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Abstract

Background: The availability of technological means to enhance and repair human cognitive function raises questions about the perceived morality of their use. However, we have limited knowledge about the public's intuitive attitudes toward uses of brain stimulation. Studies that enlighten us about the public's willingness to endorse specific uses of brain stimulation on themselves and others could provide a basis to understand the moral psychology guiding intuitions about neuromodulation and opportunities to inform public education and public policy. Objective: Hypothesis: We expected that subjects would be less willing to enhance or repair cognitive functions perceived as more "core" to "authentic" self-identity, prioritize brain stimulation uses for themselves, and more willing to enhance "core" functions in others. Across specific hypothetical uses, we expected the moral acceptability of specific uses to be associated with subjects' willingness to endorse them. Methods: We administered two surveys to the public in which subjects were asked to report how willing they would be to enhance or repair specific cognitive abilities using a hypothetical brain stimulation device called "Ceremode". Results: Among 894 subjects, we found that subjects were more willing to use technologies to repair other people than themselves. They were most inclined to repair core functions in others. Subjects' ratings of the moral acceptability of specific uses was related to their reported willingness to use brain stimulation. Conclusion: Moral acceptability is related to the public's willingness to use brain stimulation. These findings suggest that the public endorses a generous approach to applying brain stimulation for cognitive gains in others. Further, this study establishes a basis to guide moral psychological studies of cognitive modification and social processes that guide attitudes toward and uses of brain stimulation.

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... In hypothetical scenarios, the public is more willing to administer brain stimulation to repair others than to use it themselves, and also to optimize core features in others. Moreover, the perceived moral acceptability of specific uses of brain stimulation is positively but imperfectly related to willingness to use it (Medaglia et al. 2019). ...
... We further hypothesized that subjects would be less willing to optimize cognition when first asked to think morally. We anticipated that we would replicate our finding that moral acceptability is related to willingness to optimize specific cognitive functions (Medaglia et al. 2019). Furthermore, we expected that subjects who considered themselves to be more politically conservative would rate invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation to be less morally acceptable and that this effect would be partially statistically mediated by the Big-5 personality trait openness to experience. ...
... A total of 1600 subjects were randomly assigned to one of the eight surveys on Amazon Mechanical Turk (M-Turk). We recruited this number of subjects to enhance our power to detect effects relative to our prior study including 894 subjects (Medaglia et al. 2019) because we expected that moral framing effects might be small. In addition, our prior study was sufficient to detect effects at the condition and item level to test the hypotheses, so we expected that the enlarged sample here would at minimum be sufficient to detect similar sized effects for similar items. ...
Article
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Scientists, clinicians, and the public aim to optimize cognition using numerous techniques. While drugs and education have become mainstays in the public and professional practice, brain stimulation is rapidly emerging. The public reports some concerns about brain stimulation used to optimize cognition. In our prior work using hypothetical vignettes involving brain stimulation, the moral acceptability of specific uses was only somewhat related to the public’s willingness to administer brain stimulation to influence a given cognitive function. Notably, whether the moral framing influences willingness to optimize cognition with various mechanisms is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned subjects to one of four mechanism vignette conditions: education, drugs, invasive brain stimulation, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Within each mechanism, subjects were assigned to think morally either before or after reporting their willingness to optimize specific cognitive functions in others. Across 1328 subjects, we found that thinking morally reduced the public’s willingness to optimize cognition overall. Moreover, willingness decreased the most in invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation. Encouraging moral reasoning uniquely reduces openness to using brain stimulation among other ways to optimize cognition. Studying how specific moral concerns drive public hesitancy about brain stimulation could suggest avenues for education and ethical discourse.
... A recently emerging methodology for doing so is that of experimental ethics, in which moral judgements about various situational vignettes are collected from relatively large samples of online participants. In recent years, this methodology has been applied to quantify societal attitudes towards new technologies such as autonomous vehicles [16] or brain stimulation [26], potential public policies such as legalizing payments to kidney donors [27], but also downright futuristic scenarios such as mind upload [28], sex robots [29] or cognitive enhancement with brain implants [30] (figure 1d). The experimental ethics approach allows comparing different situation variants that may make or break dilemmas (e.g. ...
