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Avicenna (980-1032CE): The Pioneer in Treatment of Depression

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Background: The aim of this study is to clarify Avicenna’s point of views on neurology and psychiatry especially depression. Avicenna who is known as prince of physicians had a great contribution on medicine. He was a scholar not only in medicine, but also in logic, philosophy, astronomy and mathematics. Second volume of his masterpiece in medicine, “The Canon of Medicine”, has a chapter on neurological and psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into 5 volumes which was one of the main medical references in the east and the west until 17th century CE. Avicenna has considered different aspects of sadness and depression and pointed out to the relation between depression and various diseases. Materials and methods: The Canon of Medicine as the most important reference of traditional Persian medicine has been searched on keywords such as “melancholia” and “sadness” to find the most overlap with the definition of depression. The extracted texts were finally compared with modern medicine. Results: According to the traditional Persian medicine, mental states have direct effects on human well-being and development of diseases. Avicenna prevented and managed depression based on lifestyle modification, natural remedies and manipulation. Happiness, aromatherapy, and music therapy are common treatments for most diseases. Conclusion: About 30 medicinal herbs have been introduced by Avicenna for treating and managing depression. Some of which have been emphasized to have antidepressant effects via clinical trials. A scientific review of Avicenna’s other proposed methods and terms can result in new treatments for depression.
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Transylvanian
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Vol XXV, No. 17,may 2017
Transylvanian Review
Centrul de Studii Transilvane| str. Mihail Kogalniceanu nr. 12-14, et.5, Cluj-Napoca
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Khodaei
et al.
Transylvanian Review: Vol XXV, No.17,May 2017
4377
Avicenna (980-1032CE): The Pioneer in Treatment of
Depression
1 Mostafa Araj Khodaei, 2 Ahmad Ali Noorbala, 3 Zahra Parsian, 4 Somaiyeh Taheri Targhi, 5 Fatemeh
Emadi, 5 Fatemeh Alijaniha, 5 Mohsen Naseri and 6 Arman Zargaran
1 Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, 2 Psychosomatic Medicine
Research Center, Psychosomatic Ward, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran , 4 Medical
Philosophy and History Research Center, School of Traditional Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
Iran, 5 Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran and 6 Department of History of
Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to clarify Avicenna’s point of views on neurology and psychiatry especially
depression. Avicenna who is known as prince of physicians had a great contribution on medicine. He was a scholar not only in
medicine, but also in logic, philosophy, astronomy and mathematics. Second volume of his masterpiece in medicine, “The
Canon of Medicine”, has a chapter on neurological and psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into 5 volumes which was
one of the main medical references in the east and the west until 17th century CE. Avicenna has considered different aspects of
sadness and depression and pointed out to the relation between depression and various diseases.
Materials and methods: The Canon of Medicine as the most important reference of traditional Persian medicine has been
searched on keywords such as “melancholia” and “sadness” to find the most overlap with the definition of depression. The
extracted texts were finally compared with modern medicine.
Results: According to the traditional Persian medicine, mental states have direct effects on human well-being and
development of diseases. Avicenna prevented and managed depression based on lifestyle modification, natural remedies and
manipulation. Happiness, aromatherapy, and music therapy are common treatments for most diseases.
Conclusion: About 30 medicinal herbs have been introduced by Avicenna for treating and managing depression. Some of which
have been emphasized to have antidepressant effects via clinical trials. A scientific review of Avicenna’s other proposed
methods and terms can result in new treatments for depression.
Keywords: Avicenna, depression, melancholia, Persian medicine
Corresponding author: Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, North Kargar Street, Engelab Square, Tehran,
Iran.
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et al.
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“for long the rule held that he who would be a good doctor must be a good avicennist.” manfred ullmann (1940-90 CE)
Introduction
Depression has become so common that is
categorized as the second chronic disorder after
hypertension in general medical practice Whooley &
Simon. (2000). Despite the existence of efficient treatments
for depression, more than 50% of patients do not gain
significant clinical rescue. Treatment resistance is most
likely to happen along with physical and mental disorders
with the presence of extended and marked functional
deterioration simultaneously with functional weakening
Wehbe
et al
. (2014). On the other hand, clinical evaluation
of modern antidepressants has shown incidence of side
effects and drug interactions. Due to these problems,
presentation of new sources for finding antidepressants
like natural products is essential Rajput
et al
. (2011).
Nowadays, patients in developed and developing countries
choose traditional medicine as solitary or complementary
therapeutic choices Abolhassani
et al
. (2012). Scientific
reassessments of old medical sources can be a futuristic
approach for discovering new answers for old questions.
Persian medicine (PM) is one of the firstborn schools of
medicine in the history Zargaran
et al
. (2013).
PM dates back to about 10000 years ago in ancient era.
Later, medieval Persian practitioners (during 8 -12th
century CE) were conversant with the medical theories of
ancient Persia, Greece, Egypt, India, and China. The
Persians not only collected whole available medicine in
that time, but also added their own precise
experimentations and interpretations to this knowledge
and presented numerous new scientific concepts Gorji &
Ghadiri. (2002), Naseri & Namavar. (2014).
In Persian Medicine (PM), alike considered in Chinese
Medicine (CM), the human body classified into some
temperaments based on signs and symptoms, but with
different protocols Rezadoost
et al
. (2016).
The Structure of Persian Medicine is based on two main
divisions, theoretical branch which describes situation and
changes of the human body and a practical division which
is the skill of how to maintain health and how to restore it
after the outbreak of the diseases Rezaeizadeh
et al
.
(2009). Some of Persian physicians in that time may be
known as the pioneer psychiatrists and psychologists,
even before considering of psychology as a distinct field of
science. They qualified stringent and explicit clinical
manifestation of various psychological disorders. They
stablished the first psychiatric hospitals and separate
wards in general hospitals Najmabadi. (1996). Among the
Persian physicians in the early medieval era (9-12th
century CE) which is called as Islamic Golden Ages,
Avicenna was a Persian physician who had effulgence
contribution in medical sciences, in particular in the field
of neuroscience and psychiatry regarding its effects on
philosophic thoughts Vakili & Gorji. (2006).
Abu Ali Husain Ibn Sina who is known as Avicenna (Figure
1) in the west, was born on 23 August 980 CE in the ancient
Persian city of Afshaneh, near
Bukhara
Zargaran
et al
.
(2012). He was a talented child and by the age of 10 he
would become well versed in science and logic. At the age
of 18, he became a famous physician Golzari
et al
. (2013).
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Figure 1: Portrait of Avicenna (9801037 CE). Depicted by Saber Baggal Asghari and Babak Kamal Gazani (with permission).
