ArticlePDF Available

Nutritional value and antioxidant activies in fruit of some cultivars of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

  • University of CraiovaFaculty of Horticulture

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional value and antioxi dant activity in an assortment of six pepper genotypes, depending on the variety (bell and sweet) and the color of the fruits (green, yellow and red). In this way, the content of dry matter, soluble substance, carbohydrates, acidity, vitamin C, antioxidant activities, total polyphenols and total flavonoids from fresh fruit have been investigated. In addition, were also studied the correlation coefficients between the quality parameters by Pearson Corelation. The obtained results indicate that the red sweet pepper genotypes recorded significant differences for most of the analyzes, highlinghting the Slonovo Uvo cultivar with a content in polyphenols of 202.6 mg GAE/100g fw in vitamin C of 204 mg/100g fw and antioxidant activity of 1376 μM TE/100g fw. Significant positive correlations have been identified between soluble substance and carbohydrate content and between vitamin C and total phenol content, also in sweet pepper with red fruit.
No caption available
No caption available
No caption available
Content may be subject to copyright.
Available online at
Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and
Technologies 2017, 23 (4), 217-222
Journal of
Agroalimentary Processes and
Corresponding author: e-mail:
Nutritional value and antioxidant activities in fruit of some
cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Rodica Soare1, Maria Dinu2, Cristina Băbeanu3, Mihaela Popescu4, Alin Popescu 5
1University of Craiova, Faculty of Agriculture, Libertatii Street, no 19, Craiova, 200583, Romania
2University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture, A.I. Cuza Street, no 13, Craiova, 200585, Romania
3University of Craiova, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, A.I. Cuza Street, no 13, Craiova, 200585,
4,5University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Petru Rareş Street, no 2, 200349, Romania
Received: 27 July 2017; Accepted: 03 November 2017
The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional value and antioxidant activity in an
assortment of six pepper genotypes, depending on the variety (bell and sweet) and the color of the fruits
(green, yellow and red). In this way, the content of dry matter, soluble substance, carbohydrates, acidity,
vitamin C, antioxidant activities, total polyphenols and total flavonoids from fresh fruit have been
investigated. In addition, were also studied the correlation coefficients between the quality parameters
by Pearson Corelation. The obtained results indicate that the red sweet pepper genotypes recorded
significant differences for most of the analyzes, highlinghting the Slonovo Uvo cultivar with a content
in polyphenols of 202.6 mg GAE/100g fw in vitamin C of 204 mg/100g fw and antioxidant activity of
1376 µM TE/100g fw. Significant positive correlations have been identified between soluble substance
and carbohydrate content and between vitamin C and total phenol content, also in sweet pepper with red
Keywords: quality, variety, antioxidant
1. Introduction
Pepper is an important horticultural crop in many
regions of the world [1]. Pepper (Capsicum annuum
L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae, genus
Capsicum, and is a vegetable appreciated by
consumers because of its pleasant, refreshing taste,
attractive color and special biochemical
composition. Reports of the last ten years show that
some types of food and spices included in the
human diet, such as pepper can have a positive
effect on human health [2].
Freshly consumed peppers, as well as foods
supplementing the human diet, have neutraceutic
potential due to the high phytochemical content
(carotenoids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, phenolic
compounds, capsaicin), which are powerful
antioxidants [3]. The trend among consumers to eat
food with high nutritional value is growing, even if
it is not very popular [4].
For human nutrition, pepper is especially valuable
for its high vitamin C content [5-6]. The Capsicum
fruit are an excellent source of natural,
micronutrient antioxidants (vitamins C and E and
carotenoids) which appear to be critically important
in preventing or reducing chronic and age-related
diseases [7]. Also pepper fruits can be used raw or
processed into various kinds of products, so it is
valuable material for frozen and processing industry
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
Nowadays, chilli peppers fruits are used in modern
herbology and conventional drugs due to its high
content of capsaicin [7].
Vegetables grown in the field, industrial
greenhouses, greenhouses-solar and other shelters
present food, industrial and economic importance
and are a factor of intensification by using land and
labor resources [8].
Pepper is one of the main species grown in
protected areas. Very favorable conditions for the
cultivation of this species in Romania are in south
and west [9]. For pepper culture, hybrids are
increasingly recommended because they have
genetic resistance to pathogens, adaptability,
precocity and high productivity.
Currently, people have interest in maintaining good
health and they are more careful to the food they
choose to consume. They choose food with a high
nutritional value, bioactive compounds and
antioxidant capacity, such as fruits and vegetables
Consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces
the risk of cardiovascular and carcinogenic diseases
[11]. Pepper fruits contain a wide variety of
carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols, ascorbic acid,
capsaicin and other compounds that cause great
variability in the flavor and taste of the fruit, thus
influencing consumer preference [2]. However, the
composition of the fruit changes depending on the
maturation stage, the environmental conditions, the
cultivar and the culture management. Also, the fruit
color changes during maturation and can become
from greenish to yellow, orange, violet, red and
even brownish-chocolate [6].