... For each vignette, participants first rated the acceptability of the situation, and were then presented with two potential dilemmas involving lying about the true purpose of the transformation in order to improve its effectiveness. Finally, for all of these judgements, we examined associations with individual differences in participants' attitudes towards morality (Moral Foundations Questionnaire, MFQ [31], measuring factors of harm-care, fairness-cheating, loyalty-betrayal, authority-subversion and purity-degradation) and toward technology and science fiction (Science Fiction Hobbyism Scale, SFH; [28]), two factors found relevant in previous research about the moral reception of new technologies [26,28,29,32] (see §4 for details of the procedure). ...
... Although our study is exploratory and we did not preregister any formal hypotheses, a number of loose predictions can be made from the literature about how our variables of interest impact participants' moral judgements. First, similar experiments with emerging technologies such as autonomous vehicles [16] or brain stimulation [26] have documented situations of social dilemma, in which participants accept things for themselves (i.e. a car that favours its driver, rather than pedestrians) that they would otherwise reject for others. Second, across diverse forms of enhancement (e.g. ...
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Rapid technological advances in artificial intelligence are creating opportunities for real-time algorithmic modulations of a person’s facial and vocal expressions, or ‘deep-fakes’. These developments raise unprecedented societal and ethical questions which, despite much recent public awareness, are still poorly understood from the point of view of moral psychology. We report here on an experimental ethics study conducted on a sample of N = 303 participants (predominantly young, western and educated), who evaluated the acceptability of vignettes describing potential applications of expressive voice transformation technology. We found that vocal deep-fakes were generally well accepted in the population, notably in a therapeutic context and for emotions judged otherwise difficult to control, and surprisingly, even if the user lies to their interlocutors about using them. Unlike other emerging technologies like autonomous vehicles, there was no evidence of social dilemma in which one would, for example, accept for others what they resent for themselves. The only real obstacle to the massive deployment of vocal deep-fakes appears to be situations where they are applied to a speaker without their knowing, but even the acceptability of such situations was modulated by individual differences in moral values and attitude towards science fiction. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part II)’.
... While "side effect" usually refers to a negative consequence, we will use this term to refer to any secondary effect of an intervention, which could also be positive. We also note that others have pointed out ethical distinctions between interventions used to enhance or repair cognitive functions and the difficulty in distinguishing the two (Buchanan, 2011;Chan & Harris, 2006;O'Connor & Joffe, 2015;Medaglia et al., 2019;Savulescu et al., 2011). We refer the reader to these primary references and point to relevant distinctions in the context of neuromodulation and decision-making here. ...
... If an intervention is used to coercively implicitly or explicitly influence decisions with the "positive" intent to enhance them, it is possible that a person's autonomy could be impinged. This is not altogether a hypothetical sentiment; indeed, individuals in the public deem it significantly more appropriate to enhance cognitive functions like kindness and empathy in others rather than themselves (Medaglia et al., 2019). Moreover, even if neuromodulation was used benevolently by a clinician, a lack of focus on how autonomous decisions could be influenced could lead to accidental negligence if a side effect results for which we have no predictive framework or good measurements. ...
Article
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How humans make decisions is one of the primary domains of inquiry in psychology. Our ability to make decisions leads to direct consequences in our lives and defines one aspect of autonomous function. Among clinicians and researchers, the pursuit of effective cognitive enhancements and treatments that could directly or indirectly influence our decision processes has become widespread, since many of the neural circuits that we stimulate are involved in autonomous decision-making. Given rapid scientific developments, it is prudent to consider how neuromodulation could affect a person’s ability to make choices and manage trade-offs between decision outcomes. In light of this dilemma, we offer a framework based in decision neuroscience that separates brain networks into decision-making core, volitional action, and moderating systems. This framework bridges bioethics and cognitive neuroscience to provide heuristics for the neural basis of autonomous decision-making. In doing so, we provide a general call to predict and weight risks and benefits of different degrees and kinds with regard to decision-making as increasingly precise neuromodulation techniques emerge.