Avicenna expressed his interest in medicine as follow:
“Then I desired to study medicine, and took to reading the
books written on this subject. Medicine is not one of the
difficult sciences, so naturally I became proficient in it in
the short time, until the excellent scholars of medicine
began to study under me. I began to treat patients, and
through my experience I acquired an amazing practical
knowledge and ability in methods of treatment.” Modanlou.
(2008).
Three characteristics which distinguished Avicenna from
his contemporaries were permanence in learning,
thoroughness and wonderful memory. They were definitely
relevant to his great successes at such a young age Erolin
et al
. (2013). Avicenna’s glory and influence was not only
appreciated in Iran and the Islamic countries, but also was
a famous scholar in the world. He is still known as an
ecumenical scientist particularly in medicine to physicians
and historians Moosavi. (2009).
Although there is an argument concerning the number of
books endorsed to Avicenna, he wrote at least 276 treaties.
His masterpiece in the doctrine of medicine is Al- Qanun
fi al-Tibb” (Canon of Medicine) which was a significant
educational resource in European universities between
13th and 17th centuries Shoja
et al
. (2009). Latin translations
of Avicenna’s book were issued consecutively 16 times and
more than 20 times in the last three decades of the 15th and
16th centuries respectively and it continued to be printed
and widely read until the seventeenth century Afnan.
(2015).
The book is divided into 5 volumes, in which psychiatry
and brain disorders are described in the third volume. A
variety of illnesses are discussed in
Canon of Medicine
covering all parts of the body, from head to toe, and each
illness is described in terms of its pathology, signs,
prevention and therapy Ibn Sina. (1997). For example, the
love disorder explained by him as an obsessive disorder
looks like a severe form of depression in which the
patients are suffering from an excess of imaginary figures
and obsessive ideas. Actually, the disease is categorized
by poor grooming, dry and hollowed eyes Shoja & Tubbs.
(2007). particularly, he has described concepts such as
mind, soul, wisdom, man’s desire, and dream. He
discovered that some physical diseases were produced by
emotional upsets Namazi. (2001).
In another book by Avicenna entitled Kitab al-Adviyt-ol-
Qalbiye” (book on drugs for cardiovascular disease) (Figure
2), drugs associated with psychiatric and cardiovascular
diseases are mentioned (Ibn Sina, 2009). Translations of
the book were available in Latin under the title of "
Medicamenta Cordialia", in Turkish and Urdu Tekol (2007).
Although some articles have mentioned to the important
role of this book in the field of cardiology, but the
significant effect of exhilarating drugs in treatment of
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depression has been overlooked Zargaran
et al
. (2013, Zarshenas & Zargaran. (2015).
Figure 2: A page of “Kitab al-Adviyat ol Qalbiye” (book on drugs for cardiovascular disease) by Avicenna (Majlis library)
Sleep disorders, memory disturbances, dementia,
Alzheimer, hallucination, illusion, mania, melancholia,
nightmare, love sickness and sexology are examples of 19
neuropsychiatric conditions mentioned by Avicenna in
Canon of Medicine. Avicenna commented on a close
relationship between the psychological and physical
conditions of his patients Ibn Sina. (1997).
Even though some previous surveys discussed about
melancholia in Persian medicine Dalfardi
et al
. (2014), this
study is the first survey that has focused profoundly on all
aspects of depression and sadness from Avicenna’s point
of view insisting on prevention and treatment.
The exact history of depression has not written yet. In fact,
its medicalization has been formed after nineteenth
century Rousseau. (2000).
The aim of this study is to introduce Avicenna’s ideas on
neuroscience and psychiatry, focusing on depression.
Materials and methods
This is a narrative review with focusing on the history
of medicine which explains the relationship between
depression and old descriptions of the disease. The
explanation of depression in the
Canon of medicine
was
done with searching some terms like Sadness and
unhappiness in this book. After this review, the modern
medicine texts and databases evaluated for comparison of
these results with Avicenna’s point of view on depression.
Results
Historical Perspective
Psychiatry has long root in the Persian history.
Zoroastrianism named for its messenger, Zoroaster is one
of the eldest religions in the world. It has a privileged
history and was the dominant religious tradition of ancient
Persia before Islam (before 637 CE) Dhalla. (1938).
Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians (dates back to at
least 3000 years ago) explained prahaoma syrup which
was made by Ephedra distachya L. It was the first known
euphoriant antidepressant drug in the history Najmabadi.
(1996). Also, psychiatrists were mentioned as a main group
of physicians, called mansrspand baešaza. Later, there
was a psychiatric drug in the Sassanid era, named
“happiness drug”. The happiness drug was a
psychotherapeutic strategy represented as a medicinal
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compound in a Pahlavic manuscript from the Sassanid
period (224-637AD). It contains moralist recommendations
for better life fulfilled with happiness, far from sadness
and patience mortar Ji, Ji, & Assana. (1993), Stausberg.
(2008), Zargaran
et al
. (2012).
Also, depression has a long history in Greek medicine.
Melancholia seems to be the oldest term described
depression. All over the history of medicine, melancholia
was introduced with various definitions and manifestations
Dalfardi
et al
. (2014). The term of melancholia is originated
from two Grecian words “Melas” and “Chole” that mean
“black” and “bile” respectively Nolen-Hoeksema. (1990).
According to Hippocratic (460-370 BCE) literatures, black
bile causes a wide range of symptoms, that the main ones
in the field of psychopathology is fear “Phobos” and
depression (dysthymia). However, the psychological
association of black bile with depression and anxiety had
an important role in originating the concept of
melancholia. On the other hand, Celsus (42 BCE-37 CE?)
described melancholia as subtype of madness (insania).
He believed that melancholia was affairs of depression
(tristitia) that caused by black bile. He mentioned both
physical and psychotherapeutic methods for patients
Ahonen. (2014). unlike previous scientists, Plato (427-347
CE) did not associate melancholia to the black bile and
described “Melancholikos” for the patients who were
unable to think Tellenbach. (1980).
Aristotle (384-322 CE) associated melancholia with novelty
and wit and believed that inappropriate amount of black
bile caused melancholia Pies. (2007). Manifestations of
melancholia according to the Aerates of Cappadocia were
as follow:
Significant sadness, Stagnation, Tranquility not related to
fever Kotsopoulos. (1986).
He linked melancholia and mania as two symptoms of one
disorder Marneros. (2001).
Depression in the Avicenna’s Books
Although there is not exact term of “Depression” in
different books of Avicenna, but according to the various
symptoms and diseases such as “Melancholia”, sadness
and also treatments based on exhilaration of patients,
probably a relation between concept of depression in
allopathic and Persian medicine can be established. From
this view firstly, we explain disease and symptoms which
can be related to depression according to Avicenna.