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate
the variation of the phytochemical composition
according to the color of the fruits and the variety of
peppers cultivated in southern Romania.
2. Materials and Method
2.1. Materials
The culture was founded in southern Romania, in
the Izbiceni locality, Olt County, in 2015, under
solar conditions. The biological material was
represented by the cultivation of sweet and bell
peppers, with fruits of different colors: Blondy F1,
Cecil F1, Figaro F1, Kaptur F1, Slonovo Uvo and a
local population. Some morphological
characteristics of genotypes are shown in Table 1.
The culture was established by seedling produced in
alveolar pallets, filled with peat. At planting, the
seedlings were aged 55 days. Planting seedlings was
solar in third decade of March. The distance
between the rows was 80 cm and 30 cm between the
plants per row. The technology applied in the
culture was the classic one, paying attention to the
aeration of the greenhouse, combating diseases and
pests, ensuring the necessity of nutrients, irrigation,
defoliation and palladium of 2 arms/plant.
Table 1. Morphological characteristics of the genotypes studied
To determine the nutritional value and the
antioxidant activity of the six sweet pepper
cultivars, biochemical analyzes were performed on
dry matter, total soluble solides, vitamin C,
titratable acidity, reducing sugars, total phenolic
compounds, antioxidant activity and total
flavonoids. In order to perform the analyses, fruit
samples were taken from the cultivar and brought to
the biochemistry laboratory of the Faculty of
Agronomy, performing average tests.
Pericarp of washed pepper fruit was grounded in a
blender. Biochemical determinations were
performed at consumption maturity.
2.2. Chemical analysis
2.2.1. Dry matter content (%) was determined
gravimetrically by drying 5g pepper homogenate to
a constant weight at 105°C.
2.2.2. The total soluble solids content (TSS) was
determined using a digital refractometer (%).
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
2.2.3. The titratable acid (%) content was
determined by titration with 0.1N sodium hydroxide
(NaOH), using phenolphthalein as indicator and
expressed as % citric acid.
2.2.4. Reducing sugars (%) were extracted in
distilled water (1:50w/v) and assayed colorimetric
with 3.5 dinitrosalicylic.
2.2.5. Ascorbic acid was extracted in 2%
hydrochloric acid (HCl) (1:50 w/v) and determined
by iodometric redox titration. Ascorbic acid content
was expressed as mg/100g fw. Extracts for the
determination of phenols and antioxidant activity
were prepared into 80% aqueous methanol (1:10
w/v) at 24°C for 16 h. The resulting slurries were
centrifuged at 4000g for 5 min and the supernatants
were analysed.
2.2.6. Total phenolic content (TPC): were
determined colorimetric by using the Folin-
Ciocalteu method [12]. The absorbance was
recorded at 765 nm using a Thermo Scientific
Evolution 600 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The total
phenolic content (TPC) was calculated using a
standard curve prepared using gallic acid and
expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents GAE/100
g fw.
2.2.7. Determination of total flavonoids content
(TF): was quantitatively determined by using
colorimetric methods at 500 nm with chromogenic
system of NaNO2Al (NO3)3NaOH according to
[13]. 0.5 ml of the sample extract was transferred
into a 10ml volumetric flask. Furthermore, a 0.6 mL
of 5% sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was added and the
mixture was shaken and left for 6 min. Secondly,
0.5 mL of 10% Al(NO3)3 was added to the
volumetric flask, shaken, and was left to stand for 6
min. Finally, 3.0 mL of the 4.3% NaOH was added
to the volumetric flask. Subsequently, water was
added up to the scale. The mixture was then shaken
and left to stand for 15 min before determination.
The total flavonoid concentration in methanol
extract was calculated from quercetin (Q)
calibration curve and expressed as quercetin
equivalents (Q)/100g .
2.2.8. Antioxidant activity (AO): DPPH (2.2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging
assay: The capacity of tomato extracts to reduce the
radical 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was assessed
using the method of [14] with some modification.
A 0.075 mM (final concentration) DPPH solution in
ethanol was mixed with sample extracts and
vortexed thoroughly. The absorbance of the
mixtures at ambient temperature was recorded for
20 min at 2 min intervals. The absorbance of the
remaining DPPH radicals was measured at 519 nm.
A blank reagent was used to study stability of
DPPH over the test time. The scavenging activity of
extracts was evaluated as a percentage of DPPH
discoloration using the formula: % scavenging =
[A0-(A1AS)]/A0]100, where A0 is the absorbance
of DPPH alone, A1 is the absorbance of DPPH +
extract and AS is the absorbance of the extract only.
The Trolox calibration curve was plotted as a
function of the percentage of DPPH radical
scavenging activity. The final results were
expressed as μmol Trolox (TE) /100 g fw.