... Although exploratory, we also extend earlier work linking just world beliefs to the anomalous-is-bad bias by demonstrating relations between judgments of moral obligation and individual differences in just world beliefs (i.e., people are generally subjected to fair procedures). Taken together, we find evidence for malleability in moral attitudes towards cognitive enhancement as reported previously (Bedzow, 2018;Mayor et al., 2019;Medaglia et al., 2019), although the extent of this elasticity depends on the specific moral attitude or behavior in question and on the characteristics of the moral agent. ...
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Public attitudes towards cognitive enhancement-e.g., using stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin to improve mental functioning-are mixed. Attitudes vary by context and prompt ethical concerns about fairness, obligation, and authenticity/character. While people may have strong views about the morality of cognitive enhancement, how these views are affected by the physical characteristics of enhancers is unknown. Visible facial anomalies (e.g., scars) bear negatively on perceptions of moral character. This pre-registered study (https://osf.io/uaw6c/) tested the hypothesis that such negative biases against people with facial anomalies extend to moral beliefs surrounding their use of cognitive enhancement. In an online survey, 941 participants made moral judgments in response to a vignette about a person who had to decide whether or not to enhance. The vignette was accompanied by a face photograph that ostensibly depicted the potential enhancer and either did or did not have visible anomalies. Participants then learned whether the person ultimately decided to enhance. Next, participants played a modified Trust Game with, they were told, the person from the photograph/vignette. Participants judged enhancement to be less fair and enhancers less authentic if they had facial anomalies, while effects on judgments of moral obligation and on behavior were not detected. These findings extend previous work showing that people with visible differences are subject to an "anomalous-is-bad" stereotype that has negative consequences for perceptions of their moral character. While anomalous faces were judged more harshly, these judgments did not appear to affect behavior. These results are discussed in relation to discrimination and policy.
... Agent-related factors such as the motivation why someone would choose to take cognitive enhancement pills rather than hire a tutor or consequence-related factors such as the persistence or reversibility of the enhancement efects are factors that in a sense may change the nature and the evaluation of the deed itself because they change its meaning to the agent and have diferent implications. Additionally, there could be diferences in the conditions of use, such as the diiculty and legality of obtaining an enhancer or whether the enhancer is invasive (such as a pill) or non-invasive (such as a brain stimulation headband) (Medaglia et al., 2019). Other diferences include the diverging moral evaluations of the practice in question, the interpersonal implications of methods in terms of access (to either the tutor's services and/or the pill(s)), social acceptability, perceived emotions during information intake, and sustainability of the learned material, as suggested by investigations about moral enhancement (Specker et al., 2017). ...
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Stimulant drugs, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, and even genetic modifications are all discussed as forms of potential cognitive enhancement. Cognitive enhancement can be conceived as a benefit-seeking strategy used by healthy individuals to enhance cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, or vigilance. This phenomenon is hotly debated in the public, professional, and scientific literature. Many of the statements favoring cognitive enhancement (e.g., related to greater productivity and autonomy) or opposing it (e.g., related to health-risks and social expectations) rely on claims about human welfare and human flourishing. But with real-world evidence from the social and psychological sciences often missing to support (or invalidate) these claims, the debate about cognitive enhancement is stalled. In this paper, we describe a set of crucial debated questions about psychological and social aspects of cognitive enhancement (e.g., intrinsic motivation, well-being) and explain why they are of fundamental importance to address in the cognitive enhancement debate and in future research. We propose studies targeting social and psychological outcomes associated with cognitive enhancers (e.g., stigmatization, burnout, mental well-being, work motivation). We also voice a call for scientific evidence, inclusive of but not limited to biological health outcomes, to thoroughly assess the impact of enhancement. This evidence is needed to engage in empirically informed policymaking, as well as to promote the mental and physical health of users and non-users of enhancement.
