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Nutritional value and antioxidant activies in fruit of some cultivars of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

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  • University of CraiovaFaculty of Horticulture

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The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional value and antioxi dant activity in an assortment of six pepper genotypes, depending on the variety (bell and sweet) and the color of the fruits (green, yellow and red). In this way, the content of dry matter, soluble substance, carbohydrates, acidity, vitamin C, antioxidant activities, total polyphenols and total flavonoids from fresh fruit have been investigated. In addition, were also studied the correlation coefficients between the quality parameters by Pearson Corelation. The obtained results indicate that the red sweet pepper genotypes recorded significant differences for most of the analyzes, highlinghting the Slonovo Uvo cultivar with a content in polyphenols of 202.6 mg GAE/100g fw in vitamin C of 204 mg/100g fw and antioxidant activity of 1376 μM TE/100g fw. Significant positive correlations have been identified between soluble substance and carbohydrate content and between vitamin C and total phenol content, also in sweet pepper with red fruit.
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Available online at http://journal-of-agroalimentary.ro
Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and
Technologies 2017, 23 (4), 217-222
Journal of
Agroalimentary Processes and
Technologies
_____________________________________________
Corresponding author: e-mail: dinumaria@hotmail.com
Nutritional value and antioxidant activities in fruit of some
cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Rodica Soare1, Maria Dinu2, Cristina Băbeanu3, Mihaela Popescu4, Alin Popescu 5
1University of Craiova, Faculty of Agriculture, Libertatii Street, no 19, Craiova, 200583, Romania
2University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture, A.I. Cuza Street, no 13, Craiova, 200585, Romania
3University of Craiova, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, A.I. Cuza Street, no 13, Craiova, 200585,
Romania
4,5University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Petru Rareş Street, no 2, 200349, Romania
Received: 27 July 2017; Accepted: 03 November 2017
______________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional value and antioxidant activity in an
assortment of six pepper genotypes, depending on the variety (bell and sweet) and the color of the fruits
(green, yellow and red). In this way, the content of dry matter, soluble substance, carbohydrates, acidity,
vitamin C, antioxidant activities, total polyphenols and total flavonoids from fresh fruit have been
investigated. In addition, were also studied the correlation coefficients between the quality parameters
by Pearson Corelation. The obtained results indicate that the red sweet pepper genotypes recorded
significant differences for most of the analyzes, highlinghting the Slonovo Uvo cultivar with a content
in polyphenols of 202.6 mg GAE/100g fw in vitamin C of 204 mg/100g fw and antioxidant activity of
1376 µM TE/100g fw. Significant positive correlations have been identified between soluble substance
and carbohydrate content and between vitamin C and total phenol content, also in sweet pepper with red
fruit.
Keywords: quality, variety, antioxidant
______________________________________________________________________________________
1. Introduction
Pepper is an important horticultural crop in many
regions of the world [1]. Pepper (Capsicum annuum
L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae, genus
Capsicum, and is a vegetable appreciated by
consumers because of its pleasant, refreshing taste,
attractive color and special biochemical
composition. Reports of the last ten years show that
some types of food and spices included in the
human diet, such as pepper can have a positive
effect on human health [2].
Freshly consumed peppers, as well as foods
supplementing the human diet, have neutraceutic
potential due to the high phytochemical content
(carotenoids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, phenolic
compounds, capsaicin), which are powerful
antioxidants [3]. The trend among consumers to eat
food with high nutritional value is growing, even if
it is not very popular [4].
For human nutrition, pepper is especially valuable
for its high vitamin C content [5-6]. The Capsicum
fruit are an excellent source of natural,
micronutrient antioxidants (vitamins C and E and
carotenoids) which appear to be critically important
in preventing or reducing chronic and age-related
diseases [7]. Also pepper fruits can be used raw or
processed into various kinds of products, so it is
valuable material for frozen and processing industry
[5-6].