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Data were elaborated using one-way ANOVA,
single-factor was performed. The significance of
differences was evaluated using Duncan’s test, with
the critical significance level of p≤0.05.
Furthermore, an analysis of the correlation was made
between quality parameters.
3. Results and Discussion
The quality of pepper fruits is influenced by many
factors: genotype, mineral fertilization, grafting,
cultivation conditions, the degree of ripeness at
harvest [1-10].
In the present study all chemical indices determined
varied according to variety and cultivar, as well as
their color at consumption maturity (Table 2). Thus,
dry matter and TSS varied from 5.66% to 9.33%
and respectively from 3.5% to 7%, the highest
values being recorded for long and red fruit
genotypes. Also, reducing sugars recorded higher
values in the elongated and red fruit cultures, up to
5.76% in the Kaptur hybrid. By [5] in their research
on the nutritional value of an assortment of sweet
peppers, reported a dry matter fruit weight between
7.0 and 9.0 g ·100 g-1 FW and a reducing sugar
content between 3.20-4.92 g · 100 g-1 FW.
In this study, acidity of peppers increases and
decreases depending on the variety and genotype.
Total titritable acidity, recorded lower values at the
bell pepper, with green and yellow fruit 0448
(Figaro F1şi Cecil F1) and higher values sweet
peppers with red fruits, up to 0.704% (Slonovo
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
Increasing the content of vitamin C in fruits of
pepper is an important breeding target for this
species. In this study, it is significantly presented
the content vitamin C in red sweet pepper, 204
mg/100g sp, in the Slonovo Uvo and the lowest
value in the Figaro F1 cultivar, with the green fruit
of 125 mg/100g sp. Similarly, [15], reported vitamin
C content values above 250 mg in 100 g-1 in local
hot peppers varieties and [5], found in sweet pepper
fruit a content of ascorbic acid from 116.3 to 190.5
mg100 g-1 FW. According to [6] red pepper had
higher content of vitamin C than green and yellow
Tabelul 2. Chemical properties of in studied papper cultivars
Tabelul 3. Vitamin C, Total phenolic, flavonoides, content and antioxidant activity
Table 4. Values of correlations (R2) between chemical compounds analyzed
Phenol compounds are found in considerable
quantities in many fruits and vegetables and thus
form an integral part of the human diet [10].
Numerous authors have argued that there are
differences in the accumulation of phenols and
flavonoids depending on the variety, the stages of
maturity and the types of peppers [10-12].
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
In the present work, phenolic compounds from
sweet papper varied between 128 mg GAE/100g
fresh weight (local population) and 202.6 mg
GAE/100g fw (Slonovo Uvo). At pepper with green
fruits, the content in phenolic compounds varied
from 146.87 mg GAE/100g at Blondy to 151.78 mg
GAE / 100g (Figaro F1).
The content of total flavonoids recorded values up
to 480 mg Q/100g (Kaptur F1) in sweet pepper with
red fruit, and in bell pepper with yellowish-green
fruits up to 292 mg Q/100g (Cecil F1) (Table 3).
There are numerous studies in scientific literature
that confirm the presence of phenolic compounds
and flavonoids in fruit pepper. [16-17], found that
red peppers generally exceeded green peppers in
flavonoid content, which significantly contributes to
the antioxidant power of the fruit. [10] reported a
total phenol content averaging 10.54 and 9.95 mg/g
of fresh tissue, and [2] have found that in some
morphotypes of pepper, the total phenol and
flavonoid values averaged from 113.2 to 262.9 and
9.7 to 73.7 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, respectively.
Regarding the antioxidant activity, varied in
different colored genotyps peppers (Tabelul 2.). The
highest value for antioxidant activity was at sweet
pepper with red fruit, 1376 μmol TE/100g fw (Slavo
Uno,) while at bell pepper, with the green-yellow
fruit, the highest value was 656 μmol TE/100g fw.
(Cecil F1). Some authors [16] investigated the
ability to capture free radicals in sweet peppers of
different colors, and found that the lowest values
but insignificant were for green peppers.
Correlations between the chemical compounds
analyzed for sweet pepper genotypes are shown in
Table 4. Thus, the highest correlation, respectively
very significant, was recorded between TSS and
reducing sugars (r= 0.997), between TSS and DM (r
= 0.913), between total polyphenols and Vitamin C
(r= 0.902), between Vitamin C and titratable acidity
(r=0,817) followed by total polyphenols and
antioxidant activity (0.745). For the other
characters, correlations were positive but
4. Conclusions
In the present study, have been identified changes in
the content of dry matter, soluble solides, reducing
sugar, acidity, vitamin C, total polyphenols, total
flavonoids and antioxidant activity.
All these phytochemicals and antioxidant activity
from pepper fruits depended on the variety and
color. Higher contents were found in sewet peppers
with red color fruits, followed by yellow fruits.