... Since its publication, the article introducing the NBI has been cited nearly 20 times, but no research besides the original has used the scale to explore relationships between neoliberal ideology and psychological variables. Katz, Gravelin, and O'Brien (2018) found those scoring higher on the NBI were less sympathetic to an adolescent with an unintended pregnancy, and Medaglia, Yaden, Helion, and Haslam (2019) found no relationship between neoliberal beliefs and attitudes toward transcranial direct current stimulation, a technology presented as a means of self-improvement. The remainder of the articles citing the original NBI article refers to its discussion of neoliberalism without applying the NBI itself. ...
... The use of the term in the empirical, philosophical, and sociopolitical literature, however, varies with regard of the specific aim of enhancement interventions: people appear to be more tolerant toward enhancement of traits considered less fundamental to self-identity, 200 and also more tolerant toward enhancement in individuals with cognitive impairments or low performance baselines compared to enhancement of normal or high achievers. 201,202 At least four different aims can be identified, each leading to different research strategies and different ethical evaluations of existing or potential enhancement strategies. 203 The least problematic concept of cognitive enhancement targets those everyday medical or psychological interventions that are meant to treat pathological deficiencies. ...
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In neurology, as in all branches of medicine, symptoms of disease and the resulting burden of illness and disability are not simply the consequence of the injury, inflammation or dysfunction of a given organ; they also reflect the consequences of the nervous system's attempt to adapt to the insult. This plastic response includes compensatory changes that prove adaptive for the individual, as well as changes that contribute to functional disability and are, therefore, maladaptive. In this context, brain stimulation techniques tailored to modulate individual plastic changes associated with neurological diseases might enhance clinical benefits and minimize adverse effects. In this Review, we discuss the use of two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques--repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation--to modulate activity in the targeted cortex or in a dysfunctional network, to restore an adaptive equilibrium in a disrupted network for best behavioral outcome, and to suppress plastic changes for functional advantage. We review randomized controlled studies, in focal epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, recovery from stroke, and chronic pain, to illustrate these principles, and we present evidence for the clinical effects of these two techniques.
Article
Background In recent years, neuroscientists and ethicists have warned of the dangers of the unsupervised home use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which individuals stimulate their own brains with low levels of electricity for self-improvement purposes. Although the home use of tDCS is often referred to as a novel phenomenon, in reality the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a proliferation of electrical stimulation devices for home use. In particular, the use of an object known as the medical battery bears a number of striking similarities to the modern-day use of tDCS. Objective This article reviews a number of features thought to be unique to the present day home use of brain stimulation, with a particular focus on analogies between tDCS and the medical battery. Methods Archival research was conducted at the Bakken Museum and at the American Medical Association's Historical Health Fraud Archives. Results Many of the features characterizing the contemporary home use tDCS—a do-it-yourself (DIY) movement, anti-medical establishment themes, conflicts between lay and professional usage—are a repetition of themes that occurred a century ago with regard to the medical battery. A number of features, however, seem to be unique to the present, such as the dominant discourse about risk and safety, the division between cranial and non-cranial stimulation, and utilization for cognitive enhancement purposes. Conclusion(s) Viewed in the long durée, the contemporary use of electrical stimulation at home is not a novel phenomenon, but rather the latest wave in a series of ongoing attempts by lay individuals to utilize electricity for therapeutic purposes.
Article
Over the last 50 years, we argue that incentives for academic scientists have become increasingly perverse in terms of competition for research funding, development of quantitative metrics to measure performance, and a changing business model for higher education itself. Furthermore, decreased discretionary funding at the federal and state level is creating a hypercompetitive environment between government agencies (e.g., EPA, NIH, CDC), for scientists in these agencies, and for academics seeking funding from all sources—the combination of perverse incentives and decreased funding increases pressures that can lead to unethical behavior. If a critical mass of scientists become untrustworthy, a tipping point is possible in which the scientific enterprise itself becomes inherently corrupt and public trust is lost, risking a new dark age with devastating consequences to humanity. Academia and federal agencies should better support science as a public good, and incentivize altruistic and ethical outcomes, while de-emphasizing output.
Article
With contributions from Jorge Luis Borges, Richard Dawkins, John Searle, and Robert Nozick, The Mind's I explores the meaning of self and consciousness through the perspectives of literature, artificial intelligence, psychology, and other disciplines. In selections that range from fiction to scientific speculations about thinking machines, artificial intelligence, and the nature of the brain, Hofstadter and Dennett present a variety of conflicting visions of the self and the soul as explored through the writings of some of the twentieth century's most renowned thinkers.
