s (%)
As s am
Bi ha r
Chha t t is ga r h
Del hi
Guj ar a t
Ha r ya na
Jh ar k ha nd
Ka r na ta k a
Ma dhya Pr ade sh
Ma ha r a sh t ra
Or is s a
Pun ja b
R aj as t ha n
Ta mil N adu
Ut ta r Pr ade sh
W est Be ngal
P
o
p
u
a
t
i
o
n
18,149,450
50,000,000
100,000,000
150,000,000
216,214,607


                 




REFERENCES
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




http://saubhagya.gov.in/dashboard (accessed 12.27.17).
         https://www.uday.gov.in/national_parameter_dashboard.
php?id=9 (accessed 12.27.17).


http://www.watchyourpower.
org/the_initiative.php (accessed 12.28.17).
http://www.hindustantimes.com/. URL http://
www.hindustantimes.com/delhi/delhi-govt-approves-proposal-to-continue-50-subsidy-on-power-bills/story-ODMapGl59cbDKFWoLMYaDI.html (accessed
12.27.17).
 

https://wec-indicators.
enerdata.net/household-electricity-use.html (accessed 12.27.17).
Plugging in : Piece 2
  
Figure 3: Households in India according to monthly consumption (in kWh or units)
22 %
26 %
31 %
18 %
2%
28 %
32 %
30 %
10 %
13 %
16 %
33 %
33 %
1%
4%
Cons umpt ion Catego ry ( units )
0 -30
31- 50
51 - 10 0
10 1 - 30 0
30 1 - 50 0
>50 0
Urban Rural All india
Source: NSSO
Plugging in : Piece 3

India's LED Lighting Story
Aditya Chunekar and Sanjana Mulay, Prayas (Energy Group)


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


Figure 1: Sales trends of lighting devices in India
Source: ELCOMA
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
0
200
400
600
800
Qua ntit y ( mill ions )
780
904
453 448
285
562
251
234 257
381
812
797
401
340
225
182 200
855
758
304 245
194
757
Tube Lights
LED bulbs Incandescent lamps
CFLs
Plugging in : Piece 3
  


the end of its useful life.

                   




Figure 2: Share of lighting sources in the surveyed households
Figure 3: Lighting options replaced by LED bulbs bought under UJALA for surveyed households
Source: 
Source: 
5%
20%
37%
37%
3%
13%
54%
21%
25%
49%
18%
1% 7 % 9%
In candes cent bulbs
CFLs
LE D bulbs (includi ng UJ ALA bul bs )
Tube li ghts
Ot her LE D light ing
Pune Lucknow Puducherry
Pu ne Lucknow P uducher r y
46%
46%
2 % 5 %
80 %
11 % 2 %
26 %
54 %
16 %
4 % 6 %
In candes cent bulb CFL T ube li ght Other
Plugging in : Piece 3










 



REFERENCES


http://www.ujala.gov.in/ (accessed 12.28.17).
Table 1: Comparison between low, medium, and high income households surveyed, Pune
Figure 4: Failure rate and exchange rate of UJALA bulbs (for surveyed consumers)
Source: 
Source: 

replaced  



    3
   27
High  3.2 22
2%
6%
14%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
Pune Lucknow Puducherry
Bulb Failure Rate
30%
24%
10%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Pune Lucknow Puducherry
Exchange rate of failed bulbs

  

Centre for Policy Research



       
 
          



      






  

Household assets and LED penetration





Source: 
Lighting by type in total stock (n=2600)
CFLs and Tubes 17%
CFLs and Tubes 17%
Incandescent 20%
Incandescent 20%
LEDs 63%
LEDs 63%







     



Figure 3: Lighting ownership across the consumption asset index (standardized for number of rooms)

Source: 
Source: 
BSUP EWS LIG
LED
48%
90% 93%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
45%
32% 36%
28%
13% 14%
27%
8% 8%
ICBs Tube CFLs
% of all households
Number of LEDs, incandescent, Tubelights per room
Consumption Asset Decile
Average number of light type per room
0-10% 10-20% 20-30% 30-40% 40-50% 50-60% 60-70% 70-80% 80-90% 90-100%
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
LED/ room Incadescent Lights/room Tubelight or CFL/room


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

 




 
           

    
        



dependent lighting use patterns.
REFERENCES
    
           
traditional-incandescents (accessed 12.27.17).