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
218
Nowadays, chilli peppers fruits are used in modern
herbology and conventional drugs due to its high
content of capsaicin [7].
Vegetables grown in the field, industrial
greenhouses, greenhouses-solar and other shelters
present food, industrial and economic importance
and are a factor of intensification by using land and
labor resources [8].
Pepper is one of the main species grown in
protected areas. Very favorable conditions for the
cultivation of this species in Romania are in south
and west [9]. For pepper culture, hybrids are
increasingly recommended because they have
genetic resistance to pathogens, adaptability,
precocity and high productivity.
Currently, people have interest in maintaining good
health and they are more careful to the food they
choose to consume. They choose food with a high
nutritional value, bioactive compounds and
antioxidant capacity, such as fruits and vegetables
[10].
Consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces
the risk of cardiovascular and carcinogenic diseases
[11]. Pepper fruits contain a wide variety of
carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols, ascorbic acid,
capsaicin and other compounds that cause great
variability in the flavor and taste of the fruit, thus
influencing consumer preference [2]. However, the
composition of the fruit changes depending on the
maturation stage, the environmental conditions, the
cultivar and the culture management. Also, the fruit
color changes during maturation and can become
from greenish to yellow, orange, violet, red and
even brownish-chocolate [6].
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate
the variation of the phytochemical composition
according to the color of the fruits and the variety of
peppers cultivated in southern Romania.
2. Materials and Method
2.1. Materials
The culture was founded in southern Romania, in
the Izbiceni locality, Olt County, in 2015, under
solar conditions. The biological material was
represented by the cultivation of sweet and bell
peppers, with fruits of different colors: Blondy F1,
Cecil F1, Figaro F1, Kaptur F1, Slonovo Uvo and a
local population. Some morphological
characteristics of genotypes are shown in Table 1.
The culture was established by seedling produced in
alveolar pallets, filled with peat. At planting, the
seedlings were aged 55 days. Planting seedlings was
solar in third decade of March. The distance
between the rows was 80 cm and 30 cm between the
plants per row. The technology applied in the
culture was the classic one, paying attention to the
aeration of the greenhouse, combating diseases and
pests, ensuring the necessity of nutrients, irrigation,
defoliation and palladium of 2 arms/plant.
Table 1. Morphological characteristics of the genotypes studied
To determine the nutritional value and the
antioxidant activity of the six sweet pepper
cultivars, biochemical analyzes were performed on
dry matter, total soluble solides, vitamin C,
titratable acidity, reducing sugars, total phenolic
compounds, antioxidant activity and total
flavonoids. In order to perform the analyses, fruit
samples were taken from the cultivar and brought to
the biochemistry laboratory of the Faculty of
Agronomy, performing average tests.
Pericarp of washed pepper fruit was grounded in a
blender. Biochemical determinations were
performed at consumption maturity.
2.2. Chemical analysis
2.2.1. Dry matter content (%) was determined
gravimetrically by drying 5g pepper homogenate to
a constant weight at 105°C.
2.2.2. The total soluble solids content (TSS) was
determined using a digital refractometer (%).
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
219
2.2.3. The titratable acid (%) content was
determined by titration with 0.1N sodium hydroxide
(NaOH), using phenolphthalein as indicator and
expressed as % citric acid.
2.2.4. Reducing sugars (%) were extracted in
distilled water (1:50w/v) and assayed colorimetric
with 3.5 dinitrosalicylic.
2.2.5. Ascorbic acid was extracted in 2%
hydrochloric acid (HCl) (1:50 w/v) and determined
by iodometric redox titration. Ascorbic acid content
was expressed as mg/100g fw. Extracts for the
determination of phenols and antioxidant activity
were prepared into 80% aqueous methanol (1:10
w/v) at 24°C for 16 h. The resulting slurries were
centrifuged at 4000g for 5 min and the supernatants
were analysed.