Book
This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given, beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered.
Article
Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population. In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989. Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0·20 (SE 0·02, SD 0·51) in the intervention group and 0·16 (0·01, 0·51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0·022 (95% CI 0·002-0·042, p=0·030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control). Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population. Academy of Finland, La Carita Foundation, Alzheimer Association, Alzheimer's Research and Prevention Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Social Insurance Institution, Ministry of Education and Culture, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Axa Research Fund, EVO funding for University Hospitals of Kuopio, Oulu, and Turku and for Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Oulu City Hospital, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and af Jochnick Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The ambiguity regarding whether a given intervention is perceived as enhancement or as therapy might contribute to the angst that the public expresses with respect to endorsement of enhancement. We set out to develop empirical data that explored this. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk to recruit participants (N = 2776) from Canada and the United States. Each individual was randomly assigned to read one (and only one) vignette describing the use of a pill to enhance one of 12 cognitive, affective or social (CAS) domains. The vignettes described a situation in which an individual was using a pill to enhance the relevant domain under one of two possible enhancement conditions, one perceived as enhancing above the norm (EAN), what most people recognize as a clear case of enhancement, whereas the other perceived as enhancing towards the norm (ETN), with the individual using the enhancement having a modest, but subclinical deficit. Participants were asked how comfortable they were with the individual using the enhancement and about the impact the enhancement might have had in the individuals’ success in life. We found that irrespective of the domain to be enhanced, participants felt significantly more comfortable with ETN than with EAN, and they regarded the enhancement intervention as contributing to greater success in life with ETN rather than EAN. These data demonstrate that the therapy enhancement distinction is morally salient to the public, and that this distinction contributes to the angst that people feel when considering the propriety of CAS enhancement.
Article
The debate over the propriety of cognitive enhancement evokes both enthusiasm and worry. To gain further insight into the reasons that people may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological enhancement (PE), we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards PE of twelve cognitive, affective, and social (CAS) domains (e.g., attention, mood, creativity). Participants (N = 1,408) from Canada and the United States were recruited using Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one (and only one) vignette that described an individual who uses a pill to enhance a single domain. After reading the vignette, participants were asked how comfortable they were with the individual using the enhancement. People were significantly more comfortable when they read about enhancement of certain CAS domains (e.g. creativity) than others (e.g. mood). We found a modest negative correlation between comfort level and the degree to which the PE was perceived as changing core features of the person. We also found a modest correlation between comfort level and the degree to which the PE was perceived as improving success in life. Finally, using a sequential mixed method technique, we found that participants who felt uncomfortable about PE use overwhelmingly focused on a lack of need and, to a lesser degree, expressed concerns about safety; those who felt comfortable about PE use most frequently mentioned the safety of the pill and its ability to provide a positive outcome. The data provide novel insights into public enthusiasms and concerns over the use of PE.
Article
Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of CE among healthy subjects are of paramount importance for informing policy makers and healthcare professionals about CE.
Article
Vigorous debate over the moral propriety of cognitive enhancement exists, but the views of the public have been largely absent from the discussion. To address this gap in our knowledge, four experiments were carried out with contrastive vignettes in order to obtain quantitative data on public attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. The data collected suggest that the public is sensitive to and capable of understanding the four cardinal concerns identified by neuroethicists, and tend to cautiously accept cognitive enhancement even as they recognize its potential perils. The public is biopolitically moderate, endorses both meritocratic principles and the intrinsic value of hard work, and appears to be sensitive to the salient moral issues raised in the debate. Taken together, these data suggest that public attitudes toward enhancement are sufficiently sophisticated to merit inclusion in policy deliberations, especially if we seek to align public sentiment and policy.