The Slonovo Uvo cultivar recorded significant
differences regarding the content in TSS (7%), in
reducing sugar (5.63%), vitamin C (204 mg/100g
fw), in total polyphenols (202.6 mg GAE 100g fw)
and in antioxidant activity (1376 mmol TE/100g
fw), and the Kaptur F1 genotype recorded
significant differences regarding the the high
content of flavonoids (480 mgQ/100g fw).
The local population of red pepper recorded high
values for content in vitamin C (132 mg/100g sp)
and antioxidant capacity (827.2 μmol TE/100g sp),
surpassing some of the cultivars in the assortment
studied. These values are favorable for the use of
the local population as genitors for hybridization
breeding programs.
Compliance with Ethics Requirements. Authors
declare that they respect the journal’s ethics
requirements. Authors declare that they have no conflict
of interest and all procedures involving human / or
animal subjects (if exist) respect the specific regulation
and standards.
1. Rubio. J.S., García-Sánchez F., Flores P., Navarro,
J.M. and Martínez V., Yield and fruit quality of
sweet pepper in response to fertilisation with Ca2+
and K+, Spanish. Journal of Agricultural Research,
2010 8(1), 170-177
2. Araceli Minerva V.G., Chávez-Servia J.L., Carrillo-
Rodríguez J.C., and Mercedes G. López,
Phytochemical Evaluation Of Wild And Cultivated
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz
& Pav.) From Oaxaca, Mexico, Chilean. Journal Of
Agricultural Research 2011, 71(4), 578-585
3. Crosby, K.M., Pepper. În: J. Prohens și F. Nuez
(eds.). Vegetables II: Fabaceae, Liliaceae,
Solanaceae and Umbelliferae. Editura Springer
Science Bussines Media, New York, 2008, pp.221-
4. Dinu M., Soare R., Hoza G., Becherescu A.D.,
Biochemical Composition of Some Local Pumpkin
Population. Agriculture and Agricultural Science
Procedia, 2016, (10), 185-191
5. Cebula S., Jakubas A., Sękara A., Kalisz A., Pohl A.,
The Relationship Between Morphological Features
And Nutritive Value Of Sweet Pepper Fruits. Acta
Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 2015, 14(4), 79-91
6. Valšíková M., Králová J., Barkoci Š., Study of some
characteristics of vegetable pepper varieties. Hort.
Sci. (Prague), 2006, 33, (4), 153157
Rodica Soare et al. / Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2017, 23(4)
7. Palevitch D. and Craker L.E., Review. Nutritional
And Medical Importance Of Red Pepper
(Capsicum Spp.). Journal Of Herbs, Spices &
Medicinal Plants, 1996, 3 (2), 55-83
8. Pânzaru R. L., Medelete D.M., Ștefan G., Economia
producției vegetale, Ed. Universitaria, Craiova,
2009, 3, pp. 141-188
9. Maniutiu D, Sima R., Apahidean A.S., Apahidean
M., Ficior D., The Influence of Plant Density and
Shoot Pruning on Yield of Bell Pepper Cultivated in
Plastic Tunnel. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 2010,
67(1)/, 259-263
10. Chávez-Mendoza C., Sánchez E., Carvajal-Millán
E., Muñoz-Márquez E. and Guevara-Aguilar A.,
Characterization of the Nutraceutical Quality and
Antioxidant Activity in Bell Pepper in Response to
Grafting. Molecules 2013, 18, 15689-15703;
11. Pérez-Gálvez, A., H.D. Martín, H. Sies, and W.
Stahl, Incorporation of carotenoids from paprika
oleoresin into human chylomicrons. British Journal
of Nutrition, 2003, 89, 787-793
12. Dannehl D., Huyskens-Keil S., Eichholz I., Ulrichs
C., Schmidt U., Effects of direct-electric-current on
secondary plant compounds and antioxidant
activity in harvested tomato fruits (Solanum
lycopersicon L.), Food Chem., 2011, 126, 157-165.
13. Abeysinghe D.C., Li X., Sun C., Zhang W., Zhou C.,
Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in
different edible tissues of citrus fruit of four species,
Food Chemistry, 2007, 104(4), 1338-1344
14. Babbar N., Oberoi H.S., Sandhu K.S., Bhargav V.
K., Influence of different solvents in extraction of
phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and
their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants. J
Food Sci Technol, 2014, 51(10): 25682575
15. Dinu M., Dumitru M.G., Pintilie I., Comparative
Study of Certain Hot Pepper Genotypes (Capsicum
Annuum L.) Cultivated in Oltenia, România. (IJSR)
International Journal of Scientific Research, 2013, 2,
(7), 54-57
16. Sun, T., Xu, Z., Wu, C.T., Janes, M.,
Prinyawiwatkul, W., No, H.K., Antioxidant activities
of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum
annuum L.). J. Food Sci. 2007, 72, S98S102
17. Blanco-Ríos, A.K., Medina-Juarez, L.A., González-
Aguilar G.A., Gamez-Meza N., Antioxidant activity
of the phenolic and oily fractions of different sweet
bell peppers. J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 2013, 57, 137143.