2.2.6. Total phenolic content (TPC): were
determined colorimetric by using the Folin-
Ciocalteu method [12]. The absorbance was
recorded at 765 nm using a Thermo Scientific
Evolution 600 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The total
phenolic content (TPC) was calculated using a
standard curve prepared using gallic acid and
expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents GAE/100
g fw.
2.2.7. Determination of total flavonoids content
(TF): was quantitatively determined by using
colorimetric methods at 500 nm with chromogenic
system of NaNO2Al (NO3)3NaOH according to
[13]. 0.5 ml of the sample extract was transferred
into a 10ml volumetric flask. Furthermore, a 0.6 mL
of 5% sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was added and the
mixture was shaken and left for 6 min. Secondly,
0.5 mL of 10% Al(NO3)3 was added to the
volumetric flask, shaken, and was left to stand for 6
min. Finally, 3.0 mL of the 4.3% NaOH was added
to the volumetric flask. Subsequently, water was
added up to the scale. The mixture was then shaken
and left to stand for 15 min before determination.
The total flavonoid concentration in methanol
extract was calculated from quercetin (Q)
calibration curve and expressed as quercetin
equivalents (Q)/100g .
2.2.8. Antioxidant activity (AO): DPPH (2.2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging
assay: The capacity of tomato extracts to reduce the
radical 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was assessed
using the method of [14] with some modification.
A 0.075 mM (final concentration) DPPH solution in
ethanol was mixed with sample extracts and
vortexed thoroughly. The absorbance of the
mixtures at ambient temperature was recorded for
20 min at 2 min intervals. The absorbance of the
remaining DPPH radicals was measured at 519 nm.
A blank reagent was used to study stability of
DPPH over the test time. The scavenging activity of
extracts was evaluated as a percentage of DPPH
discoloration using the formula: % scavenging =
[A0-(A1AS)]/A0]100, where A0 is the absorbance
of DPPH alone, A1 is the absorbance of DPPH +
extract and AS is the absorbance of the extract only.
The Trolox calibration curve was plotted as a
function of the percentage of DPPH radical
scavenging activity. The final results were
expressed as μmol Trolox (TE) /100 g fw.
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Data were elaborated using one-way ANOVA,
single-factor was performed. The significance of
differences was evaluated using Duncan’s test, with
the critical significance level of p≤0.05.
Furthermore, an analysis of the correlation was made
between quality parameters.
3. Results and Discussion
The quality of pepper fruits is influenced by many
factors: genotype, mineral fertilization, grafting,
cultivation conditions, the degree of ripeness at
harvest [1-10].
In the present study all chemical indices determined
varied according to variety and cultivar, as well as
their color at consumption maturity (Table 2). Thus,
dry matter and TSS varied from 5.66% to 9.33%
and respectively from 3.5% to 7%, the highest
values being recorded for long and red fruit
genotypes. Also, reducing sugars recorded higher
values in the elongated and red fruit cultures, up to
5.76% in the Kaptur hybrid. By [5] in their research
on the nutritional value of an assortment of sweet
peppers, reported a dry matter fruit weight between
7.0 and 9.0 g ·100 g-1 FW and a reducing sugar
content between 3.20-4.92 g · 100 g-1 FW.
In this study, acidity of peppers increases and
decreases depending on the variety and genotype.
Total titritable acidity, recorded lower values at the
bell pepper, with green and yellow fruit 0448
(Figaro F1şi Cecil F1) and higher values sweet
peppers with red fruits, up to 0.704% (Slonovo
Uvo).
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
220
Increasing the content of vitamin C in fruits of
pepper is an important breeding target for this
species. In this study, it is significantly presented
the content vitamin C in red sweet pepper, 204
mg/100g sp, in the Slonovo Uvo and the lowest
value in the Figaro F1 cultivar, with the green fruit
of 125 mg/100g sp. Similarly, [15], reported vitamin
C content values above 250 mg in 100 g-1 in local
hot peppers varieties and [5], found in sweet pepper
fruit a content of ascorbic acid from 116.3 to 190.5
mg100 g-1 FW. According to [6] red pepper had
higher content of vitamin C than green and yellow
peppers.