Code
Statistical analysis is a useful skill for linguists and psycholinguists, allowing them to understand the quantitative structure of their data. This textbook provides a straightforward introduction to the statistical analysis of language. Designed for linguists with a non-mathematical background, it clearly introduces the basic principles and methods of statistical analysis, using ’R’, the leading computational statistics programme. The reader is guided step-by-step through a range of real data sets, allowing them to analyse acoustic data, construct grammatical trees for a variety of languages, quantify register variation in corpus linguistics, and measure experimental data using state-of-the-art models. The visualization of data plays a key role, both in the initial stages of data exploration and later on when the reader is encouraged to criticize various models. Containing over 40 exercises with model answers, this book will be welcomed by all linguists wishing to learn more about working with and presenting quantitative data.
Article
Counselors conducting survey research have many item format options to contemplate. Three independent studies with different samples (1162 undergraduates aged 17-59 yrs, 78 graduate students aged 22-53 yrs, and 522 students aged 18-60 yrs) were used to address the purpose of the research and test the hypotheses. The studies examined midpoint selection and the effect on reliability of (a) including or excluding midpoint options and (b) using both positively and negatively worded items. Findings indicate that reliability can be affected by both midpoint options and reverse coding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent political science research on the effects of core personality traits — the Big Five — contributes to our understanding of how people interact with their political environments. This research examines how individual-level variations in broad, stable psychological characteristics affect individual-level political outcomes. In this article, we review recent work that uses the Big Five to predict political attitudes and behavior. We also replicate some of these analyses using new data to examine the possibility that prior findings stem from sampling error or unique political contexts. Finally, we discuss several of the challenges faced by scholars who are currently pursuing or are interested in pursuing this line of inquiry. These challenges include refining theoretical explanations of how the Big Five shape political outcomes, addressing important measurement concerns, and resolving inconsistencies across studies.
Article
Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a relatively new website that contains the major elements required to conduct research: an integrated participant compensation system; a large participant pool; and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection. In this article, we describe and evaluate the potential contributions of MTurk to psychology and other social sciences. Findings indicate that (a) MTurk participants are slightly more demographically diverse than are standard Internet samples and are significantly more diverse than typical American college samples; (b) participation is affected by compensation rate and task length, but participants can still be recruited rapidly and inexpensively; (c) realistic compensation rates do not affect data quality; and (d) the data obtained are at least as reliable as those obtained via traditional methods. Overall, MTurk can be used to obtain high-quality data inexpensively and rapidly. © The Author(s) 2011.
Article
Counterproductive financial incentives divert time and resources from the scientific enterprise. We should spend the money more wisely, says Paula Stephan.
Article
To provide a measure of the Big Five for contexts in which participant time is severely limited, we abbreviated the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) to a 10-item version, the BFI-10. To permit its use in cross-cultural research, the BFI-10 was developed simultaneously in several samples in both English and German. Results focus on the psychometric characteristics of the 2-item scales on the BFI-10, including their part-whole correlations with the BFI-44 scales, retest reliability, structural validity, convergent validity with the NEO-PI-R and its facets, and external validity using peer ratings. Overall, results indicate that the BFI-10 scales retain significant levels of reliability and validity. Thus, reducing the items of the BFI-44 to less than a fourth yielded effect sizes that were lower than those for the full BFI-44 but still sufficient for research settings with truly limited time constraints.
Article
This paper provides an introduction to mixed-effects models for the analysis of repeated measurement data with subjects and items as crossed random effects. A worked-out example of how to use recent software for mixed-effects modeling is provided. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages offered by mixed-effects analyses compared to traditional analyses based on quasi-F tests, by-subjects analyses, combined by-subjects and by-items analyses, and random regression. Applications and possibilities across a range of domains of inquiry are discussed.
Article
Traditional approaches to moral psychology assumed that moral judgments resulted from the application of explicit commitments, such as those embodied in consequentialist or deontological philosophies. In contrast, recent work suggests that moral judgments often result from unconscious or emotional processes, with explicit commitments generated post hoc. This paper explores the intermediate position that moral commitments mediate moral judgments, but not through their explicit and consistent application in the course of judgment. An experiment with 336 participants finds that individuals vary in the extent to which their moral commitments are consequentialist or deontological, and that this variation is systematically but imperfectly related to the moral judgments elicited by trolley car problems. Consequentialist participants find action in trolley car scenarios more permissible than do deontologists, and only consequentialists moderate their judgments when scenarios that typically elicit different intuitions are presented side by side. The findings emphasize the need for a theory of moral reasoning that can accommodate both the associations and dissociations between moral commitments and moral judgments.