Definition and etiology
In one of his publications titled “Kitab al-Adviyt-ol-
Qalbiye”, Avicenna defined happiness, and different
aspects of sadness. According to Avicenna, the heart is the
origin of different kinds of spirits and souls. He believed in
a significant relationship between depression and various
types of diseases. He also mentioned that convalescents,
thin and cachectic patients, women and the elderly, are at
greater risk of depression Ibn Sina. (2009).
In the doctrine of Persian Medicine (PM), the influence of
the emotional status on human’s health is more acute than
other factors and it seems to induce drastic changes
Jorjani. (2002).
Avicenna determined that emotional responses could
cause particular medical illnesses. He was the first who
introduced the benefit of music on emotional distress. He
maintained that a combination of humors could cause
depression, which could be consistent with transmitter
regulated mechanism of depression Namazi. (2001).
He associated melancholia with the brain and asserted
that the main reason for its development is an excess of
black bile in the brain. He also stated that it is not unlikely
that melancholia originates from the heart. To justify this
theory, he stated that corruption initially occurs in the
heart and consequently the brain is affected and then is
transferred through blood from the heart to the brain.
However the reverse condition of the aforesaid status is
also probable Yousofpour
et al
. (2015), Some clinical and
cross-sectional surveys have proved the relationship
between depression and heart disease despite the fact that
the heart disease is not accepted as the etiology of
depression Kang
et al
. (2015), Waloszek
et al
. (2015).
Persian medicine is based on the theory of humors which
consists of blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
Moderation in amount of these humors would promote the
individual’s health. Imbalance of black bile might lead to
some disorders in brain and other organs as well Mojahedi
et al
. (2014), Naseri & Ardakani. (2004).
Avicenna defined melancholia as a change of outlook
caused by excessive black bile as a natural passage
towards corruption. In general and as a key factor,
Avicenna associated affection by melancholia with
abnormal increase of black bile Yousofpour
et al
. (2015).
Based on DSM-V criteria, Major Depressive Disorder
(MDD) appears without a history of mania or hypomania
episode. Furthermore, this episode must last 2 weeks to be
considered as major depressive disorder. Also depressed
mood is one of the most important criteria for major
depressive disorder Sadock & Sadock. (2015).
He categorized the cause of melancholia according to two
categories, intra cerebral and extra cerebral. Intra
cerebral etiologies can be attributed to either of the two
following, simple cold and wet intemperament and
material cold and wet intemperament. In the first group,
the substance found in the vessel enters into the brain
from somewhere else, but in the second group substances
of the brain vessel produce black bile Ibn Sina. (1997).
Different types of melancholia related to extra cerebral
sources:
Black bile that distributes throughout the body, Black bile
that accumulates in the spleen but it has no ability to clean
it, swelling in the abdomen (hypochondria), Swelling in
artery occlusion with mesentery vessels (mesentery),
Obstruction without swelling, extra cerebral cause of black
bile production, while primary substance exists in the
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brain, Extreme sadness or fears are both related to
stronger cases of melancholia.
Avicenna attributed the black bile that produced
melancholia to normal black bile, phlegm that had been
converted to black bile or blood that had been converted to
black bile Ibn Sina. (1997). As problem thinking has been
included in definition of Melancholia from Avicenna's point
of view, and diminished ability of thinking and
concentrating is an important criteria for DSM-V, it might
be possible to establish a logical relationship between
these two definitions Ibn Sina, (1997), Sadock & Sadock.
(2015).
Allopathic medicine describes various etiologies for
depression such as biological, genetics, psychosocial and
environmental factors Saveanu & Nemeroff. (2012). in both
approaches they can be categorized as intra cerebral and
extra cerebral etiologies. Depression caused by Cold-Wet
intemperament. Since cold-wet intemperament leads to
decrease of metabolism, and on the other hand, PET scan
proves the decrease of metabolism in anterior part of the
brain, same etiologies can be concluded for both
approaches (Parvinroo
et al
. (2014), Sadock & Sadock.
(2015).
Avicenna described black bile, mesenteric artery,
obstruction and fear as extra cerebral etiologies generally.
Increase of black bile causes changes in sleep pattern Ibn
Sina. (1997). In the same way, depressed individuals sleep
less and dream more which can be associated with
nightmares of black bile Cukrowicz
et al
. (2006). Avicenna
introduced sever fear and sadness as the most important
factor of affecting Melancholia Ibn Sina (1997).
Clinical manifestation
Avicenna believed that pulse alterations could ensue
from emotional conditions, and he specified the particular
pulse of different emotional states. Furthermore,
individuals who had different emotional responses,
exhibited different patterns of behavior according to their
specific temperament Mosaddegh
et al
. (2013). In some
new researches the relationship between heart rate
variability and depression has been proved Brunoni
et al
.
(2013), Yeh
et al
. (2016).
Avicenna divided the common symptoms of melancholia
into two categories, early phase and chronic phase of the
disease. Symptoms of early stage melancholia include
suspicions of evil, fear without cause, quick anger, love
alone, involuntary muscle movements, dizziness and
tinnitus Shakeri
et al
. (2016). In the chronic phase, other
symptoms include moaning, suspicion, sadness, fear,
restlessness, increased libido and abnormal fear such as
fear that the sky may fall on one’s head, fear of being
swallowed by the earth, fear of tricksters, ruler or thief.
Also a person imagines that he is king, fierce, evil or a
bird. Imagining things that do not exist, involuntary
laughter and affection for death are other symptoms of the
chronic stage of melancholia Ibn Sina. (1997).
After describing general symptoms of the disease, he
explained each symptom individually. For example, he
counted the symptoms related to the increase of black bile
specifically in the brain, spleen and stomach Ibn Sina.
(1997). Medieval scholars strongly emphasized on
relations between depression and the seasons and they
believed that the disease is more common during winter
and autumn (Jorjani, 2002). Avicenna wrote that mental
state is one of the most important of the six essential
principles for promoting good health and treatment of
disease Ibn Sina. (1997), Kordafshari
et al
. (2014).
The main goal of current investigation is to develop a
logical relationship between MDD and Avicenna's
melancholia.
Depressed mood and sadness are mentioned as essential
and basic criteria for diagnosis of major depressive
disorder. Among the symptoms of melancholia, symptoms
caused by black bile in the spleen, include increased
appetite and sexual desire; consistent with criteria DSM-V,
No.3 for major depressive disorder. In the chronic stage of
melancholia, a person is affected by restlessness,
consistent with criteria DSM-V, No. 5. Frequent thoughts
about death and attempted suicide have a close relation
with a desire for death in melancholia, as described by
Avicenna. Loss of body weight in melancholia is consistent
with criteria No.3, DSM-V. Weakness could be associated
with criteria No.6, DSM-V Ibn Sina. (1997), Sadock &
Sadock. (2015).