... Peppers (Capsicum annum) are especially valued for their high vitamin C content and other antioxidant micronutrients, such as vitamin E and carotenoids. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) contain good levels of thiamine, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus, iron, calcium and potassium (Soare et al. 2017). Raw and cooked plantains (Musa paradisiaca) have a high content of resistant starch, polyphenols (when cooked) and minerals, such as phosphorus, potassium and sodium. ...
... Raw and cooked plantains (Musa paradisiaca) have a high content of resistant starch, polyphenols (when cooked) and minerals, such as phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Thus, the chemical composition of these products gives them antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties (Borges et al. 2020;Liang et al. 2019;Satpal et al. 2021;Soare et al. 2017;Sunusi and Gambo 2019;Tierno et al. 2016;Uthpala et al. 2020). ...
Full-text available
This study identifies changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption habits during the COVID-19 pandemic in Quito-Ecuador and observe relationships regarding household income and the relevance of FV nutritional value. The study used an online survey among urban residents (n = 1093) in Quito-Ecuador, regarding FV consumption patterns during the lockdown along with household socioeconomic status. A multiple response logistic model was used to analyse changes in FV eating habits across four income categories. Income had a statistically significant effect over the healthy food consumption of FV for the low- and high-income category. Families did not change eating habits nor decide to maintain a diet based on differences of income. Further, approximately two thirds of the families increased FV consumption during the lockdown. Eating habits changed during the lockdown of urban households in Ecuador. Income explained changes in FV consumption for low- and high-income households but did not for the middle-income group. Households that purchased more FV had a higher perception of their own healthy eating habits. The consumption of FV with high content of vitamin C increased, however, families did not purchase products with the highest vitamin-C content.
... mg GAE /100 g, respectively which decreased after produced dibs to 194.0, 252.0, 189.0 and 186.0 mg GAE /100 g for red sweet pepper dibs, yellow sweet pepper dibs, tomato dibs and green sweet pepper dibs respectively. Rodica et al. (2017) found that the phenolic compounds of sweet pepper varied between 128 mg GAE/100g fresh weight (local population) and 202.6 mg GAE/100g fw. The phenolic content of pepper fruits, varied from 146.87 mg GAE/100g at Blondy to 151.78 mg GAE/100g. ...
... On the other hand producing dibs led a significant high decrease in total flavonoids of sweet pepper and tomato dibs. Rodica et al. (2017) found that the content of total flavonoids recorded values up to 480 mg QE/100g in sweet pepper with red fruit, and in bell pepper with yellowish-green fruits up to 292 mg QE/100g. Finally the decreases and increase were depending on the ability and sensitivity of every phenolic and flavonoids compound to heat and oxidation during processing and storage as found by (Dalmadi et al., 2006). ...
... The economic importance and nutritional value of its fruits are responsible for its popularity. Bell pepper fruits are an excellent source of vitamins, important antioxidants, flavonoids and phytochemicals (Soare et al., 2017). However, bell pepper is sensitive to temperature fluctuations and optimum temperature for growth and development ranges between 20-25°C. ...
Full-text available
Elevated temperature negatively affects the production of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) especially under North Indian plains where the temperature is above 40°C during summers. In the present study, the effect of exogenous application of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) viz. Salicylic Acid (SA) and 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) on biochemical parameters and antioxidant system of bell pepper cv. Royal Wonder was evaluated. PGRs were applied exogenously 30, 60 and 90 Days After Transplantation (DAT). All the concentrations of PGRs i.e SA (0.10, 0.20, and 0.50 mM) and EBR (0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 µM) were effective in ameliorating the heat shock-induced effects, which enhanced thermotolerance in terms of increased proline content, soluble proteins, total phenols, total soluble sugars and starch content, improved antioxidant system (CAT, APX, POX, SOD and GR) with reduced lipid peroxidation and cellulase enzyme activity at high temperature, and, ultimately, improving total fruit yield. Application of 0.20 mM SA improved thermotolerance most efficiently at all growth stages, specifically when spray was done at 30 and 60 DAT. It resulted in a significant enhancement in biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme system as compared to the untreated control.
... GAE/100g Fw, as respectively (Table 3).As for the phenolic content, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatment fresh and storage of Jalapeno peppers studied, the variability of these compounds in the peppers evaluated can be explained by treatment factors and storage under cold. The levels found in our study come to an agreement with those reported by Soare et al., (2017), who, evaluating phenolic compounds in six C. annuum peppers, found a range of 128-202.6 mg GAE/100 g Fw. It can be observed from ( Table 3) that treatment and storage under cold had an important effect on the total phenolic content (p < 0.05). ...