Article
Although a growing body of evidence suggests that noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have the capacity to enhance neural function in both brain-injured and neurally intact individuals, the implications of their potential use for cosmetic self-enhancement have not been fully explored. We review 3 areas in which noninvasive brain stimulation has the potential to enhance neurologic function: cognitive skills, mood, and social cognition. We then characterize the ethical problems that affect the practice of cosmetic neurology, including safety, character, justice, and autonomy, and discuss how these problems may apply to the use of noninvasive brain stimulation for self-enhancement.
Article
Neuroaesthetics is gaining momentum. At this early juncture, it is worth taking stock of where the field is and what lies ahead. Here, I review writings that fall under the rubric of neuroaesthetics. These writings include discussions of the parallel organizational principles of the brain and the intent and practices of artists, the description of informative anecdotes, and the emergence of experimental neuroaesthetics. I then suggest a few areas within neuroaesthetics that might be pursued profitably. Finally, I raise some challenges for the field. These challenges are not unique to neuroaesthetics. As neuroaesthetics comes of age, it might take advantage of the lessons learned from more mature domains of inquiry within cognitive neuroscience.
Article
This article is based on a consensus conference, which took place in Certosa di Pontignano, Siena (Italy) on March 7-9, 2008, intended to update the previous safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical settings. Over the past decade the scientific and medical community has had the opportunity to evaluate the safety record of research studies and clinical applications of TMS and repetitive TMS (rTMS). In these years the number of applications of conventional TMS has grown impressively, new paradigms of stimulation have been developed (e.g., patterned repetitive TMS) and technical advances have led to new device designs and to the real-time integration of TMS with electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thousands of healthy subjects and patients with various neurological and psychiatric diseases have undergone TMS allowing a better assessment of relative risks. The occurrence of seizures (i.e., the most serious TMS-related acute adverse effect) has been extremely rare, with most of the few new cases receiving rTMS exceeding previous guidelines, often in patients under treatment with drugs which potentially lower the seizure threshold. The present updated guidelines review issues of risk and safety of conventional TMS protocols, address the undesired effects and risks of emerging TMS interventions, the applications of TMS in patients with implanted electrodes in the central nervous system, and safety aspects of TMS in neuroimaging environments. We cover recommended limits of stimulation parameters and other important precautions, monitoring of subjects, expertise of the rTMS team, and ethical issues. While all the recommendations here are expert based, they utilize published data to the extent possible.
Article
Our aim was to compare in a prospective blinded study the cognitive and mood effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) vs. globus pallidus interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. Fifty-two subjects were randomized to unilateral STN or GPi DBS. The co-primary outcome measures were the Visual Analog Mood Scale, and verbal fluency (semantic and letter) at 7 months post-DBS in the optimal setting compared to pre-DBS. At 7 months post-DBS, subjects were tested in four randomized/counterbalanced conditions (optimal, ventral, dorsal, and off DBS). Forty-five subjects (23 GPi, 22 STN) completed the protocol. The study revealed no difference between STN and GPi DBS in the change of co-primary mood and cognitive outcomes pre- to post-DBS in the optimal setting (Hotelling's T(2) test: p = 0.16 and 0.08 respectively). Subjects in both targets were less "happy", less "energetic" and more "confused" when stimulated ventrally. Comparison of the other 3 DBS conditions to pre-DBS showed a larger deterioration of letter verbal fluency in STN, especially when off DBS. There was no difference in UPDRS motor improvement between targets. There were no significant differences in the co-primary outcome measures (mood and cognition) between STN and GPi in the optimal DBS state. Adverse mood effects occurred ventrally in both targets. A worsening of letter verbal fluency was seen in STN. The persistence of deterioration in verbal fluency in the off STN DBS state was suggestive of a surgical rather than a stimulation-induced effect. Similar motor improvement were observed with both STN and GPi DBS.