Delhi.

Figure 4: Awareness rates of the LED and Smart Cities schemes
Source: 
% of all households
% of all households
Awareness of UJALA LED scheme Awareness of Smart Cities Mission
100%
80%
37%
65%
74%
0% 1% 1%
60%
40%
20%
0%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
BSUP EWS LIG BSUP EWS LIG



Aditya Chunekar and Mrudula Kelkar, Prayas (Energy Group)




                     

             




Mandate and tighten standards






Figure 1: BEE star label for air-conditioner


         




abroad (Figure 3).
Mandatory Appliances Voluntary Appliances
Frost Free Refrigerators Induction Motors
 
 Ceiling Fans
 

Ceiling) Washing Machine
Direct Cool Refrigerators 
Electric Geysers 
 

Solid state inverters
Diesel Generators


Figure 2: List of appliances on the Standards and Labeling (S&L) Programme

cool refrigerator and 300 litre frost-free refrigerator.)
Source: 
Air Condit ione r Dir ect Cool R ef rig era tor Fr ost Fr ee R ef rig era tor
2010 2012 2014 2016 2010 2012 2014 2016 2010 2012 2014 2016
0
500
1000
1500
E nerg y cons umpt ion (kW h/y ear )
St ar 1
St ar 5
St ar 1
St ar 5
St ar 1
St ar 5








         

   



 

       
savings.
Figure 4: Appliance production across star-labels (in millions)
Source: 
Fr ost Fr ee R ef riger at or
0M
1M
2M 1.58M
0.55M
0.54M
0.75M
1.56M
0.35M
0.66M
0.35M
0.38M
0.28M 0.29M 0.63M
0.76M 1.25M
0.40M 0.33M 0.71M 0.60M
Dir ect Cool R ef rigerat or
0M
2M
4M
6M
8M
3.51M
3.25M 2.65M
2.19M 1.72M
1.11M
2.50M
3.40M 2.80M
3.17M
1.98M
1.07M
1.36M
1.82M
1.88M
3.64M
1.04M 1.12M
1.26M 1.32M
1.92M 2.30M
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Air Condit ione r
0M
2M
4M
6M
1.03M 1.26M
1.60M
0.90M
1.03M 1.35M 2.50M 2.82M 3.78M
1.07M 1.28M 1.13M 0.92M
R at i ng Star 5 Star 4 Star 3 Star 2 Star 1



                  
          





                


REFERENCES
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https://beestarlabel.com/Home/MinutesMeeting
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
http://
 (accessed 12.27.17).



Research Centre London.



Centre for Policy Research
       




    




         










Figure 1: Proportion of households availing energy services by time of day
Source: 
●●● ●
Time of Day
Percentage of households
using the appliance
lights fans tv fridge washing
5AM−8AM 8AM−11AM 11AM−1PM 1PM−4PM 4PM−7PM 7PM−10PM 10PM−1AM
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
6.62
24.75 26.33
17.7
23.45
58.71
37.12
12.09
19.86
25.18
30.36
23.74 25.9
43.45
2.73
9.78
15.25
19.42 21.15
33.24
19.42
24.89
26.62 28.63 28.92 28.2 28.63 30.65
01.15 0.14 0.14 0 0 0.14

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
 
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
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




Source: 
BSUP
Fans Televisions Fridges
EWS LIG
% of all households
100%
84%
90%
85%
75%
84%
74%
37% 37%
61%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%