Tabelul 2. Chemical properties of in studied papper cultivars
Tabelul 3. Vitamin C, Total phenolic, flavonoides, content and antioxidant activity
Table 4. Values of correlations (R2) between chemical compounds analyzed
Phenol compounds are found in considerable
quantities in many fruits and vegetables and thus
form an integral part of the human diet [10].
Numerous authors have argued that there are
differences in the accumulation of phenols and
flavonoids depending on the variety, the stages of
maturity and the types of peppers [10-12].
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
221
In the present work, phenolic compounds from
sweet papper varied between 128 mg GAE/100g
fresh weight (local population) and 202.6 mg
GAE/100g fw (Slonovo Uvo). At pepper with green
fruits, the content in phenolic compounds varied
from 146.87 mg GAE/100g at Blondy to 151.78 mg
GAE / 100g (Figaro F1).
The content of total flavonoids recorded values up
to 480 mg Q/100g (Kaptur F1) in sweet pepper with
red fruit, and in bell pepper with yellowish-green
fruits up to 292 mg Q/100g (Cecil F1) (Table 3).
There are numerous studies in scientific literature
that confirm the presence of phenolic compounds
and flavonoids in fruit pepper. [16-17], found that
red peppers generally exceeded green peppers in
flavonoid content, which significantly contributes to
the antioxidant power of the fruit. [10] reported a
total phenol content averaging 10.54 and 9.95 mg/g
of fresh tissue, and [2] have found that in some
morphotypes of pepper, the total phenol and
flavonoid values averaged from 113.2 to 262.9 and
9.7 to 73.7 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, respectively.
Regarding the antioxidant activity, varied in
different colored genotyps peppers (Tabelul 2.). The
highest value for antioxidant activity was at sweet
pepper with red fruit, 1376 μmol TE/100g fw (Slavo
Uno,) while at bell pepper, with the green-yellow
fruit, the highest value was 656 μmol TE/100g fw.
(Cecil F1). Some authors [16] investigated the
ability to capture free radicals in sweet peppers of
different colors, and found that the lowest values
but insignificant were for green peppers.
Correlations between the chemical compounds
analyzed for sweet pepper genotypes are shown in
Table 4. Thus, the highest correlation, respectively
very significant, was recorded between TSS and
reducing sugars (r= 0.997), between TSS and DM (r
= 0.913), between total polyphenols and Vitamin C
(r= 0.902), between Vitamin C and titratable acidity
(r=0,817) followed by total polyphenols and
antioxidant activity (0.745). For the other
characters, correlations were positive but
insignificant.
4. Conclusions
In the present study, have been identified changes in
the content of dry matter, soluble solides, reducing
sugar, acidity, vitamin C, total polyphenols, total
flavonoids and antioxidant activity.
All these phytochemicals and antioxidant activity
from pepper fruits depended on the variety and
color. Higher contents were found in sewet peppers
with red color fruits, followed by yellow fruits.
The Slonovo Uvo cultivar recorded significant
differences regarding the content in TSS (7%), in
reducing sugar (5.63%), vitamin C (204 mg/100g
fw), in total polyphenols (202.6 mg GAE 100g fw)
and in antioxidant activity (1376 mmol TE/100g
fw), and the Kaptur F1 genotype recorded
significant differences regarding the the high
content of flavonoids (480 mgQ/100g fw).
The local population of red pepper recorded high
values for content in vitamin C (132 mg/100g sp)
and antioxidant capacity (827.2 μmol TE/100g sp),
surpassing some of the cultivars in the assortment
studied. These values are favorable for the use of
the local population as genitors for hybridization
breeding programs.
Compliance with Ethics Requirements. Authors
declare that they respect the journal’s ethics
requirements. Authors declare that they have no conflict
of interest and all procedures involving human / or
animal subjects (if exist) respect the specific regulation
and standards.