Full-text available
In this study, the effect of pre-harvest melatonin foliar spray on yield and the contents of both nutritive and bioactive compounds in pepper (Capsicum annuum L, cv. Jalapeño) was investigated at harvest-time and after 45 days of storage in 4°C. Treatments were applied at 15-day intervals beginning with the development of the first floral bunch (MT 50, and 100 μM) and untreated plants (control). Pepper fruits were harvested at the commercial ripening stage throughout the growth cycle (September to January), in both seasons. Melatonin treatment increased total yield by 17.44% due to significant increases in single fruit weight and fruit weight per plant. Furthermore, weight loss, firmness, thickness, and diameter of Jalapeño fruit were all significantly affected by Pre-harvest melatonin spraying. In addition, melatonin pre-harvest treatments increased the content of nutritive (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and bioactive compounds (vitamin C and total phenolics), and antioxidant activity at harvest and after 45 days of cold storage. These findings suggested that melatonin treatment could be a useful technique for enhancing crop yield as well as nutritional value and antioxidant properties of peppers at harvest and after fruit storage. Additionally, maintain and extending postharvest shelf life of Jalapeño fruit.
... Because the discovery of new drugs requires a long time and expense, searching for new compounds from natural sources known for their high safety and applicability will be a good avenue to deal with inflammatory-associated complications. From which, bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.), a member of the family Solanaceae is the most commonly consumed fruity vegetable well known for its nutritional and antioxidant significance [1]. Bell pepper exhibits medicinal as well as food value all over the world. ...
New flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-[(6-P-coumaroyl galactopyranosyl-O-β-(1 → 4)-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-O-α-rhamnopyranoside 1, in addition to five known flavonoid glycosides (2–6) kaempferol 3-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O]-β-galactopyranoside (kaempferol 3-O-β-isorhamninoside) 2, quercetin 3-O-[(2,3,4-triacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)-β-galactopyranoside 3, quercetin 3-O-[(2,4-diacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)]-3,4-diacetyl-β-galactopyranoside 4, quercetin 3-O-[(2,4-diacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)]-2,4-diacetyl-β-galactopyranoside 5, quercetin 3-O-[(2,3,4-triacetyl-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1 → 6)-3-acetyl-β-galactopyranoside 6 were isolated from bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruits and tested for both anti-inflammatory activity through cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) and antioxidant activity through scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Compounds 1–3 significantly suppressed production of TNF-α / IL-1β in cultured THP-1 cells previously co-stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner (10.2/49.1, 28.1/55.7, and 35.2/57.5 μM respectively) whereas compounds 4–6 have relatively weaker inhibitory activity. (45.3/73.5, 48.2/65.6, and 42.2/67.4 μM respectively). All compounds 1–6 showed no cytotoxic activity against the growth of THP-1where the percentage of cell viability was (127.4, 108.5, 105.4, 103.9, 103.4, and 104.2 μM respectively). All isolated compounds exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than ascorbic acid in (DPPH) assay. These results indicated that bell pepper fruits could be an effective candidate for ameliorating inflammatory-associated complications.
... The Capsaicinoids health-promoting benefit properties make pungency strength a major criterion of pepper fruit quality (Jarret et al., 2007). Indeed, previous studies underline their antioxidant potential (Alvarez-Parrilla et al, (2011), Chávez-Mendoza et al, (2013), Nadeem et al, (2011Tundis et al, (2012); Gougoulia et al, (2017); Rodica et al, (2017)), antimicrobial activity (Kappel et al., 2008), anti-inflammatory proprieties (Zimmer et al, 2012) and anti-proliferative effects (Middleton et al., (2000); Mori et al, (2006)). There might be involved therefore in protecting human health through preventing the widespread human diseases as cancer (Djamgoz and Isbilen, (2006), Aggarwal et al, (2006); Aggarwal et al, (2009) andJeong et al, (2011)). ...
Full-text available
Capsicum annuum L. (papryka roczna) z rodziny Solanaceae jest najczęściej używaną przyprawą na świecie, wysoko cenioną ze względu na swoją ostrość i niepowtarzalny smak. Oprócz walorów przyprawowych roślina ta odznacza się także cennymi właściwościami leczniczymi, wynikającymi przede wszystkim z obecności kompleksu alkaloidów zwanych kapsaicynoidami, które nadają jej owocom specyficzne cechy: ostrość smaku oraz aktywność biologiczną. W owocach papryki znajdują się ponadto inne korzystne dla zdrowia składniki: karotenoidy (prowitamina A), witaminy C i E, flawonoidy, związki fenolowe i składniki mineralne. Najważniejszym i unikatowym składnikiem bioaktywnym owoców papryki jest kapsaicyna, odznaczająca się szeroką aktywnością biologiczną. Ze względu na jej obecność, owoce odmian o ostrym smaku definiowane są jako surowiec farmakopealny (Capsici fructus). Bogaty kompleks związków aktywnych papryki warunkuje jej działanie przeciwutleniające, a także inne aktywności biologiczne. Owoce papryki mogą być pomocne w chorobach neurologicznych, metabolicznych, sercowo-naczyniowych i onkologicznych.