Prognosis
Avicenna described the best kind of melancholia
which has developed by conversion of blood humor into
black bile. He also believed that melancholia presented
with laughter exhibits a better prognosis Ibn Sina. (1997).
Lack of comorbid psychiatric and personality disorders
and also advanced age of first episode are good prognostic
indicators of major depressive disorders Sadock &
Sadock. (2015).
Treatment and management of depression according
to Avicenna’s view point
In Avicenna's opinion, the disturbance of humors cause
psychiatric diseases and therefore the treatment should
concern the balance between humors. The recommended
treatment strategies for achieving the result consist of life
style modification, medical treatment and manipulation or
physical therapy Namazi. (2001).
As claimed by Avicenna, the following items provide
mutual and effective treatment for most diseases with no
consideration of the causes and the variety of illnesses
that might be produced:
Happiness and cheerfulness, Visiting someone whose
company is enjoyable (for example a man who was near
death from scarcity of love was cured as he saw his
mistress), Pleasant smells (aromatherapy), Lovely sounds
(music therapy), Also in some cases, traveling to another
country and changing the place of residence or season
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were thought to be effective treatments of disease.
Avicenna emphasized that it is better to treat melancholia
in its early stages because treatment becomes much more
difficult in the chronic phase Ibn Sina. (1997). Avicenna
described psychotherapeutic techniques for treatment of
various types of psychological disease Shafii. (1972).
Life style modification
Plans for lifestyle modification should include
changing sleep patterns, as well as the climate of living
environment, diet, exercise and eliminating bodily waste
products. As mentioned above, Avicenna has especially
focused on importance of the role of happiness in
treatment of depression Ibn Sina. (1997), Rezaeizadeh
et
al
. (2009).
Recent studies approved the important role of climate Cho
et al
. (2014), Lim
et al
. (2012), nutrition Kim
et al
. (2015);
Sánchez-Villegas
et al
. (2012) and exercise Sarris
et al
.
(2014) in depression which has been described by
Avicenna 1000 years ago. Mild climate and also living in a
house with humid and fragrant weather is suggested.
Beyond these, eating energetic, sweet and greasy food
which supplies the body humidity is necessary for
treatment of depression. It’s good for such patients to take
a shower before the meal, as pouring lukewarm water over
the head makes feeling relaxed. It would be better avoid
eating beans, bacon, lentils, cabbage, concentrated wine
and salty, spicy and sour foods too. However normal
sexual activities cause happiness, but depressed patients
should avoid from hypo sexuality. According to Avicenna’s
point of view, exercise is exhilarating and induces a sense
of well-being. He places a strong emphasis on sporting as
the most important contribution for maintaining good
health Ibn Sina. (1997). According to PM, sexual
intercourse reduces sadness Ibn Sina. (2009) and has a
significant role in generating a state of exhilaration Ibn
Nafis. (2004).
Medical Interventions and Manipulations
Treatment includes medication and manual
operations. Medication includes prescription of
exhilarating and medicinal plants that repel the materials
which cause depression. These manual operations include
massage, phlebotomy and cupping. According to Avicenna,
some drugs act by eliminating harmful humors and
balancing beneficial humors. Remedies such as
“exhilarating” are effective in treatment of depression, by
strengthening the heart and creating feelings of happiness.
Ibn Sina, (1997), Nozad
et al
. (2016).
According to Avicenna, specific plants and fruits have
exhilarated effects. Most of such plants have constituents
that affect the brain and heart and some are used to treat
anxiety Ibn Sina. (2009) (Table 1).
Table 1: Medicinal plants for treatment of depression from the view of Avicenna and their current effects
Scientific Name
Family
Name in
PM
Parts
Used
Effects in PM
Pharmacological Effects/
Active components
Pistacia vera L.
Anacardiaceae
Festeg
Fruit
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis function
Anti-
inflammatory/Flavonoids &
tannins
Coriandrum sativum L.
Apiaceae
Kozboreh
Leaf, Seed
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
MAO-B inhibitor/ Linalool
Hyacinthus orientalis L.
Asparagaceae
Sunbul
Herb
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Memory
Enhancer
Palpitation relief
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Inula helenium L.
Compositae
Rasen
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Echium amoenum Fisch. &
C.A.Mey. Boraginaceae
Lesan-Al-
Sour
Flower
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Terminalia cheb ula Retz.
Combretaceae
Halilaj
Fruit
Exhilarating
Memory
Enhancer
Palpitation relief
Anti- depressant like
activity/Chebulinic acid
Centaurea behen L.
Compositae
Bahman
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Doronicum pardalianches
L. Compositae
Durunaj
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
-
Cyperus longus L.
Cyperaceae
Soud
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
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Memory
Enhancer
Crocus sativus L. Iridaceae
Zafran
Flower
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Dopamine, norepinephrine &
serotonin reuptake
inhibition/Crocin & safranal
Lavandula angustifolia
Mill. Lamiaceae
Ustokhodu
s
Herb
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Memory
Enhancer
Antidepressant-like
effects/Flavonoids
Melissa officinalis L.
Lamiaceae
Badranjbu
yeh
Herb
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation
Norepinephrine
enhancement/Flavonoids &
Tannins
Ocimum basilicum L.
Lamiaceae
Badruj
Herb
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Serotonergic
agent/Flavonoids
Cinnamomum camphora
(L.) J.Presl Lauraceae
Kaphour
Gum
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Memory
Enhancer
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Cinnamomum cassia (L.)
J.Presl Lauraceae
Sazej
Leaf
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Serotonin reuptake
inhibitor/Flavonoids
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
L. Lauraceae
Darsini
Sticks
Exhilarating
Antidepressant-like activity
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Albizzia julibrissin
Leguminosae
Abrisham
cocoon
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Increased GABA &
Serotonin/Flavonoids
Ficus carica L. Moraceae
Teen
Leaf
Exhilarating
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Phyllanthus emblica L
Phyllanthuceae
Amoleh
Fruit
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Memory
Enhancer
MAO-A inhibitor/Flavonoids
Saccharum officinarum L
Poaceae
Tabashir
Gum
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
Dopaminergic Regulate HPA
axis function/Flavonoids
Polypodium vulgare L.
Polypodiaceae
Basfayej
Rhizome
Exhilarating
-
Malus domestica Borkh.
Rosaceae
Tofah
Fruit
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids&Omega-
3
Citrus medica L. Rutaceae
Utruj
Rind of
Fruit
Exhilarating
Anti-Inflammatory Regulate
HPA axis function/Flavonoids
Santalum album L.