Article
Repeated measures designs involving nonorthogonal variables are being used with increasing frequency in cognitive psychology. Researchers usually analyze the data from such designs inappropriately, probably because the designs are not discussed in standard textbooks on regression. Two commonly used approaches to analyzing repeated measures designs are considered in this article. It is argued that both approaches use inappropriate error terms for testing the effects of independent variables. A more appropriate analysis is presented, and two alternative computational procedures for the analysis are illustrated.
Article
How can people appear moral to themselves when they fail to act morally? Two self-deception strategies were considered: (a) misperceive one's behavior as moral and (b) avoid comparing one's behavior with moral standards. In Studies 1 and 2 the authors documented the importance of the 2nd strategy but not the 1st. Among participants who flipped a coin to assign themselves and another participant "fairly" to tasks, even a clearly labeled coin that prevented misperception did not produce a fair result (Study 1). Inducing behavior-standard comparison through self-awareness did (Study 2). Study 3 qualified the self-awareness effect: When moral standards were not salient before acting, self-awareness no longer increased alignment of behavior with standards. Instead, it increased alignment of standards with behavior and produced less moral action. Overall, results showed 3 different faces of moral hypocrisy.
Article
Moral psychology has long focused on reasoning, but recent evidence suggests that moral judgment is more a matter of emotion and affective intuition than deliberate reasoning. Here we discuss recent findings in psychology and cognitive neuroscience, including several studies that specifically investigate moral judgment. These findings indicate the importance of affect, although they allow that reasoning can play a restricted but significant role in moral judgment. They also point towards a preliminary account of the functional neuroanatomy of moral judgment, according to which many brain areas make important contributions to moral judgment although none is devoted specifically to it.
Article
To study the pyramidal tract side effects (PTSEs) induced by the spread of current from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the pyramidal tract (PT), in patients with parkinsonism undergoing STN stimulation. 14 patients bilaterally implanted with tetrapolar electrodes were assessed. For each side separately, the threshold of adverse effects induced by monopolar stimulation delivered by the chronically used contact was detected. The voltage was progressively increased until the patient experienced discomfort. All the PTSEs induced at 130 Hz (high-frequency stimulation (HFS)) and 2 or 3 Hz (low-frequency stimulation (LFS)) were videotaped. By superimposing the preoperative and postoperative MR images, the minimum distance (R) from the centre of the used contact to the medial border of the PT were measured. The progressive increase in voltage at HFS induced tonic motor contractions, mainly located in the face, in 27/28 electrodes. LFS induced synchronous rhythmic myoclonus in the same territory. PTSEs induced at threshold voltage by HFS were observed in the upper face at 13/28 electrodes (bilaterally in six cases) and in the contralateral lower face at five electrodes. A positive correlation was found between the stimulus intensity capable of eliciting motor contractions at HFS and R. HFS of the STN preferentially activates the corticobulbar tract over the corticospinal tract. Therefore, cranial motor contractions need to be looked for during electrical parameter setting. The positive correlation between the electrical intensity threshold for PTSEs and R reflects the need for millimetre accuracy in electrode positioning.
Which autonomy? Freedom and determinism, 173
  • N Arpaly
Arpaly N. Which autonomy? Freedom and determinism, 173; 2004.
Public wary of biomedical technologies to 'enhance' human abilities. Pew Internet & American Life Project
  • C Funk
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  • Podrebarach Sciupac
  • E Us
Funk C, Kennedy B, Podrebarach Sciupac E Us. Public wary of biomedical technologies to 'enhance' human abilities. Pew Internet & American Life Project; 2016.
Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research
  • S Rossi
  • M Hallett
  • P M Rossini
  • A Pascual-Leone
Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clin Neurophysiol 2009;120:2008e39.
Recurrent themes in the history of the home use of electrical stimulation
  • A Wexler
Wexler, A. Recurrent themes in the history of the home use of electrical stimulation: 463
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tdcs) and the medical battery (1870-1920)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tdcs) and the medical battery (1870-1920). Brain 464 stimulation 10, 187-195 (2017).