Furia is a product of plant origin, easily assimilated by cultivated plants. It is composed of organic nitrogen, organic carbon of plant origin, potassium oxide and fulvic acid. The experiment performed in a cold solarium had as objective the influence of this product on the main morphological characteristics of long pepper plants and fruits. The results obtained showed a positive influence of the product on the growth in height of pepper plants, the increase in fruit length and diameter and the increase in the average number of fruits per plant. The biofertilizer is accredited for use in organic horticulture.
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess phenotypic diversity in terms of fruit quality traits and yield, and also to establish valuable genotypes for breeding purpose suitable for different direction of use. Ten cultivars of hot peppers bred at VRDS Buzau were collected and fruit quality (dry matter content, fruit firmness, the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content) was evaluated at different ripening stages. A very highly significant difference (p<0.01) was found for the studied quantitative parameters, showing a great variability among the studied accessions. During ripening, the dry matter content, the firmness, the TSS content and the titratable acidity increase for all studied cultivars and there were significant differences between them. A broad range of variation was noted in Vitamin C content in both stages of maturity. In the present research work, a great variability among the studied accessions was found. Fully ripe fruits were found considerably richer in the bioactive factor than unripe fruits. Our results have selected two important genotypes: A12A, an accession suitable for obtaining chili powder, due to the his low content in dry matter and total soluble solids and accession A135 suited for fresh consumption and for long shelf life because it has a high firmness.
Full-text available
In three test years an assortment of 15 varieties of vegetable pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in field conditions to study experimentally some of their morphological and biological properties. Mean plant height ranged from 435.7 mm (cv. Lastočka) to 636.7 mm (cv. Srbská). The smallest fruits had cultivars Čerešňová and Kecskeszarv with the weight of 4.86 g and 17.68 g. Average weight was the highest at varieties Pola kapia (92.23 g) and Melišor (91.92 g). The biggest length of mature leaves over 100 mm was measured at varieties Dolmy, Podarok Moldavy and Tuba; the smallest leaves according to length and width had variety Čerešňová. The mean vitamin C content in fruits about 2,000 mg/kg at green mature stage was found in cv. Bohatýr, Čerešňová and Podarok Moldavy. The highest vitamin C content in red fruits was analyzed at cv. Čerešňová (2,551.0 mg/kg) and Lastočka (2,422.2 mg/kg). Other observed characteristics were colour, shape and taste of fruits, colour of leaves and fruit wall thickness.
Full-text available
This study aims at investigating the nutritional value of the pumpkin fruits from different local populations of the Cucurbita pepo L., C. maxima Duch. and C. moschata Duch. ex Poir species. The chosen cultivars were: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 of local populations from Oltenia, Romania namely from Dolj and Olt counties. The pumpkin culture was established in the teaching field of the Faculty of Horticulture in Craiova. The chemical analysis of the pumpkin fruits was carried out using standard methods. There were determined: the dry matter content, the soluble substance content, the total carotenoid content, the antioxidant activity through the DPPH and Trolox method. There have also been studied the correlation coefficients between the quality parameters using the multiple correlation coefficients. The results show differences in the studied quality parameters. There was observed that the “Local population 6” has the highest total carotenoid content of 6.587 mg/100 f.m. and the local population 1 has the highest antioxidant activity of 0.284 mmol/l Trolox.
Full-text available
The content of phenols and ascorbic acid of the phenolic fraction, and carotenoids, tocopherols and capsaicinoids of the oily fraction from sweet bell peppers from northwest Mexico was determined. Antioxidant activity in both fractions was evaluated (ABTS and DPPH methods). Green cultivar had the highest content of phenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid and highest antioxidant activity. α-Tocopherolwas found in the four cultivars; however, capsaicinoids were not detected. The phenolic fraction had higher antioxidant activity than the oily fraction.