Santalaceae
Sandal
Wood
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Taxus baccata L. Taxaceae
Zarnub
Leaf
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Curcuma zedoaria
(Christm.) Roscoe
Zingiberaceae
Jadvar
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Elettaria cardamomum (L.)
Maton. Zingiberaceae
Gagoleh
Seed
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Regulate HPA axis
function/Flavonoids
Zingiber zerumbet (L.)
Roscoe ex Sm.
Zingiberaceae
Zoronbad
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Increase
Dopamine/Curcumin
Corallium rubrum-
Bosd
Root
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
Palpitation relief
-
Polyporus officinalis-
Garigon
Fruit
Exhilarating
Cardiac Tonic
-
Khodaei
et al.
Transylvanian Review: Vol XXV, No.17,May 2017
4385
Some medicinal plants which used as exhilarating in
treatment of depression have been evaluated by modern
methods and their effects have been proved. The three
notable examples of such medicinal herbs are Crocus
Sativus Akhondzadeh
et al
. (2004), Noorbala
et al
. (2005),
Echium Amoenium Sayyah
et al
. (2006), and Lavandula
Angustifolia. Mill Akhondzadeh
et al
. (2003). Some other
Persian medicine products show antidepressant effects
Nazari
et al
. (2013). In the same way, therapies such as
music therapy, aromatherapy and making social contact
have been suggested as effective treatments for
depression by Avicenna and other scientists of the
medieval period.
Discussion
To sum up briefly, except diagnostic criteria’s of both
major depressive disorder and melancholia, some other
common points could be detected in both conventional and
Persian medicine about depression. Both emphasize on
high prevalence of the disease and the mutual relationship
between depression and some other diseases along with
the role of sadness and psychosomatic situations that
cause several illnesses in Avicenna’s point of view. Both
Epidemiological studies and Avicenna emphasized on high
prevalence of depression in women Ibn Sina. (1997),
Kessler
et al
. (1993). Etiological classification of the
depression could be categorized as intra cerebral and
extra cerebral generally. Herbal medication, happiness,
music therapy, aromatherapy, massage, social and familial
communications and life style modification are the same
treatment methods of depression in both allopathic
medicine and Avicenna. Consisting on starting the
treatment on early phases of disorder is the other common
approach of the disease. According to the above cases and
terms of major depressive disorder of DSM-V criteria and
since at least five of these criteria are consistent with
Avicenna’s description, it is concluded that major
depressive disorder is the closest disease in modern
medicine to the melancholia which described by Avicenna.
Also, there are some points in Avicenna’s definitions that
cannot be defined by current findings. As example, in the
book (“Kitab al-Adviyat al-Qalbiye”) Avicenna states that
sadness and happiness are directly linked to the heart.
Accordingly, he states that strengthening the heart is
important for treating depression Ibn Sina. (2009).
Also, Avicenna presented many treatment remedies and
approaches for this disorder. Table 1 shows the medicinal
herbs mentioned by Avicenna which might have
antidepressant effects. Several factors are associated with
the etiology of depression. On the other hand, routine
antidepressant drugs with various probable mechanisms
such as inhibition of reuptake of serotonin or dopamine
would treat the depression Jakubovski
et al
. (2015).
Although, there are not any current evidences to prove the
antidepressant effects of some of the herbs presented by
Avicenna, some other ones contain antidepressant
components according to their pharmacological
mechanisms, described in table 1.To the best of our
knowledge these medicinal herbs indicate their
antidepressant effects in different probable mechanisms.
These plant remedies contain a wide range of compounds
like flavonoids, linalool Guzmán-Gutiérrez
et al
. (2015)
and Chebulinic acid Onasanwo
et al
. (2014) and also
omega-3 Tavakkoli-Kakhki
et al
. (2014) have
antidepressant effects as well. Some flavonoids like
isoquercitrin affect through regulation of HPA axis function
Butterweck
et al
. (2004).
Conclusion
Avicenna was one of the scientists that emphasized
on prevention as well as treatment in neuropsychiatric
disorders. Although major depressive disorder and
melancholia or sadness is not exactly the same, but
according to their similarities, it can be considered as
preliminary definitions of depression in the history.
Although, some definitions and medicinal herbs suggested
by Avicenna for this disorder cannot be defined by current
findings, most Avicenna’s definitions and prescriptions are
supported by current findings. Most of them are good
potentials for further investigations to evaluate in current
medicine and may open new horizons in treatment of
depression.
Acknowledgments
The authors appreciatively thank Albert Gjedde and
Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee for their comments on the
paper. The authors are also indebted to Saber Baggal
Asghari and Babak Kamal Gazani for portraying the
portrait of Avicenna and Vahid Delsaeid for taking
professional photo of the portrait.
Funding
This research received no specific grant from any
funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit
sectors.
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... Kaukua (2020) analyzes his theory of negative judgment. Khodaei et al. (2017) focus on Ibn Sina's different types of treatments including music. Gutas (2012) alludes his theory of overcoming unrealistic fear through self-awareness and returning to the fitrah, the natural disposition. ...
... Samy liked natural fragrances. Ibn Sina recommends pleasant smells (Khodaei et al., 2017,). Therefore, I gave him some attar of roses, which he used. ...
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This paper argues that Islam can play an important role in reducing fear if it is practiced in the light of Ibn Sina’s (d. 1037) rational approach combined with Said Nursi’s (d. 1960) spirituality injected methodology of overcoming extreme unrealistic fears and the disorders of negative imagination, known as wahm. This combination which I have categorised as, ‘Fear Reducing Holistic Approach' (FERHA) has four stages: (a) Building trust, (b) Recognizing the problem in-depth, (c) Reducing fear and negative feeling through engagement, (d) Discovering unused or misused strength. One case will be studied. The FERHA has strengths and weaknesses.
... His constant effort to learn from scholars of different nations and to think deeply about the basis of medical sciences and extensive clinical experiences and his unique memory and accuracy were some of the main reasons making him prominent among many other physicians [1]. His miraculous talents led him to become a famous physician at sixteen [2][3][4]. At the age of eighteen, he successfully treated the king of the Samanid dynasty in his time, Nuh ibn Mansour. ...
Article
Avicenna used his medical knowledge and experience of scientists from different nations to create a new style in medicine. For this reason, his textbook, Canon of Medicine, has been considered a medical reference in all universities worldwide for centuries. In this article, some valuable and interesting diagnostic and therapeutic clinical experiences mentioned in the Canon of Medicine are described in five sections. This research was conducted to review Avicenna's specific clinical observations and interventions in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases using the keywords "Avicenna" and "Canon of Medicine". In this article, we presented several examples of diagnostic and therapeutic clinical experiences mentioned in the Canon of Medicine in 5 areas, including semiology, therapeutic strategy, urology, neurology, obstetrics, and gynecology. Canon of Medicine, as a complete medical series containing the medical experiences from different nations and Iranian medical scientists, has influenced the world's medical knowledge for several centuries. Some of Avicenna's clinical and experimental views can be useful from both a historical point of view and new research.