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



Source: 
Source: 
Fan Fridge TV
Asset Decile
Fans, Fridge, TV Ownership Vs. Asset Declie
Average Number per Home
0-10% 10-20% 20-30% 30-40% 40-50% 50-60% 60-70% 70-80% 80-90% 90-100%
3
2
1
0
BSUP EWS LIG
Fans Televisions Fridges
% of all households
80%
3% 1% 3% 1% 2% 2%
53%
57%
61%
60%
40%
20%
0%






 
 



 




country.
REFERENCES


Plugging in :Piece 7


Radhika Khosla, Centre for Policy Research
          






  









 
developing countries.







its households (Figure 2).
Figure 1: Comparisons of annual per capita residential electricity use
Source: 
NCR (2017)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
India (2015)
China (2015)
USA (2015)
Delhi (2015)
Plugging in : Piece 7






                  
conducted for the Delhi (not NCR) region (Figure 3).





         

  


       

Figure 2: Appliances penetration rate in the NCR

Source: Electrifying the National Capital Region. Khosla and Sircar (in preparation).
Source: Electrifying the National Capital Region. Khosla and Sircar (in preparation).
Fan TV Fridge AC Appliances Cooler Washing Machine Water Purifier
Percentage of Households
0 20 40 60 80 100
99.4 96.95
87.24
18.84
81.96
50.21
38
Percentage of Households
0 20 40 60 80 100
NCR Survey CASI NSS 2011 (Delhi Average)
Census − 2011 (NCT of Delhi Average) Desai & Vanneman − 2015, ------- by Prayas 2016 (Delhi Average)
99.4
NA
97
100 96.46
88 87.4
80
89.31
NA
68.4 70
23.97
NA NA
10
54.17
44.6
NA NA
Fan TV Fridge AC Washing Machine
Plugging in : Piece 7

 



                 
 
              





REFERENCES
 https://doi.
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               https://www.eia.gov/
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
             http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=C01
(accessed 12.28.17).



            https://www.census.gov/main/www/cprs.html
(accessed 12.28.17).
Figure 4: Cooling appliance ownership patterns as a function of the asset index
Source: Electrifying the National Capital Region. Khosla and Sircar (in preparation).
0−10% 10−20% 20−30% 30−40% 40−50% 50−60% 60−70% 70−80% 80−90%
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Consumption Asset Decile Vs Probability of owning at least one appliance
Consumption Asset Decile
Probability of owning at least one appliance
Fan Cooler AC
Plugging in : Piece 8


Aditya Chunekar, Prayas (Energy Group)
          
           
       




   







       
 


               



locations across the country.

Source: 
Air Condi oners
Air Coolers
Ceiling Fans
Geysers
Incandescent
Bulbs
Televisions
Tube Lights
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
BEE I ESS (2012) Murt hy (2001) Prayas (2008) TERI (2008) Wor ld Bank (2008)
Annual appliance usage hours
Plugging in : Piece 8
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

           
              



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





 


Figure 2: Comparison of load curves between households with basic appliances with high power appliances like air-conditioner, electric
water-heater, and microwave oven, in addition to basic appliances.
Source: 
4 A M 1 0 AM 4 P M 10 PM
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
Active power (W)
Hou seh old t ype
B asic applia nces Hi gh pow er a ppli ance s
Plugging in : Piece 8








REFERENCES
https://beeindia.gov.in/content/capacity-building-discoms
(accessed 12.27.17).
http://www.watchyourpower.
org/the_initiative.php (accessed 12.28.17).