Full-text available
Sweet pepper cultivars of Polish breeding have a high biological potential predisposing them to cultivation in field conditions of moderate climatic zone. The aim of investigations was the description of the dependence between morphological features of pepper fruits and its nutritional value. The experiment was performed in 2008, 2009 and 2011 at the University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland, on eleven Capsicum annuum L. cultivars of Polish origin (‘Barbórka’, ‘Calipso’, ‘Caryca’ F1, ‘Etiuda’, ‘Gloria’, ‘Iga’, ‘Lena’, ‘Mercedes’, ‘Mira’, ‘Oliwia’, ‘Ożarowska’). Fruits shape was diversified, from spherical (‘Iga’) to the slim conical (‘Mercedes’, ‘Mira’). The fruits of greatest weight was typical for ‘Barbórka’, ‘Caryca’ F1, ‘Etiuda’, ‘Gloria’ and ‘Ożarowska’. Thick pericarp and high share of pericarp in weight of fruit were characteristic for all investigated genotypes, and differences with regard to this parameters were slight. ‘Barbórka’, ‘Gloria’, and ‘Ożarowska’ contained higher than average dry weight, soluble sugars and carotenoids contents for all tested cultivars. The relationships between fruit morphology parameters and chosen chemical parameters was shown on a base of regression analyses. Present results made possible to select the most valuable sweet pepper cultivars with respect to nutritional value and fruit morphology. This study also enables to select genotypes, destined for field cultivation in Polish climatic conditions, for different ways of utilization. The results can also be used in future breeding programs.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to focus on the qualities that some of the local hot peppers varieties have as compared to a variety created, by analysing the content of the main bioactive compounds. The study refers to 7 genotypes of hot peppers, 6 of which, originated from different areas of Oltenia (the Southern part of Romania), are well known and are cultivated by private producers with tradition in the area, and another one, the De Cayenne variety, which has been used as witness. The cultivars of such genotypes have not been treated against diseases, no pest control treatments have been applied due to their natural genetic resistance and they have not been chemically fertilised in vegetation. In the present study the variation of the bioactive compounds has been evaluated in all seven pepper fruit varieties cultivated in Oltenia. The statistical analysis of the results obtained showed significant differences amongst local populations as well as between them and the variety created. The content of ascorbic acid varied compared with the witness sample by 14.3% in case of sample V 3 , by 24.2% in case of sample V 6 and by 38.72% in sample V 7. The content of carotene recorded variations of the concentration compared with the witness sample by 21.74% in sample V 3 , by 17.98% in case of sample V 6 and 23.29 for sample V 7. The capsaicin contained by samples showed concentration changes compared with the witness concentration by 18.1% for V 6 , by19.5% for V 7 and by 21.6% for V 5 .
Full-text available
The aim of the experiment effectuated at the company SC Cristal Lux SRL from Bălan commune, Sălaj County, Romania, was to establish the best plant density and plant directing method for bell peppers cultivated in plastic tunnel. A bifactorial experience has been organized: Factor A = plant density, with: a 1 – 30000 plants/ha; a 2 – 40000 plants/ha; Factor B = shoots pruning method, with: b 1 – pruned with 2 shoots; b 2 – pruned with 3 shoots. By factors combination 4 experimental variants resulted. Plants density has affected both the early and the total yield. A density of 40000 plants/ha assured a significant yield increase comparative with 30000 plants/ha. The pruning method has influenced neither early nor total yield. Under the combined influenced of both factors the best results have been obtained by variant III (40000 plants/ha, 2 shoots) and variant IV (40000 plants/ha, 3 shoots) for both the early and the total yield.
Full-text available
The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05). The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.
Full-text available
Dried residues from four different vegetables, viz. pea pod (pp), cauliflower waste (CW), potato peel (PP) and tomato peel (TP) were extracted using four solvents i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Among the four solvents, methanolic extracts showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) for all the four vegetable residues. Methanolic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Tomato peel extract showed highest phenolic content of 21.0 mg GAE/g-dw and 80.8 % DPPH free radical scavenging ability, whereas potato peel extract had a low phenolic content, and it also showed the least antioxidant activity among the residues examined in this study. Total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity in pea pods and cauliflower waste were 13.6 mg GAE/g-dw and 72 % and 9.2 mg GAE/g-dw and 70.7 %, respectively. The coefficient of determination (r2) for correlation between TPC and reducing power, DPPH and TPC, DPPH and reducing power for all extracts was 0.85, 0.91and 0.87, respectively, suggesting an important role of phenolics in imparting antioxidant ability. Extracts from vegetables residues therefore represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants for use as nutraceuticals or biopreservatives.
Full-text available
Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes) of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Güero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1). With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 μg mL-1) than dihydrocapsaicin (1.5 to 65.5 μg mL-1) and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. showed the opposite pattern.
Red pepper, Capsicum spp., has a long history of cultivation on earth. Consumed by the Indians of South and Central America as early as 7000 B.C., the plant was grown in cultivated fields some 2000 years later. Following the initial visits of the Spanish to the Americas, the plant was brought to Europe and from there to most tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones. By volume, red pepper products, pungent and non-pungent, represent some of the most important spice commodities in the world. The Capsicum fruit are an excellent source of natural, micronutrient antioxidants (vitamins C and E and carotenoids) which appear to be critically important in preventing or reducing chronic and age-related diseases. Fruit from the pungent hot type pepper plant are historically employed in traditional medicine and are currently being used in modern herbology and conventional medicines. Capsaicin, the predominant compound in pungent types of Capsicum, induces depletion of substance P and other neuropeptides from sensory nerve terminals. A capsaicin cream has been introduced into dermatologic therapy and proven useful in preventing chronic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and other pain syndromes.