... Thus, his methods of curing such cases have great deals on mental hygiene. This polymath even used aromatherapy, music therapy, and the Quranic recitation for the treatments of most diseases [15]. Thus in this context, it surely can be understood that Zakiah Daradjat in her concept of mental hygiene was indirectly yet heavily influenced by Avicenna since her reformulated mental hygiene concept was is accordance with the concept of that one of Avicenna's. ...
... Traditional Persian medicine is a holistic system of medicine that is an important branch of the complementary and alternative medicines, and has been used in Iran, India, Pakistan, and some countries of Middle East for thousands of years [9][10][11][12]. One of the most important medicinal plants that Traditional Persian medicine emphasizes for the treatment of many diseases is Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum Wall.) [13]. ...
Article
Delphinium denudatum Wall. is one of the important medicinal herbs of traditional Persian medicine and is known as Jadwar. Medicinal plants are the most widely used drugs in traditional Persian medicine and has been used for various diseases since earlier times. The medicinal uses of Delphinium denudatum Wall. date back to over 1,000 years ago. Rhazes (845–925 C.E.) was the first Persian physician and scientist who reported the use of Delphinium denudatum Wall. as a herbal remedy. During the following centuries, the usages of Delphinium denudatum Wall. in the treatment of various diseases has been mentioned in the books and references of traditional Persian medicine for cures to various diseases such as neurologic and psychiatric disease, gastrointestinal disease, fever, pain, and poisoning. According to modern studies, the dried roots of Delphinium denudatum Wall. have antipyretic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and pain-relieving properties. Biomolecules from roots of Delphinium denudatum Wall. were also identified as potential cures for central nervous system diseases as well as for the amelioration of morphine addiction. Delphinium denudatum Wall., with its properties involving the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction of oxidative stress, and inflammation and immune dysregulation, can be utilized in curing inflammatory disorders. The effective therapeutic influence of root extract of Delphinium denudatum Wall. against several diseases needs to be confirmed through controlled clinical trials. This article reviews the different features of Delphinium denudatum Wall. and focuses on the well-known therapeutic effects of this herbal drug on various human disorders and animal disease models.
... As a holistic school of medicine, PM is based on the theory of humoral medicine and temperaments considering both physical and non-physical aspects of a human being (Atarzadeh, Daneshfard, Dastgheib, Jaladat, & Amin, 2016;Nimrouzi, Daneshfard, Tafazoli, & Akrami, 2019). It has a great potential for solving some of the medical problems, as demonstrated in some recent researches in these fields (Ahmadi et al., 2010;Khodaei et al., 2017;Nozad, Naseri, Safari, Al Ahadi, & Ghaffari, 2016;Qaraaty et al., 2014). According to the most famous PM textbooks, marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) is a good candidate for the treatment of AD (Avicenna, 2005;Shirazi, 2009 soothing, and antitussive effects (Shah et al., 2011). ...
Article
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease, which primarily affects infants and young children. Due to the side effects of commonly used drugs for its treatment, the development of safer therapeutic strategies is needed. There are many reports on the topical use of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) for a range of skin diseases in Persian medicine. The main aim of the present investigation was evaluating the efficacy of marshmallow in children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermati-tis. Another aim of the study was screening the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential of phytocomponents against target proteins, including TNF-alpha, IL6, and PDEs A, B, and D enzymes with PDB IDs: 2AZ5, 1P9M, 3I8V, 4KP6, and 1Y2K, respectively, along with their respective standard ligands using computational docking analysis. A pilot clinical trial was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Althaea officinalis in children with AD. The diagnosis of AD was made according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. Children between 3 months and 12 years old were participated in this trial and randomly allocated into two parallel intervention and control groups. The intervention group used Althaea officinalis 1% ointment while the positive control group used Hydrocortisone 1% ointment twice a day for a week and after that, three times per week for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of AD was measured using the SCORAD score at the end of each assessment visits. A total number of 22 patients completed the study. A significant decrease of the SCORAD score was observed in both groups. At the end of the study, this score change, which indicates the improvement of the patients was significantly higher in the intervention group in comparison to the baseline (p-value = .015) and week 1 (p-value = .018). In the docking analysis of the study, 33 phytochemical compounds were identified, which were docked into the active site of IL6, TNF-alpha, and human PDE4 isoenzymes. Affinity toward the selected enzymes was significantly higher in glycosylated compounds. The results of this pilot study showed that the efficacy of Althaea officinalis 1% ointment in a decrease of disease severity is more than Hydrocortisone 1% in children with AD. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Moreover, the docking analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of compounds with free hydroxyl groups such as glycosylated compounds was better than others, probably due to the hydrogen bond interaction of hydroxyl groups of the ligands with the enzymes.
... Beliau juga berpendapat bahawa gabungan hempedu hitam di otak boleh menyebabkan kemurungan. Beliau merupakan orang pertama yang memperkenalkan faedah muzik untuk terapi kepada emosi (Mostafa ArajKhodaei et al., 2017). Pendapat Ibnu Sina disokong oleh al-Kindi iaitu kemurungan disebabkan pengaruh emosi. ...
Article
Kemurungan adalah gangguan yang melibatkan perubahan pemikiran, emosi, perasaan dan tingkah laku yang menyebabkan kehidupan seharian seseorang menjadi sukar dan jika tidak dirawat ia akan memberi kesan yang buruk kepada masyarakat. Lazimnya, manusia merasai pelbagai jenis perasaan sama ada hiba, sedih, dan sebagainya tetapi jika perasaan itu berlebihan dan berpanjangan ia akan membawa kepada masalah kesihatan mental yang teruk. Oleh itu, penulisan ini akan membincangkan tentang fenomena kemurungan dari zaman silam mengikut pandangan sarjana Barat dan Islam serta memfokuskan kepada definisi dan simptom kemurungan dari aspek afektif, kognitif, tingkah laku dan fisiologi yang dialami oleh individu kemurungan. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan pendekatan analisis kandungan. Manakala, pengumpulan data kajian menggunakan kajian-kajian lepas seperti tesis, artikel, jurnal dan kertas kerja. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa kemurungan sudah wujud pada zaman dahulu lagi dan jika tidak ditangani dengan baik ia akan membawa kepada penyakit mental. Konsep kemurungan menjelaskan bahawa kemurungan terjadi akibat perasaan sedih yang berpanjang dan simptom kemurungan yang dialami oleh individu ini tidak harus dipandang remeh kerana ia akan memudaratkan kualiti kehidupan termasuk isu mencederakan dan membunuh diri.