Figure 3: Load curves for refrigerators
Source: 
4 A M 1 0 A M 4 P M 1 0 P M
0
5 0
100
150
Ac ti ve po we r ( W )
R e f r ig e ra t o r t y pe
3 ye ar old, 5 s tar rat ed 1 5 ye ar old, n on st ar r ated
Plugging in : Piece 9


Radhika Khosla, Centre for Policy Research
             
      


          





    



   




Figure 1: Variation in electricity bills for households as per their score on the appliances-asset index
Source: 


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  
Electric Bill Amount (Rs.)
HH Size < 4 HH Size >= 4
Asset Index Value
0500 1000 1500 2000
-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.5 1.5
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        
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


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


;



REFERENCES

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085428

Plugging in : Piece 9

dharma marg , ch ana kyapu ri, new delhi 110021
www.cprindia.org
... It is projected to rise by at least three fold by 2030 [1,2]. If left unaddressed, the scale of this demand will have serious implications on the already strained national grid posing more issues [3]. A number of studies have revealed that residential air conditioning (AC) is a large contributor (20-40%) of annual residential electricity use in urban dwellings and expected to treble by 2030 [3]. ...
... If left unaddressed, the scale of this demand will have serious implications on the already strained national grid posing more issues [3]. A number of studies have revealed that residential air conditioning (AC) is a large contributor (20-40%) of annual residential electricity use in urban dwellings and expected to treble by 2030 [3]. However there is limited measured data on the actual use of residential AC in real homes and how this varies across seasons [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Residential electricity consumption (REC) in India has tripled in the past two decades accounting for 24% of the overall electricity consumption during 2018-19. Residential air conditioning (AC) usage is responsible for about 20%-40% of REC in India. This paper investigates the relationship of residential AC use with indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) using concurrent time-series monitoring data gathered in eight dwellings during summer and monsoon seasons. Contextual data about the dwelling (physical) and household characteristics were gathered using face-to-face interview based surveys. The dwellings were located in Hyderabad representing the composite climate of India. The mean daily electricity consumption was found to be higher in summer (11.5kWh) possibly due to the higher usage of AC (because of higher ambient conditions) as compared to 6.5kWh/day during monsoon season. Binary logistic regression identified the trigger indoor temperature and RH at which AC was likely to be switched on in the summer as 29 °C - 31.9 °C for indoor temperature and 36%-38.9% RH. In the monsoon season AC was predicted to come on sooner at 26°C-28.9°C but at higher RH range of 59%-61.9%. These empirical findings can be used to reduce residential cooling energy demand through smart management of ACs in Indian dwellings.
... It is projected to rise by at least three fold by 2030 [1,2]. If left unaddressed, the scale of this demand will have serious implications on the already strained national grid posing more issues [3]. A number of studies have revealed that residential air conditioning (AC) is a large contributor (20-40%) of annual residential electricity use in urban dwellings and expected to treble by 2030 [3]. ...
... If left unaddressed, the scale of this demand will have serious implications on the already strained national grid posing more issues [3]. A number of studies have revealed that residential air conditioning (AC) is a large contributor (20-40%) of annual residential electricity use in urban dwellings and expected to treble by 2030 [3]. However there is limited measured data on the actual use of residential AC in real homes and how this varies across seasons [4,5]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Residential electricity consumption (REC) in India has tripled in the past two decades accounting for 24% of the overall electricity consumption during 2018-19. Residential air conditioning (AC) usage is a one of the largest contributors of REC. This paper investigates the relationship of residential AC use with indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) using concurrent time-series monitoring data gathered in eight dwellings for the summer and monsoon seasons. Contextual data about the dwelling (physical) and household characteristics were gathered using face-to-face interview based surveys. The dwellings are located in Hyderabad representing composite climate of India. The mean daily electricity consumption was found to be higher in summer (11.5kWh) possibly due to the higher usage of AC (because of higher ambient conditions) as compared to 6.5kWh/day during monsoon season. Binary logistic regression identified the trigger indoor temperature and RH at which AC was likely to be switched on in the summer as 29 °C-31.9 °C for indoor temperature and 36-38.9% RH. In the monsoon season AC was predicted to come on sooner at 26°C-28.9°C but at higher RH range of 59-61.9%. These empricial findings can be used to reduce residential cooling energy demand through smart management of AC in Indian dwellings.