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New flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-[(6-P-coumaroyl galactopyranosyl-O-β-(1 → 4)-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-O-α-rhamnopyranoside 1, in addition to five known flavonoid glycosides (2–6) kaempferol 3-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O]-β-galactopyranoside (kaempferol 3-O-β-isorhamninoside) 2, quercetin 3-O-[(2,3,4-triacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)-β-galactopyranoside 3, quercetin 3-O-[(2,4-diacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)]-3,4-diacetyl-β-galactopyranoside 4, quercetin 3-O-[(2,4-diacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)]-2,4-diacetyl-β-galactopyranoside 5, quercetin 3-O-[(2,3,4-triacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)-3-acetyl-β-galactopyranoside 6 were isolated from bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruits and tested for both anti-inflammatory activity through cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) and antioxidant activity through scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Compounds 1–3 significantly suppressed production of TNF-α / IL-1β in cultured THP-1 cells previously co-stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner (10.2/49.1, 28.1/55.7, and 35.2/57.5 μM respectively) whereas compounds 4–6 have relatively weaker inhibitory activity. (45.3/73.5, 48.2/65.6, and 42.2/67.4 μM respectively). All compounds 1–6 showed no cytotoxic activity against the growth of THP-1where the percentage of cell viability was (127.4, 108.5, 105.4, 103.9, 103.4, and 104.2 μM respectively). All isolated compounds exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than ascorbic acid in (DPPH) assay. These results indicated that bell pepper fruits could be an effective candidate for ameliorating inflammatory-associated complications.
... The Capsaicinoids health-promoting benefit properties make pungency strength a major criterion of pepper fruit quality (Jarret et al., 2007). Indeed, previous studies underline their antioxidant potential (Alvarez-Parrilla et al, (2011), Chávez-Mendoza et al, (2013), Nadeem et al, (2011Tundis et al, (2012); Gougoulia et al, (2017); Rodica et al, (2017)), antimicrobial activity (Kappel et al., 2008), anti-inflammatory proprieties (Zimmer et al, 2012) and anti-proliferative effects (Middleton et al., (2000); Mori et al, (2006)). There might be involved therefore in protecting human health through preventing the widespread human diseases as cancer (Djamgoz and Isbilen, (2006), Aggarwal et al, (2006); Aggarwal et al, (2009) andJeong et al, (2011)). ...
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The content of phenols and ascorbic acid of the phenolic fraction, and carotenoids, tocopherols and capsaicinoids of the oily fraction from sweet bell peppers from northwest Mexico was determined. Antioxidant activity in both fractions was evaluated (ABTS and DPPH methods). Green cultivar had the highest content of phenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid and highest antioxidant activity. α-Tocopherolwas found in the four cultivars; however, capsaicinoids were not detected. The phenolic fraction had higher antioxidant activity than the oily fraction.
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Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes) of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Güero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1). With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 μg mL-1) than dihydrocapsaicin (1.5 to 65.5 μg mL-1) and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. showed the opposite pattern.
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Red pepper, Capsicum spp., has a long history of cultivation on earth. Consumed by the Indians of South and Central America as early as 7000 B.C., the plant was grown in cultivated fields some 2000 years later. Following the initial visits of the Spanish to the Americas, the plant was brought to Europe and from there to most tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones. By volume, red pepper products, pungent and non-pungent, represent some of the most important spice commodities in the world. The Capsicum fruit are an excellent source of natural, micronutrient antioxidants (vitamins C and E and carotenoids) which appear to be critically important in preventing or reducing chronic and age-related diseases. Fruit from the pungent hot type pepper plant are historically employed in traditional medicine and are currently being used in modern herbology and conventional medicines. Capsaicin, the predominant compound in pungent types of Capsicum, induces depletion of substance P and other neuropeptides from sensory nerve terminals. A capsaicin cream has been introduced into dermatologic therapy and proven useful in preventing chronic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and other pain syndromes.