... According to the literature, MO contains different classes of phytochemicals such as essential oils, terpenoids and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, rosmarinic acid (RA) and tannins (Dastmalchi et al., 2008;De Sousa et al., 2004). In traditional medicine, MO has been extensively used for treatment of many psychological disorders such as nervous sleeping disorders, stress, anxiety and depression (Awad, Muhammad, Durst, Trudeau, & Arnason, 2009;Heydari, Dehghani, Emamghoreishi, & Akbarzadeh, 2018;Ibarra, Feuillere, Roller, Lesburgere, & Beracochea, 2010;Khodaei et al., 2017;Lin et al., 2015). It has anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, sedative and neuroprotective actions (López et al., 2009;Miraj, Rafieian, & Kiani, 2017). ...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? Prolonged stress exposure induces detrimental changes in the brain structure, and increases the vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. The central question of this study is how Melissa officinalis L. ameliorates anxiety- and depressive-like behavior of mice. What is the main finding and its importance? Melissa officinalis L. possessed anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects, which could mainly mediate through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Abstract: Objective This study evaluated the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis (HAEMO) on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, oxidative stress, and apoptosis markers in the restraint-stress exposed mice. Methods In order to induce depression-like model, mice were subjected to restraint-stress (3 h day-1 for 14 days) and received normal saline or HAEMO (50, 75, and 150 mg kg-1 day-1 ) for 14 days. The administered doses of HAEMO were designated based on one the main phenolic compounds present in the extract, rosmarinic acid (RA), concentration (2.55 mg kg-1 at lowest dose), other phytochemical analysis including assays for antioxidant activity, total phenols, and flavonoids contents were also carried out. The behavioral changes in the open field task, elevated plus maze, tail suspension, and forced swimming tests were evaluated. Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant capacity were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP). Moreover, levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3, in the brain as well as serum concentration of corticosterone (CORT), were evaluated. Results HAEMO (75 and 150 mg kg-1 ) significantly reversed anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Also, the HAEMO reduced MDA levels, enhanced enzymatic antioxidant activities, and restored serum levels of CORT. The immunoblotting analysis also demonstrated that HAEMO decreased levels of pro-apoptotic markers and increased anti-apoptotic protein levels in the PFC and HIP of restraint-stress exposed mice. Conclusion Our findings suggested that HAEMO reduced inflammation and had anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... 32 Eserinin ikinci kitabı çok kapsamlı bir materia medica listesi ve bilgisi arz eden İbn-i Sina'nın depresyon tedavisi için önerdikleri ise yine bitki ağırlıklı terkipler ve yaşam tarzı değişiklikleri olmuştur. 34 XII. yüzyılda el-Kânûn fi't-Tıb Cremonalı Gerard (~1114-1187) tarafından Latinceye çevrilmiş ve yüzyıllarca Avrupa üniversitelerinde takip ve tedris edilen başlıca tıbbi eserlerden olmuştur. ...
... 35 The ITM is a medicinal system based on the humoral theory and it dates back to 10,000 years ago. 27 According to the teachings of the Iranian medicine, if humor of sowda (black bile), changes to abnormal form (both in terms of quantity and quality), it can cause other pathological results, among which are sadness, anxiety and concern. This condition, named as melanotic disease, means that the disease is caused by sowda. ...
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Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Echium amoenum (Gol-e-gavzaban) in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) under the lens of Avicenna and modern medicine. Results Echium amoenum has many therapeutic effects in ITM and modern medicine. E. amoenum is traditionally used as herbal tea in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) for conditions such as common cold, bronchitis, stress and fatigue. It also possesses diaphoretic, diuretic and blood rectifying properties. Some of its effects such as general tonic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and antitussive has been reported according to recent studies. Conclusion There are many common characteristics about the pharmacological properties of E. amoenum in modern medicine and ITM, but more research is needed to prove the safety and efficacy of the plant.
... Persian medicine physicians not only assembled previous data but also added their own experiences to them. [1,2] Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi (865-925 CE), known in west as "Rhazes," was one of those Persian polymathes well-known for his immense contributions to the different fields of the science including but not limited to the chemistry, medicine, philosophy, astronomy, music and mathematics. [3,4] He has written more than 200 books and treatises about variety of topics. ...
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Introduction: Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi (865-925 CE), who was known as 'Rhazes' in the west, was a famous scientist of medieval ages. He has more than 200 books and treatises. His masterpiece on medicine 'Kitab Al-Hawi Fi Al-Tibb' contains around 900 case reports. Some of the diseases which seem to be recently reported have been stated previously, but not well described. Considering symptoms of the patient described at that time, differential diagnosis will be discussed. Case presentation: Rhazes described a patient with bilious fever. He had developed bloody urine and stool on the fourth day and fatigue. Subsequently, the patient's urine and stool color turned into dark and black, respectively, and died the following day. According to Rhazes attitude, it was malignant measles. Meyerhof in his book has referred to post-measles acute glomerulonephritis, but more appropriate differential diagnoses are compatible with this patient. Discussion: One of the best diagnoses for this case can be Weil's syndrome. Presence of fever, icterus, hemorrhage and renal injury, all suggest Weil's syndrome without pulmonary involvement. The other probable diagnosis is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Meningococcal sepsis is the other possible diagnosis. Conclusion: To sum up, as three compatible diseases with the case; have been described more than a thousand years after Rhazes (Weil's syndrome 1886, TTP 1925 and meningococcemia 1805); if the case is either Weil's or TTP or meningococcal sepsis, it is the first report of the disease in the world by Rhazes.
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Chebulinic acid, an ellagitannin, present in the fruits of Terminalia chebula has shown various positive neurological properties. However, there has not been a report of its antidepressant and anxiolytic potentials. This study was conducted to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potentials of chebulinic acid in laboratory rodents. Chebulinic acid was evaluated for its antidepressant (Forced swimming test and Tail suspension test) and anxiolytic (Light-dark box test, Hole-board test and Elevated plus maze) potentials in mice. Our findings showed antidepressant-like activity which is dose consistent at p<0.01 (in forced swimming test) and p<0.05 (in tail suspension test). However, only doses 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg showed significant anxiolytic potentials in elevated plus maze, light-dark box test and hole-board paradigms when compared with the control (P<0.05). The results suggest antidepressant and anxiolytic potentials of chebulinic acid. Chebulinic acid may possess antidepressant and anxiolytic potentials which may correspond to its folkloric use in the treatment of neuro-physiological disorders.