... About 70% of the growth in building energy demand in India is driven by the residential sector, which currently is not covered by mandatory building energy performance regulations 107,131 . In the current paradigm, the residential electricity consumption could increase by 700% in 2030, compared to 2010 levels 137,138 . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This regional profile for India was developed in the context of the BEIS COP26 Futures We Want project. It has been developed with input from in-country academic experts Professor Ambuj Sagar (Indian Institute of Technology, India) and Dr Suresh Babu (Dr B R Ambedkar University, India). It sets out a synthesis of the available evidence base on regional challenges and opportunities for mitigation, adaptation, and resilience measures for India associated with climate change and a global transition to an inclusive, desirable, and resilient net-zero future.
... About 70% of the growth in building energy demand in India is driven by the residential sector, which currently is not covered by mandatory building energy performance regulations 107,131 . In the current paradigm, the residential electricity consumption could increase by 700% in 2030, compared to 2010 levels 137,138 . ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This regional profile for India was developed in the context of the BEIS COP26 Futures We Want project. It has been developed with input from in-country academic experts Professor Ambuj Sagar (Indian Institute of Technology, India) and Dr Suresh Babu (Dr B R Ambedkar University, India). It sets out a synthesis of the available evidence base on regional challenges and opportunities for mitigation, adaptation, and resilience measures for India associated with climate change and a global transition to an inclusive, desirable, and resilient net-zero future.
... Several independent consumer surveys in recent years have assessed household awareness levels regarding energy efficiency initiatives like BEE star labelling, penetration of efficient appliances, their perceived benefits, and the socio-economic and behavioural barriers to their uptake (Kusaka, Kojima, and Watanabe 2012;Sharma and Gupta 2013;Dhingra et al. 2016; R. Khosla and Chunekar 2017;Neto-Bradley, Choudhary, and Bazaz 2019). However, these studies do not depict a nation-wide representative status, as they were usually restricted to major urban areas, a single or a handful of districts, or a sample of highly educated respondents. ...
... The appliance basket comprising fans, TV, refrigerators, air conditioners, air coolers and water heaters contribute to around 50-60% of the total electricity consumption in India [63]. A survey of low-income houses in Rajkot, Gujarat in 2017 report that fans, TVs and refrigerators form bulk of the appliances used within affordable housing units, while a survey of households in Delhi the same year captures rising appliance ownerships with dramatic jumps for refrigerator and air conditioners since 2011 [64]. Furthermore, industry and market studies foresee India to experience exponential growth in the AC market in the next decade [65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
End-users base their consumption decisions not only on available budget and direct use value, but also on their social environment. The underlying social dynamics are particularly important in the case of consumer goods that implicate high future energy demand and are, hence, also key for climate mitigation. This paper investigates the impact of social factors, with a focus on 'status perceptions', on car and appliance ownerships by urban India households. Using two rounds of the household-level data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS, 2005 and 2012), we test for the impact of social factors in addition to economic, demographic, locational, and housing on ownership levels. Starting with factor analysis to categorise appliances by their latent characteristics, we then apply the bivariate ordered probit model to identify drivers of consumption among the urban households. We find that while income and household demographics are predominant drivers of car and appliance uptake, the household's perception of status, instrumented by a variable measuring expenditure on conspicuous consumption, emerges as a key social dimension influencing the uptake. The results indicate how households identify themselves in society influences their corresponding car and appliance consumption. A deeper understanding of status-based consumption is, therefore, essential to designing better demand-side solutions to low-carbon consumption.
Article
India's energy security scenario (IESS 2047) projects a mammoth increase in residential air conditioners, from 21.8 million units in 2017 to 154.4 million in 2038. This increased demand for space cooling accounts for an equal responsibility from architects and energy engineers to research building design-related cooling load nexus. This paper studies the pattern of cooling load dispersion between floors for 25 dominant residential typologies in Navi Mumbai that vary in heights, shapes, footprint areas, and densities. Simulation for cooling loads is done using Rhinoceros 6 tool with energy plus plugin. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) Post Hoc Test is done after ANOVA to group floors with similar cooling load profiles. The results show a strict increase in cooling load till the top floor for low rise and mid-rise. However, for high-rise buildings, most intermediate floors fall under a single subset category; thereby, the increase in cooling load among floors is not similar. This shows that as building height increases, the difference between cooling loads of intermediate floors decreases significantly. Also, an increase in height with a decrease in footprint area reduces the overall cooling load of the building.