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Abstract Phyllanthus emblica is an affluent source of various therapeutic components. A few of them like vitamin C and flavonoids are predominant bioactive compounds that are being used in immense pharmacological applications. In-spite of numerous applications, the genomic information of this plant was limited to a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in DNA databases. Herein, we developed in-depth transcriptome information of P. emblica using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform and characterized. A total of 31,285,965 high-quality
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Lack of molecular biology evidence has led clinical success of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) to be marginalized. In turn, a large portion of life Science researchers could not communicate and help to develop therapeutic potential laid in these therapeutic approaches. In this study, we began to quantify descriptive classification theory in one of the CAM branches i.e. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). Using proteomic tools and network analysis, the expressed proteins, and their relationships were studied in mitochondrial lysate isolated from PBMCs from two different temperaments i.e. Hot-wet (HW) and Cold-dry (CD). The 82% of the identified proteins are over- or under-represented in distinct temperaments. Also, our result showed the different protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) represented in these two temperaments using centrality and module finding analysis. Following the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis, we have found enriched biological terms in each group which are in conformity with the physiologically known evidence in ITM. In conclusion, we argued that the network biology which naturally consider life at the system level along with the different omics data will pave the way toward explicit delineation of the CAM activities.
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Context Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) is a rich and valuable school of thought that believes medications are not the only effective approach for the treatment of diseases but that nutrition is also important. Evidence Acquisition Our study includes two parts; the first is a book review of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (10th and 11th centuries), in which we focus on finding and understanding Avicenna’s point of view. In the second part, we searched for “food reduction” as a key word from 2000 to 2015 in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, and the Iranian search database Iranmedex for principles of food reduction in classical medicine. Results The main methods of treatment in traditional medicine include changes in lifestyle, especially diet, the use of medications, and the use of manipulation methods. For diet, the individual may be prohibited from eating or food amounts may be decreased or increased. Centuries ago, Avicenna was making use of methods of food reduction as an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of diseases. According to him, food reduction, to the extent that it does not cause energy loss helps to cure disease. Avicenna has proposed food reduction as an aid to treating a variety of ailments such as headaches and reflux. Conclusions Today, a variety of basic and clinical research has shown that food reduction or calorie restriction to a standard level can effectively prevent and treat a variety of diseases such as neoplasms, diabetes, and kidney disease. Practical principles explained by traditional Iranian medicine, in particular Avicenna, could open important and quite uncomplicated strategies for the prevention and treatment of diseases.
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Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum. Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup.
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Background: Metabolic syndrome is an increasingly prevalent problem, not only in industrialized developed countries, but in developing countries as well. The modern healthcare to reduce the dysfunction of metabolic syndrome is burdened with great problems of unsafe medicines and certain degree of side effects. Medicinal plants and derived component products are becoming increasingly popular in modern society as natural alternatives to synthetic multiple drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe.) herbal tea (ZHT) for antihypercholestrolemic and antilipidemic perspectives in discerning consumers. Methods: Zedoary rhizome dried powder (ZRDP) after proximate composition analysis was used to prepared ZHT samples as T1 (500 mg ZRDP), T2 (1 g ZRDP) and T3 (1.5 g ZRDP) in 200 mL boiling water for 5 minutes, respectively. ZHT samples were characterized for total phenolic compounds (TPC), DPPH inhibition, total flavonoids, color tonality (L*, a* and b* value), pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and sensory acceptance. Thirty mild-hypercholestrolemic male human volunteers were randomly allocated to three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and each group consisting of 1o mild-hypercholestrolemic male human subjects. The volunteers were assigned ZHT samples for consecutive two months. The blood drawn for day 0, day 30 and day 60 after an overnight 12 h fast was analyzed for serum parameters such as total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides (TG) concentration. Results: The ZRDP possessed abundantly the crude protein (13.5 ± 0.68 %), total dietary fiber (21.86 ± 0.71 %), acid detergent fiber (13.22 ± 0.44 %), neutral detergent fiber (18.68 ± 0.53 %) and mineral contents. Highest TPC, DPPH inhibition and total flavonoids values were observed 9.74 ± 0.64 (mg GAE/g DW), 47.28 ± 1.62 (%) and 17.12 ± 0.75 (QE mg/g), respectively in T3. L* value was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) low for T3 samples. In contrast, a* value and b* value was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher for T3 when compared with T1 and T2. T3 samples showed lower pH (5.13 ± 0.13) and higher acidity (0.25 ± 0.08) values than T1 (5.64 ± 0.25, 0.17 ± 0.05) and T2 (5.42 ± 0.21, 0.21 ± 0.06), respectively. Similarly, an increasing trend in TSS contents was observed. Sensory scores assigned to color, flavor, aroma and overall acceptability attributes varied in a quite narrow range for all ZHT samples. The lowest evaluation scores were recorded for T3 samples. The G3 showed the more reduction in body weight and BMI during efficacy study as compared to G1 and G2. The decrease in serum TC for G1, G2 and G3 on day 60 was observed 9 %, 14 % and 17 %, respectively when compared with reference value at day 0. The consumption of T3 resulted in significant increase (6.8 %) of HDL-cholesterol after two months. A trend in decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol (5.6 %) and TG (12.5 %) was also observed after consumption of T3 at day 60. Conclusions: The results of the present study conclude that the strong phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity of zedoary rhizome have protective role against hypercholesterolemic and lipidemic conditions.
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Background: In Iranian and other traditional medicines, an antidepressant effect has been indicated for Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae). However, studies showing its antidepressant effect is lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine whether the aqueous extract and essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis have an antidepressant-like activity in mice. Materials and Methods: The effect of subchronic administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or water; n=9-10) and the essential oil (10, 25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or almond oil; n=9-10) on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test. Fluoxetine (20mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract, used in this study, produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. Essential oil caused a dose-dependent reduction in immobility and an increase in climbing at all studied doses, compared to control group. Only the highest dose (300mg/kg) of essential oil showed a significant increase in swimming behavior. The aqueous extract, but not the essential oil, decreased spontaneous activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the Melissa officinalis possess an antidepressant-like activity similar to imipramine which may have a potential clinical value for treatment of depression.
Book
Introduction.- Chapter 1. Medical and Cultural Background.- Chapter 2. Plato on madness and mental disorders.- Chapter 3. The Aristotelian concept of mental disorders.- Chapter 4. The Stoics on the kinds of madness.- Chapter 5. Galen on the diseases of the mind and soul.- Chapter 6. Other philosophical traditions.- Appendix A. Aristotle and Caelius Aurelianus on homosexuality.- Appendix B. Philosophers as mental patients in ancient tradition.
Chapter
Cigarette smoking remains the number one preventable cause of death worldwide, and it contributes significantly to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This article focuses on the relationship between smoking and CVD, the effects of smoking on the atherosclerotic process, the benefits of smoking cessation, the progress in smoke-free legislation, and the prevention of CVD.