Conference Paper
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The first wave of COVID-19 pandemic led to a nationwide lockdown in India from 25th March to 30th May 2020. This study examines the change in residential electricity consumption, use of air conditioning (AC) and well-being of residents during the lockdown period when normal activities became home-based and travelling was curtailed. An online household survey questionnaire was used to gather data about dwelling characteristics, occupancy, socio-demographics, AC and appliance usage, and resident well-being in terms of thermal comfort and neighbourhood support during the lockdown, from 360 households representing four climatic zones in India. A subset of 88 households provided three months of electricity consumption data (fuel bills) before and during the lockdown period. Of the 360 households, 133 occupied high-rise apartments and 79 low-rise apartments while the remaining households inhabited row and detached houses. Overall 42% of households felt an improvement in support from their neighbourhood and community during lockdown; this improvement was perceived to be higher in apartment blocks possibly due to the close proximity of households. Occupancy hours of AC households increased by 75% during the lockdown along with a 29% increase in AC usage hours due to home-working. This is why mean monthly electricity consumption for AC households during the lockdown was found to be 292kWh, which was twice that of non-AC households (152kWh). The weather-corrected mean daily electricity consumption during lockdown (April 2020) for the 88-household sample was 10.5 kWh, as compared to 8 kWh before the lockdown (February 2020). As home-working and home-schooling continue through the pandemic, curtailing the rise of residential electricity use needs urgent attention from policy-makers.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an emerging technology to assist Internet of Things (IoT) related applications. Applications such as automated power control, monitoring of houses to prevent from theft etc. can be implemented using IoT. In this paper one such application is considered and WSN based IoT system is proposed. The proposed system uses three passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors connected to a camera to capture the images of person entering or leaving the house. The captured images are communicated to the server for storing and further processing. This information is also used to switch off or on power appliances such as fan, lights, etc. thereby reducing power consumption. The forwarding of information such as number of persons present in the room and the images of the persons entering or leaving the house is done using River Formation Dynamics based Multi-hop Routing Protocol (RFDMRP). A prototype of the proposed system is developed, installed, and tested.
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Energy efficiency levels for the Standards and Labeling (S&L) program in India for frost free (FF) refrigerators are compared with similar programs in China, United States of America (USA), and European Union (EU). A normalization method developed by International Energy Agency (IEA) is adopted with India as a benchmark for comparison. It is observed that the energy consumption level corresponding to minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) is very high in India. India also lags behind other countries on the consumption level corresponding to highest efficiency rating. Also, the range of consumption levels corresponding to a label is wide which dilutes the efficacy of label. India has aggressively proposed to tighten the ratings for FF refrigerators in 2014 by 36% across all the bands. This measure will make its highest efficiency rating comparable to other countries. However, due to the wide gap in the consumption levels across the ratings, the revised MEPS will still lag behind other countries. One possible outcome of high MEPS is that as the ratings are tightened, the market may move to lower star rated models significantly undermining the tightening effect.
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Consumer choice is often influenced by the context, defined by the set of alternatives under consideration. Two hypotheses about the effect of context on choice are proposed. The first hypothesis, tradeoff contrast, states that the tendency to prefer an alternative is enhanced or hindered depending on whether the tradeoffs within the set under consideration are favorable or unfavourable to that option. The second hypothesis, extremeness aversion, states that the attractiveness of an option is enhanced if it is an intermediate option in the choice set and is diminished if it is an extreme option. These hypotheses can explain previous findings (e.g., attraction and compromise effects) and predict some new effects, demonstrated in a series of studies with consumer products as choice alternatives. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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